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much as is requisite, without the destruction of the stomach and bowels.

The living spirit is instantly extinguished, if it be deprived either of motion, or of refrigeration, or

of aliment. That intermixing, or entangling, that as well consumption as reparation are the works of heat, is the greatest obstacle to long life.

Namely, these are those three which before we

called the porches of death, and they are the proTHE EXPLICATION.

per and immediate passions of the spirit. For all Almost all great works are destroyed by the the organs of the principal parts serve hereunto, natures of things intermixed, when as that which that these three offices be performed; and again, helpeth in one respect, hurteth in another; there- all destruction of the organs which is deadly fore men must proceed herein by a sound judg- brings the matter to this point, that one or more ment, and a discreet practice. For our part, we of these three fail. Therefore all other things are have done so far as the matter will bear, and our the divers ways to death, but they end in these memory serveth us, by separating benign heats three. Now, the whole fabric of the parts is the from hurtful, and the remedies which tend to both. organ of the spirit, as the spirit is the organ of the

reasonable soul, which is incorporeous and divine.

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Those things which come by accident, as soon This matter stands in need both of a higher as the causes are removed, cease again : but the indagation, and of a longer explication than is continual course of nature, like a running river, pertinent to the present inquisition. Meanwhile requires a continual rowing and sailing against we must know this, that fame is almost every the stream, therefore we must work regularly by moment generated and extinguished; so that it is diets. Now, diets are of two kinds; set diets, continued only by succession; but air is a fixed which are to be observed at certain times, and body, and is not dissolved; for though air begets familiar diet, which is to be admitted into our new air out of watery moisture, yet, notwithstanddaily repast. But the set diets are the more ing, the old air still remains; whence cometh that potent, that is, a course of medicines for a time; superoneration of the air whereof we have spoken for those things which are of so great virtue that in the title De Ventis. But spirit is participant they are able to turn nature back again, are, for of both natures, both of flame and air, even as the the most part, more strong, and more speedily nourishments thereof are, as well oil, which is altering, than those which may without danger be homogeneous to flame, as water, which is homoreceived into a continual use. Now, in the reme- geneous to air ; for the spirit is not nourished dies set down in our intentions, you shall find either of oily alone, or of watery alone, but of only three set diets, the opiate diet, the diet both together; and though air doth not agree well malacissant or supplying, and the diet emaciant with fame, nor oil with water, yet in a mixed and renewing. But amongst those which we body they agree well enough. Also the spirit prescribed for familiar diet, and to be used daily, hath from the air his easy and delicate impres. the most efficacious are these that follow, which sions and yieldings, and from the flame his noble alsu come not far short of the virtue of set diets. and potent motions and activities. In like manner Nitre, and the subordinates to nitre; the regiment the duration of spirit is a mixed thing, being of the affections, and course of our life; refrigera- neither so momentary as that of flame, nor so tors which pass not by the stomach; drinks fixed as that of air. . And so much the rather it roscidating, or engendering oily juices; besprink- followeth not the condition of flame, for that fiame ling of the blood with some firmer matter, as itself is extinguished by accident, namely, by pearls, certain woods, competent unctions to keep contraries, and enemies environing it; bu: spirit out the air and to keep in the spirit. Heaters from is not subject to the like conditions and necessi. without, during the assimilation after sleep; ties. Now, the spirit is repaired from the lively avoiding of those things which inflame the spirit, and florid blood of the small arteries which are and put it into an eager heat, as wine and spices. inserted into the brain; but this reparation is Lastly, a moderate and seasonable use of those done by a peculiar manner, of which we speak things which endue the spirits with a robust not now. lieat, as saffron, crosses, garlic, elecampane, and compound opiates.







It would be difficult to find fault with tnose any fellowship between the ancients and ourwho affirm that “nothing is known,” if they had selves, it is principally as connected with this tempered the rigour of their decision by a soften- species of philosophy : as we concur in many ing explanation. For, should any one contend, things which they have judiciously observed and that science rightly interpreted is a knowledge of stated about the varying nature of the senses, the things through their causes, and that the know-weakness of human judgment, and the propriety ledge of causes constantly expands, and by of withholding or suspending assent; to which gradual and successive concatenation rises, as it we might add innumerable other remarks of a were, to the very loftiest parts of nature, so that similar tendency. So that the only difference the knowledge of particular existences cannot be between them and ourselves is, that they affirm properly possessed without an accurate compre- nothing can be perfectly known by any method hension of the whole of things; it is not easy to whatever; we, that “ nothing can be perfectly discover, what can reasonably be observed in known by the methods which mankind have reply. For it is not reasonable to allege, that the hitherto pursued.” Of this fellowship we are true knowledge of any thing is to be attained be- not at all ashamed. For the aggregate, if it confore the mind has a correct conception of its sists not of those alone who lay down the abovecauses: and to claim for human nature such a cor- mentioned dogma as their peremptory and unrect conception universally, might justly be pro- changeable opinion, but of such also as indirectly nounced perhaps not a little rash, or rather the maintain it under the forms of objection and proof of an ill-balanced mind. They, however, interrogatory, or by their indignant complaints of whom we are writing, shrink not from thus de- about the obscurity of things, confess, and, as it secrating the oracles of the senses, which must were, proclaim it aloud, or suffer it only to transpire lead to a total recklessness. Nay, to speak the from their secret thoughts in occasional and ambitruth, had they even spared their false accusations, guous whispers; the aggregate, I say, comprises, the very controversy itself appears to originate in you will find, the far most illustrious and profound an unreasonable and contentious spirit; since, of the ancient thinkers, with whom no modern need independently of that rigid truth to which they blush to be associated ; a few of them may, perrefer, there still remains such a wide field for haps, too magisterially have assumed to decide human exertion, that it would be preposterous, if the matter, yet this tone of authority prevailed not symptomatic of an unsettled and disturbed only during the late dark ages, and now mainintellect, in the anxious grasping at distant ex- tains its ground simply through a spirit of party, tremes, to overlook such utilities as are obvious the inveteracy of habit, or mere carelessness and and near at hand. For, however they may seek, neglect. by introducing their distinction of true and pro- Yet, in the fellowship here spoken of, it is bable, to subvert the certainty of science, without easy to discover that, agreeing as we do with the at the same time superseding the use or practically great men alluded to, as to the premises of our affecting the pursuit of it, yet, in destroying the opinions, in our conclusions we differ from them hope of effectually investigating truth, they have most widely. Our discrepancies may, indeed, at cut the very sinews of human industry, and by a first sight, appear to be but inconsiderable; they promiscuous license of disquisition converted asserting the absolute, and we the modified in. what should have been the labour of discovery, competency of the human intellect; but the prac. into a mere exercise of talent and disputation. tical result is this, that as they neither point oui. We cannot, however, deny, that if there be nor, in fact, profess to expect any remedy for the defect in question, they wholly give up the busi- | ries, lays firm hold of certain fixed principles in ness; and thus, by denying the certainty of the the science, and, with immovable reliance upon senses, pluck up science from its very foundation; then, disentangles (as he will with little effort) whereas, we, by the introduction of a new me- what he handles, if he advances steadily onward, thod, endeavour to regulate and correct the aber- not flinching out of excess either of self-confirations both of the senses and of the intellect. dence or of self-distrust from the object of his The consequence is, that they, thinking the die pursuit, will find he is journeying in the first of finally cast, turn aside to the uncontrolled and these two tracks; and if he can endure to suspend fascinating ramblings of genius; while we, by his judgment, and to mount gradually, and to our different view of the subject, are constrained climb by regular succession the height of things, to enter upon an arduous and distant province, like so many tops of mountains, with persevering which we unceasingly pray we may administer and indefatigable patience, he will in due tiine to the advantage and happiness of mankind. attain the very uppermost elevations of nature, The introductory part of our progress we de- where his station will be serene, his prospects scribed in our second book, which, having delightful, and his descent to all the practical entered, in the third we treated on the pheno- arts by a gentle slope perfectly easy. mena of the universe, and on history, plunging It is therefore, our purpose, as in the second into and traversing the woodlands, as it were, of book we laid down the precepts of genuine and nature, here overshadowed (as by foliage) with legitimate disquisition, so in this to propound the infinite variety of experiments; there per- and establish, with reference to the variety of subplexed and entangled (as by thorns and briers) jects, illustrative examples; and that in the form with the subtilty of acute commentations. which we think most agreeable to truth, and regard

And now, perhaps, by our advance from the as approved and authorized. Yet, we do not alter woods to the foot of the mountains, we have the customary fashion, as well to all tlic constituent reached a more disengaged, but yet a more ardu- parts of this formula on absolute necessity, as if ous station. For, from history we shall proceed they were universally indispensable and inviolaby a firm and sure track, new indeed, and hitherto ble: for we do not hold, that the industry and the unexplored, to universals. To these paths of happiness of man are to be indissolubly bound, contemplation, in truth, might appositely be ap- as it were, to a single pillar. Nothing, indeed, plied the celebrated and often quoted illustration need prevent those who possess great leisure, or of the double road of active life," of which have surmounted the difficulties infallibly enone branch, at first even and level, conducted the countered in the beginning of the experiment, traveller to plares precipitous and impassable; from carrying onward the process here pointed the other, though steep and rough at the entrance, out. On the contrary, it is our firm conviction terminated in perfect smoothness. In a similar that true art is always capable of advancing. inanner, he who, in the very outset of his inqui

F. W.





That person, in our judgment, showed at once our ambition to withdraw men, either all, or altoboth his patriotism and his discretion, who, when gether, or all at once, from what is established he was asked, " whether he had given to his fel- and current. But as an arrow, or other missile, low-citizens the best code of laws," replied, “ the while carried directly onward, still, nevertheless, best which they could bear.” And, certainly, during its progress incessantly whirls about in those who are not satisfied with merely thinking rapid rotation ; so we, while hurrying forward to rightly, (which is little better, indeed, than dream- more distant objects, are carried round and round ing rightly, if they do not labour to realize and by these popular and prevalent opinions. And, efectnate the object of their meditations,) will therefore, we do not hesitate to avail ourselves of pursue not what may be abstractedly the best, the fair services of this common reason and these but the best of such things as appear most likely popular proofs; and shall place whatever concluto be approved. We, however, do not feel our-sions have been discovered or decided through selves privileged, not withstanding our great affec- their medium (which may, indeed, have much of tion for the human commonwealth, our common truth and utility in them) on an equal footing country, to adopt this legislatorial principle of with the rest; at the same time protesting against selection ; for we have no authority arbitrarily to any inferences thence to be drawn in derogation prescribe laws to man's intellect, or the general of what we have above stated about the incompenature of things. It is our office, as faithful secre- tency of both this reason and of these proofs. taries, to receive and note down as such have been We have rather, in fact, thrown out the preceding enacted by the voice of nature herself; and our hints, as it were, occasionally, for the sake of trustiness must stand acquitted, whether they are such as, feeling their progress impeded by an acaccepted, or by the suffrage of general opinions tual want either of talent or of leisure, wish to rejected. Still we do not abandon the hope, that, confine themselves within the ancient tracts and in times yet to come, individuals may arise who precincts of science, or, at least, not to venture will both be able to comprehend and digest the beyond their immediately contiguous domains; choicest of those things, and solicitous also to since we conceive that the same speculations carry them to perfection; and, with this confi- may (like tents or resting-places on the way) dence,we will never, by God's help, desist (so long minister ease and rest to such as, in pursuance of as we live) from directing our attention thither- our plan, seek the true interpretation of nature, ward, and opening their fountains and uses, and and find it; and may, at the same time, in some investigating the lines of the roads leading to slight degree, promote the welfare of man, and them.

infuse into his mind ideas somewhat more closely Yet, anxious as we are with respect to the sub-connected with the true nature of things, This jects of general interest and common concern, in result, however, we are far from anticipating in aspiring to the greater, we do not condemn the confidence of any faculty which we ourselves inferior, for those are frequently at a distance, possess, but we entertain no doubt that any one while these are at hand and around us, nor though even of moderate abilities, yet ripened mind, who we offer (as we think) more valuable things, do is both willing and able to lay aside his idols, we therefore put our veto upon things received and to institute his inquiries anew, and to invesand ancient, or seek to cover their estimation tigate with attention, perseverance, and freedom with the multitude. On the contrary, we earn- from prejudice, the truths and computations of estly wish them to be amplified and improved, natural history, will, of himself, by his genuine ant held in increased regard ; as it is no part of land native powers, and by his own simple antiVol. III.-66


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cipations penetrate more profoundly into nature ourselves peremptorily bound by what we are than he would be capable of doing by the most about to bring forward, of whatever character it extensive course of reading, by indefinite abstract may be, to the maintenance of the whole of our speculations, or by continual and repeated dispu- secondary and inductive philosophy. This result tations; though he may not have brought the of our meditations we have determined to offer ordinary engines into action, or have adopted the loosely, and unconfined by the circumscription of prescribed formula of interpretation.

method ; deeming this a form both better adapted In this, however, we do not wish to be con- to sciences newly springing up as from an old sidered as demanding for our own dogma the au- stock, and more suitable to a writer whose prethority which we have with held from those of sent object it is not to constitute an art from comthe ancients. We would rather, indeed, testify bined, but to institute a free investigation of indiand proclaim, that we are far from wishing to be vidual existences.

F. W.

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