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the spirit and grosser parts, but in a far different manner; for the spirit is totally detained, but it swelleth and moveth locally; and the grosser parts are not dissolved, but follow the motion of the spirit; and are, as it were, blown out by it, and extruded into divers figures, from whence cometh that generation and organization; and, therefore, vivification is always done in a matter tenacious and clammy, and again yielding and soft, that there may be both a detention of the spirit, and also a gentle cession of the parts, according as the spirit forms them. And this is seen in the matter, as well of all vegetables, as of living creatures, whether they be engendered of putrefaction, or of sperm, for in all these things there is manifestly seen a matter hard to break through, easy to yield.

tion and concoction from the heat of the heaven-eth that confusion in bodies putrefied. But ly bodies, or by some other way; for the concavi- generation or vivification is a work also mixed of ties of tangible things receive not vacuum, but either air, or the proper spirit of the thing. And this spirit whereof we speak, is not from virtue, or energy, or act, or a trifle, but plainly a body, rare and invisible; notwithstanding, circumscribed by place, quantitative, real. Neither, again, is that spirit air, (no more than wine is water,) but a body rarefied, of kin to air, though much different from it. Now, the grosser parts of bodies (being dull things, and not apt for motion) would last a long time; but the spirit is that which troubleth, and plucketh, and undermineth them, and converteth the moisture of the body, and whatsoever it is able to digest, into new spirit; and then as well the pre-existing spirit of the body, as that newly made, fly away together by degrees. This is best seen by the diminution of the weight in bodies dried through perspiration; for neither all that which is issued forth was spirit when the body was ponderous, neither was it not spirit when it issued forth.


The spirit issuing forth drieth; detained and working within either melteth, or putrefieth, or vizifieth.



In all living creatures there are two kinds of spirits: liveless spirits, such as are in bodies inanimate; and a vital spirit superadded.


It was said before, that to procure long life, the body of man must be considered; first, as inanimate, and not repaired by nourishment; secondly, as animate, and repaired by nourishment. For the former, consideration gives laws touching consumption, the latter touching reparation. Therefore we must know, that there are in human flesh bones, membranes, organs; finally, in all the parts such spirits diffused in the substance of them while they are alive, as there are

There are four processes of the spirit; to arefaction, to colloquation, putrefaction, to generation of bodies. Arefaction is not the proper work of the spirit, but of the grosser parts after the spirit issued forth; for then they contract themselves partly by their flight of vacuum, part-in the same things (flesh, bones, membranes, and ly by the union of the homogeneals; as appears in all things which are arefied by age, and in the drier sort of bodies which have passed the fire; as bricks, charcoal, bread. Colloquation is the mere work of the spirit; neither is it done, but when they are excited by heat; for when the spirits, dilating themselves, yet not getting forth, do insinuate and disperse themselves among the grosser parts, and so make them soft and apt to run, as it is in the metals and wax; for metals, and all tenacious things, are apt to inhibit the spirit; that being excited, it issueth not forth. Putrefaction is a mixed work of the spirits, and of the grosser parts; for the spirit (which before restrained and bridled the parts of the thing) heing partly issued forth, and partly enfeebled, all things in the body do dissolve and return to their homogeneities, or (if you will) to their elements; that which was spirit in it is congregated to itself, whereby things putrefied begin to have an ill savour; the oily parts to themselves, whereby things putrefied have that slipperiness and unctuosity; the watery parts also to themselves, the dregs to themselves; whence followVOL. III.-65

the rest) separated and dead, such as also remain in a carcass; but the vital spirit, although it ruleth them, and hath some consent with them, yet it is far differing from them, being integral, and subsisting by itself. Now, there are two special differences betwixt the liveless spirits and the vital spirits. The one, that the liveless spirits are not continued to themselves, but are, as it were, cut off and encompassed with a gross body, which intercepts them, as air is mixed with snow or froth; but the vital spirit is all continued to itself by certain conduit pipes through which it passeth, and is not totally intercepted. And this spirit is twofold also; the one branched, only passing through small pipes, and, as it were, strings, the other hath a cellar also, so as it is not only con tinued to itself, but also congregated in a hollow space in reasonable good quantity, according to the analogy of the body; and in that cell is the fountain of the rivulets which branch from thence. The cell is chiefly in the ventricles of the brain, which in the ignobler sort of creatures are but narrow, insomuch that the spirits in them seem scattered over their whole body, rather than celled;

as may be seen in serpents, eels, and flies, whereof the liveless spirits, not that they are more flamy every of their parts move along after they are cut than air. asunder. Birds also leap a good while after their heads are pulled off, because they have little heads and little cells. But the nobler sort of creatures

have those ventricles larger, and man the largest of all. The other difference betwixt the spirits is, that the vital spirit hath a kind of enkindling, and is like a wind or breath compounded of flame and air, as the juices of living creatures have both oil and water. And this enkindling ministereth peculiar motions and faculties; for the smoke which is inflammable, even before the flame conceived, is hot, thin, and movable, and yet it is quite another thing after it is become flame; but the enkindling of the vital spirits is by many degrees gentler than the softest flame, as of spirit of wine, or otherwise; and, besides, it is in great part mixed with an aerial substance, that it should be a mystery or miracle, both of a flammeous and

aereous nature.


The natural actions are proper to the several parts, but it is the vital spirit that excites and sharpens them.


The actions or functions which are in the several members, follow the nature of the members themselves, (attraction, retention, digestion, assimilation, separation, excretion, perspiration, even sense itself,) according to the propriety of the several organs, (the stomach, liver, heart, spleen, gall, brain, eye, ear, and the rest,) yet none of these actions would ever have been actuated but by the vigour and presence of the vital spirit, and heat thereof; as one iron would not have drawn another iron, unless it had been excited by the loadstone; nor an egg would ever have brought forth a bird, unless the substance of the hen had been actuated by the treading of the cock.


The liveless spirits are next consubstantial to air; the vital spirits approach more to the substance of flame.


T'he explication of the precedent fourth canon is also a declaration of this present canon. But yet further, from hence it is, that all fat and oily things continue long in their being. For neither doth the air much pluck them, neither do they much desire to join themselves with air. As for that conceit, it is altogether vain, that flame should be air set on fire, seeing flame and air are no less heterogeneal, than oil and water. But whereas it is said in the canon, that the vital spirits approach more to the substance of flame; it must be understood, that they do this more than


itself, the other of flying forth, and congregating The spirit hath two desires, one of multiplying itself with the connaturals.


The canon is understood of the liveless spirits; for as for the second desire, the vital spirit doth most of all abhor flying forth of the body, for it finds no connatural here below to join withal. Perhaps it may sometimes fly to the outward parts of the body, to meet that which it loveth; but the flying forth, as I said, it abhorreth. But in the liveless spirits each of these two desires holdeth. For to the former this belongeth, every spirit seated amongst the grosser parts dwelleth unhappily; and, therefore, when it finds not a like unto itself, it doth so much the more labour to create and make a like, as being in a great solitude, and endeavour earnestly to multiply itself, and to prey upon the volatile of the grosser parts, that it may be increased in quantity. As for the second desire of flying forth, and betaking itself to the air, it is certain, that all light things (which are ever movable) do willingly go unto their likes near unto them, as a drop of water is carried to a drop, flame to flame; but much more this is done in the flying forth of spirit into the air ambient, because it is not carried to a particle like unto itself, but also as unto the globe of the connaturals. Meanwhile this is to be noted, that the going forth, and flight of the spirit into air is a redoubled action, partly out of the appetite of the spirit, partly out of the appetite of the air, for the common air is a needy thing, and receiveth all things speedily, as spirits, odours, beams, sounds, and the like.


Spirit detained, if it have no possibility of begel ting new spirits, intenerateth the grosser parts.


Generation of new spirit is not accomplished but upon those things which are in some degree near to the spirit, such as are humid bodies. And, therefore, if the grosser parts (amongst which the spirit converseth) be in a remote degree, although the spirit cannot convert them, yet (as much as it can) it weakeneth, and softeneth, and subdueth them, that seeing it cannot increase in quantity, yet it will dwell more at large, and live amongst good neighbours and friends. Now, this aphorism is most useful to our end, because it tendeth to the inteneration of the obstinate parts by the deten tion of the spirit.

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less it preyeth; for dissolution ever beginneth at that part where the spirit is loser. And, thereore, both exercise and frications conduce much to long life, for agitation doth fineliest diffuse and commix things by small portions.


Also, this canon pertaineth to the solving of the knot aforesaid, but it is of a much larger exNot only abundance of spirits, in respect of the tent, for it setteth down of what temperament the whole, is hurtful to the duration of things, but heat in the body ought to be for the obtaining of also the same abundance, unevenly placed, is, in long life. Now, this is useful, whether the spirits like manner, hurtful; and, therefore, the more the be detained, or whether they be not. For, how-spirit is shred and inserted by small portions, the soever, the heat of the spirits, must be such, as it may rather turn itself upon the hard parts, than waste the soft; for the one desiccateth, the other intenerateth. Besides, the same thing is available to the well perfecting of assimilation; for such a heat doth excellently excite the faculty of assimilation, and withal doth excellently prepare the matter to be assimilated. Now, the properties of this kind of heat ought to be these. First, that it be slow, and heat not suddenly. Secondly, that it be not very intense, but moderate. Thirdly, that it be equal, not incomposed; namely, intending and remitting itself. Fourthly, that if this heat meet any thing to resist it, it be not easily suffocated or languish. The operation is exceeding subtile; but seeing it is one of the most useful, it is not to be deserted. Now, in those remedies which we propounded to invest the spirits with a robust heat, or that which we call operative, not predatory, we have in some sort satisfied this matter.


The condensing of the spirits in their substance is available to long life.


This canon is subordinate to the next precedent; for the spirit condensed receiveth all those four properties of heat whereof we speak; but the ways of condensing them are set down in the first of the ten operations.

The inordinate and subsultory motion of the spirits doth more hasten to going forth, and doth prey upon the body more than the constant and equal.


The inanimates this canon holds for certain, for inequality is the mother of dissolution; but in animates (because not only the consumption is considered, but the reparation, and reparation proceedeth by the appetites of things, and appetite is sharpened by variety) it holdeth not rigorously; but it is so far forth to be received, that this variety be rather an alternation or interchange, than a confusion; and, as it were, constant in inconsistency.


The spirit in a body of a solid composure is detained, though unwillingly.


All things do abhor a solution of their continuity, but yet in proportica to their density or rarity; for the more rare the bodies be the more do they suffe. themselves to be thrust into small and narrow passages; for water will go into a passage which

dust will not go into, and air which water will not go into; nay, flame and spirit which air will not go into. Notwithstanding, of this thing there are some bounds, for the spirit is not so much transported with the desire of going forth, that it will suffer itself to be too much discontinued, or be driven into over-straight pores and passages; and, therefore, if the spirit be encompassed with a hard body, or else with an unctuous and tenacious, (which is not easily divided,) it is plainly bound, and, as I may say, imprisoned, and layeth down the appetite of going out; wherefore we see that metals and stones require a long time for their spirit to go forth, unless either the spirit be excited by the fire, or the grosser parts be dissevered with corroding and strong waters. The like reason is there of tenacious bodies, such as are gums, save only that they are melted by a more gentle heat; and therefore the juices of the body hard, a close and compact skin, and the like, (which are procured by the dryness of the aliment, and by exercise, and by the coldness of the air,) are good for long life, because they detain the spirit in close prison, that it goeth not forth



Air excluded conferreth to long life, if other in conveniences be avoided.


We said a little before, that the flying forth of the spirit is a redoubled action, from the appetite of the spirit, and of the air; and, therefore, if either of these be taken out of the way, there is not a little gained. Notwithstanding, divers inconveniences follow hereupon, which how they may be prevented we have showed in the second of our operations.


Youthful spirits inserted into an old body, might soon turn nature's course back again.


The nature of the spirits is as the uppermost wheel, which turneth about the other wheels in the body of man; and therefore in the intention of long life, that ought to be first placed. Hereunto may be added, that there is an easier and more expedite way to alter the spirits, than to other operations. For the operation upon the

In oily and fat things the spirit is detained wil spirits is twofold; the one by aliments, which is lingly, though they be not tenacious.


The spirit, if it be not irritated by the antipathy of the body enclosing it, nor fed by the over-much likeness of that body, nor solicited nor invited by the external body, it makes no great stir to get out; all which are wanting to oily bodies, for they are neither so pressing upon the spirits as hard bodies, nor so near as watery bodies, neither have they any good agreement with the air am



The speedy flying forth of the watery humour conserves the oily the longer in his being.


We said before, that the watery humours, as being consubstantial to the air, fiy forth soonest; the oily later, as having small agreement with the air. Now, whereas these two humours are in most bodies, it comes to pass that the watery doth in a sort betray the oily, for that issuing forth insensibly carrieth this together with it. Therefore, there is nothing more furthereth the conservation of bodies, than a gentle drying of them, which causeth the watery humour to expire, and inviteth not the oily; for then the oily enjoyeth the proper nature. And this tendeth not only to the inhibiting of putrefaction, (though that also followeth,) but to the conservation of greenness. Hence it is, that gentle frications, and moderate exercises, causing rather perspiration than sweating, conCuce much to long life.

slow, and as it were, about; the other, (and that twofold,) which is sudden, and goeth directly to the spirits, namely, by vapours, or by the affections.


Juices of the body hard and roseid are good for long life.


The reason is plain, seeing we showed before, that hard things, and oily or roseid, are hardly dissipated; notwithstanding, there is difference, (as we also noted in the tenth operation,) that juice somewhat hard is indeed less dissipable, but then it is withal less reparable; therefore, a convenience is interlaced with an inconvenience, and for this cause no wonderful matter will be achieved by this. But roscid juice will admit both operations; therefore this would be princi pally endeavoured.


Whatsoever is of thin par's to penetrate, and yet hath no acrimony to bite, begetteth roseid juices.


This canon is more hard to practise than to understand. For it is manifest, whatsoever penetrateth well, but yet with a sting or tooth, (as do all sharp and sour things.) it leaveth behind it, wheresoever it goeth, some mark or print of dryness and cleaving, so that it hardeneth the juices, and chappeth the parts; contrarily, whatsoever things penetrate through their thinness merely,


as it were by stealth, and by way of insinuation
without violence, they bedew and water in their
Of which sort we have recounted imprinters, and by closers up.
many in the fourth and seventh overations.

Malacissation is wrought by consubstantials, bý



The reason is manifest, for that consubstantials

Assimilation is best done when all local motion is do properly supple the body, imprinters do carry expended.


in, closers up do retain and bridle the perspiration, which is a motion opposite to malacissation. And, therefore, (as we described in the ninth

This canon we have sufficiently explained in operation,) malacissation cannot well be done at our discourse upon the eighth operation.


Alimentation from without, at least some other way than by the stomach, is most profitable for long life, if it can be done.


We see that all things which are done by nutrition ask a long time, but those which are done by embracing of the like (as it is in infusions) require no long time. And, therefore, alimentation from without would be of principal use; and so much the more, because the faculties of concoction decay in old age; so that if there could be some auxiliary nutritions by bathing, unctions, or else by clysters, these things in conjunction might do much, which single are less available.


Where the concoction is weak to thrust forth the aliment, there the outward parts should be strengthened to call forth the aliment.


That which is propounded in this canon, is not the same thing with the former, for it is one thing for the outward aliment to be attracted inward, another for the inward aliment to be attracted outward; yet herein they concur, that they both help the weakness of the inward concoctions, though by divers ways.


All sudden renovation of the body is wrought either by the spirit, or by malacissations.


There are two things in the body, spirits and parts; to both these the way by nutrition is long and about; but it is a short way to the spirits by vapours, and by the affections, and to the parts by malacissations. But this is diligently to be noted, that by no means we confound alimentation from without with malacissation; for the intention of malacissation is not to nourish the parts, but only to make them more fit to be


once, but in a course or order. First, by excluding the liquor by thickness; for an outward and gross infusion doth not well compact the body; that which entereth must be subtile, and a kind of vapour. Secondly, by intenerating by the consent of consubstantials: for bodies upon the touch of those things which have good agreement with them, open themselves, and relax their pores. Thirdly, imprinters are convoys, and insinuate into the parts the consubstantials, and the mixture of gentle astringents doth somewhat restrain the perspiration. But then, in the fourth place, follows that great astriction and closure up of the body by emplasteration, and then afterwards by inunction, until the supple be turned into solid, as we said in the proper place.


Frequent renovation of the parts reparable, watereth and reneweth the less reparable also.


We said in the preface to this history, that the way of death was this, that the parts reparable died in the fellowship of the parts less reparable; so that in the reparation of these same less reparable parts, all our forces would be employed. And, therefore, being admonished by Aristotle's observation touching plants, namely, that the putting forth of new shoots and branches refresheth the body of the tree in the passage; we conceive the like reason might be, if the flesh and blood in the body of man were often renewed, that thereby the bones themselves, and membranes, and other parts, which in their own nature are less reparable, partly by the cheerful passage of the juices, partly by that new clothing of the young flesh and blood, might be watered and renewed.


Refrigeration, or cooling of the body, which passeth some other ways than by the stomach, is useful for long life.


The reason is at hand; for seeing a refrigeration not temperate, but powerful, (especially of the blood,) is above all things necessary to long life; this can by no means be effected from within as

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