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tion and concoction from the heat of the heaven- eth that confusion in bodies putrefied. But ly bodies, or by some other way; for the concavi- generation or vivification is a work also mixed of lies of taugible things receive not vacuum, but the spirit and grosser parts, but in a far differer.! either air, or the proper spirit of the thing. And manner; for the spirit is totally detained, but it this spirit whereof we speak, is not from virtue, or swelleth and moveth locally; and the grosser energy, or act, or a trifle, but plainly a body, rare parts are not dissolved, but follow the motion of and invisible ; notwithstanding, circumscribed the spirit; and are, as it were, blown out by ii, hy place, quantitative, real. Neither, again, and extruded into divers figures, from whence is that spirit air, (no more than wine is water,) cometh that generation and organization; and, but a body rarefied, of kin to air, though much therefore, vivification is always done in a matur different from it. Now, the grosser parts of tenacious and clammy, and again yielding and bodies (being dull things, and not apt for motion) soft, that there may be both a detention of the would last a long time; but the spirit is that spirit, and also a gentle cession of the parts, which troubleth, and plucketh, and undermineth according as the spirit forms them. And this is them, and converteth the moisture of the body, seen in the matter, as well of all vegetables, as and whatsoever it is able to digest, into new spi- of living creatures, whether they be engendered rit; and then as well the pre-existing spirit of the of putrefaction, or of sperm, for in all these body, as that newly made, fly away together by things there is manifestly seen a matter hard to degrees. This is best seen by the diminution of break through, easy to yield. the weight in bodies dried through perspiration; for neither all that which is issued forth was spirit when the body was ponderous, neither In all living creatures there are two kinds of was it not spirit when it issued forth.

spirils: liveless spirits, such as are in bodies inanimale; and a viłal spirit superadded.


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The spirit issuing forth drieth ; detained and It was said before, that to procure long life, working within either melteth, or putrefieth, or the body of man must be considered ; first, as vivifeth.

inanimate, and not repaired by nourishment; secondly, as animate, and repaired by nourish

ment. For the former, consideration gives law's There are four processes of the spirit; to are- touching consumption, the latter touching reparafaction, to colloquation, putrefaction, to genera- tion. Therefore we must know, that there are in tion of bodies. Arefaction is not the proper human flesh bones, membranes, organs; finally, work of the spirit, but of the grosser parts after in all the parts such spirits disfused in the subthe spirit issued forth; for then they contract stance of them while they are alive, as there are themselves partly by their flight of vacuum, part in the same things (flesh, bones, membranes, and ly by the union of the homogeneals; as appears the rest) separated and dead, such as also remain in all things which are arefied by age, and in the in a carcass; but the vital spirit, although it drier sort of bodies which have passed the fire; ruleth them, and hath some consent with them, as bricks, charcoal, bread. Colloquation is the yet it is far differing from them, being integral, inere work of the spirit; neither is it done, but and subsisting by itself. Now, there are two when they are excited by heat; for when the special differences betwixt the liveless spirits and spirits, dilating themselves, yet not getting forth, the vital spirits. The one, that the liveless spirits do insinuate and disperse themselves among the are not continued to themselves, but are, as it grosser parts, and so make them soft and apt to were, cut off and encompassed with a gross body, run, as it is in the metals and wax; for metals, which intercepts them, as air is mixed with snow and all tenacious things, are apt to inhibit the or froth; but the vital spirit is all continued to itself spirit; that being excited, it issueth not forth. by certain conduit pipes through which it passeth, Putrefaction is a mixed work of the spirits, and and is not totally intercepted. And this spirit is of the grosser parts; for the spirit (which before twofold also; the one branched, only passing restrained and bridled the parts of the thing) through small pipes, and, as it were, strings, the heing partly issued forth, and partly enfeebled, other hath a cellar also, so as it is not only corall things in the body do dissolve and return to tinued to itself, but also congregated in a hollow their homogeneities, or (if you will) to their ele- space in reasonable good quantity, according tu. ments; that which was spirit in it is congregated the analogy of the body; and in that cell is the to itself, whereby things putrefied begin to have fountain of the rivulets which branch from thence. an ill savour; the oily parts to themselves, The cell is chiefly in the ventricles of the brain, whereby things putrefied have that slipperiness which in the ignobler sort of creatures are but and unctuosity; the watery parts also to them- narrow, insomuch that the spirits in thein spem selves, the dregs to themselves; whence follow- scattered over their whole body, rather than celled;

Vol. III.--65





as may be seen in serpents, eels, and flies, whereof the liveless spirits, not that they are more flamy every of their parts move along after they are cut than air. asunder. Birds also leap a good while after their heads are pulled off, because they have little heads and little cells. But the nobler sort of creatures have those ventricles larger, and man the largest itself, the other of flying forth, and congregating

The spirit hath two desires, one of multiplying of all. The other difference betwixt the spirits itself with the connaturals. is, that the vital spirit hath a kind of enkindling, and is like a wind or breath compounded of flame

THE EXPLICATION. and air, as the juices of living creatures have both oil and water. And this enkindling ministereth The canon is understood of the liveless spirits ; peculiar motions and faculties; for the smoke for as for the second desire, the vital spirit doth which is inflammable, even before the flame con- most of all abhor flying forth of the body, for it ceived, is hot, thin, and movable, and yet it is finds no connatural here below to join withal. quite another thing after it is become flame; but Perhaps it may sometimes fly to the outward the enkindling of the vital spirits is by many de- parts of the body, to meet that which it loveth; grees gentler than the softest flame, as of spirit but the flying forth, as I said, it abhorreth. But of wine, or otherwise; and, besides, it is in great in the liveless spirits each of these two desires part mixed with an aerial substance, that it should holdeth. For to the former this belongeth, every be a mystery or miracle, both of a flammeous and spirit seated amongst the grosser parts dwelleth aereous nature.

unhappily; and, therefore, when it finds not a like unto itself, it doth so much the more labour

to create and make a like, as being in a great The natural actions are proper to the several solitude, and endeavour earnestly to multiply parts, but it is the vilal spirit that excites and itself, and to prey upon the volatile of the grosser sharpens them.

parts, that it may be increased in quantity. As

for the second desire of flying forth, and betaking THE EXPLICATION.

itself to the air, it is certain, that all light things The actions or functions which are in the seve (which are ever movable) do willingly go unto ral members, follow the nature of the members their likes near unto them, as a drop of water is themselves, (attraction, retention, digestion, assi- carried to a drop, flame to flame; but much more milation, separation, excretion, perspiration, even this is done in the flying forth of spirit into the sense itself,) according to the propriety of the air ambient, because it is not carried to a particle several organs, (the stomach, liver, heart, spleen, like unto itself, but also as unto the globe of the gall, brain, eye, ear, and the rest,) yet none of connaturals. Meanwhile this is to be noted, that these actions would ever have been actuated but the going forth, and flight of the spirit into air is hy the vigour and presence of the vital spirit, and a redoubled action, partly out of the appetite of the heat thereof; as one iron would not have drawn spirit, partly out of the appetite of the air, for the another iron, unless it had been excited by the common air is a needy thing, and receiveth all loadstone; nor an egg would ever have brought things speedily, as spirits, odours, beams, sounds, forth a bird, unless the substance of the hen had and the like. been actuated by the treading of the cock.








Spirit detained, if it have no possibility of begelThe liveless spirits are next consubstantial to air ; ting new spirits, intenerateth the grosser parts. the vital spirits approach more to the substance of flame.

Generation of new spirit is not accomplished l'he explication of the precedent fourth canon but upon those things which are in some degree is also a declaration of this present canon. But near to the spirit, such as are humid bodies. And, yet further, from hence it is, that all fat and oily therefore, if the grosser parts (amongst which the things continue long in their being. For neither spirit converseth) be in a remote degree, although Joth the air much pluck them, neither do they the spirit cannot convert thein, yet (as much as it much desire to join themselves with air. As for can) it weakeneth, and softeneth, and subdueth that conceit, it is altogether vain, that flame them, that seeing it cannot increase in quantity, should be air set on fire, seeing flame and air are yet it will dwell morc ai large, and live amongst no less heterogeneal, than oil and water. But good neighbours and friends. Now, this apborism whereas it is said in the canon, that the vital is most useful to our end, because it tendeth to -pirits approach more to the substance of flame; the inteneration of the obstinate parts by the detenit must be understood, that they do this more than tion of the spirit.

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The inteneration of the harder parts cometh to The spirit in great quantity hastenelh more to good effect when the spirit neither flieth forth, nor flying forth, and preyeth upon the body more than begetteth new spirit.

in small quantity.



This canon is clear of itself, seeing mere quanThis canon solveth the knot and difficulty in the operation of intenerating by the detention of city doth regularly increase virtue. And it is to the spirit; for if the spirit not flying forth wasteth be seen in flames, that the bigger they are the all within, there is nothing gotten to the intenera- stronger they break forth, and the more speedily

they consume. And, therefore, over-great plenty, tion of the parts in their subsistence, but rather they are dissolved and corrupted. Therefore, to

or exuberance of the spirits, is altogether burtful gether with the detention, the spirits ought to be

to long life; neither need one wish a greater cooled and restrained, that they may not be too functions of life, and the office of a good repa

store of spirits, than what is sufficient for the active.




The heat of the spirit, lo keep the body fresh and green, ought to be robust, not eager.

The spirit equally dispersed, maketh less haste to fly forth, and preyeth less upon the body, than unequally placed.





Also, this canon pertaineth to the solving of the knot aforesaid, but it is of a much larger ex

Not only abundance of spirits, in respect of the tent, for it setteth down of what temperament the whole, is hurtful to the duration of things, but heat in the body ought to be for the obtaining of also the same abundance, unevenly placed, is, in long life. Now, this is useful, whether the spirits like manner, hurtful; and, therefore, the more the be detained, or whether they be not. For, how- spirit is shred and inserted by small portions, the soever, the heat of the spirits, must be such, as it less it preyeth ; for dissolution ever beginneth at may rather turn itself upon the hard parts, than that part where the spirit is loser. And, therewaste the soft; for the one desiccateth, the other more, both exercise and frications conduce much intenerateth. Besides, the same thing is available to long life, for agitation doth fineliest diffuse and to the well perfecting of assimilation; for such a commix things by small portions. heat doth excellently excite the faculty of assimilation, and withal doth excellently prepare the matter to be assimilated. Now, the properties of

The inordinate and subsultory motion of the spithis kind of heat ought to be these. First, that rits doth more hasten to going forth, and doth prey it be slow, and heat not suddenly. Secondly, upon the body more than the constant and equal. that it be not very intense, but moderate. Thirdly, that it be equal, not incomposed; namely, intending and remitting itself. Fourthly, that if

The inanimates this canon holds for certain, for this heat meet any thing to resist it, it be not inequality is the mother of dissolution; but in easily suffocated or languish. The operation is animates (because not only the consumption is exceeding subtile; but seeing it is one of the considered, but the reparation, and reparation most useful, it is not to be deserted. Now, in proceedeth by the appetites of things, and appethose remedies which we propounded to invest tite is sharpened by variety) it holdeth not rigorthe spirits with a robust heat, or that which we ously; but it is so far forth to be received, that call operative, not predatory, we have in some this variety be rather an alternation or intersort satisfied this matter.

change, than a confusion; and, as it were, constant in inconsistency.


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This canon is subordinate to the next prece- All things do abhor a solution of their continuity, dent; for the spirit condensed receiveth all those but yet in proportica to their density or rarity; for four properties of heat whereof we speak; but the the more rare the bodies be the more do they suffe. ways of condensing them are set down in the themselves to be thrust into small and narrow first of the ten operations.

passages; for water will


into a passage which






dust will not go into, and air which water will not go into; nay, flame and spirit which air will not

Air excluded conferreth to long life, if other in go into. Notwithstanding, of this thing there are conveniences be avoided. some bound:3, for the spirit is not so much transported with the desire of going forth, that it will suffer itself to be too much discontinued, or be We said a little before, that the flying forth of driven into over-straight pores and passages; and, the spirit is a redoubled action, from the appetite therefore, if the spirit be encompassed with a of the spirit, and of the air; and, therefore, if hard body, or else with an unctuous and tenacious, either of these be taken out of the way, there is (which is not easily divided,) it is plainly bound, not a little gained. Notwithstanding, divers inand, as I may say, imprisoned, and layeth down conveniences follow hereupon, which how they the appetite of going out; wherefore we see that may be prevented we have showed in the second metals and stones require a long time for their of our operations. spirit to go forth, unless either the spirit be excited by the fire, or the grosser parts be dissevered with corroding and strong waters. The like rea- Youthful spirits inserted into an old boly, might son is there of tenacious bodies, such as are gums, soon turn nature's course back again. save only that they are melted by a more gentle heat; and therefore the juices of the body hard, a

THE EXPLICATION. close and compact skin, and the like, (which are The nature of the spirits is as the uppermost procured by the dryness of the aliment, and by wheel, which turneth about the other wheels in exercise, and by the coldness of the air,) are good the body of man; and therefore in the intention for long life, because they detain the spirit in of long life, that ought to be first placed. Hereclose prison, that it goeth not forth

unto may be added, that there is an easier and more expedite way to alter the spirits, than to

other operations. For the operation upon the In oily and fat things the spirit is detained wil spirits is twofold; the one by aliments, which is lingly, though they be not tenacious.

slow, and as it were, about; the other, (and that

twofold,) which is sudden, and goeth directly to THE EXPLICATION.

the spirits, namely, by vapours, or by the affecThe spirit, if it be not irritated by the antipathy tions. of the body enclosing it, nor fed by the over-much likeness of that body, nor solicited nor invited by the external body, it makes no great stir to get long life.

Juices of the body hard and roscid are good for out; all which are wanting to oily bodies, for they are neither so pressing upon the spirits as hard bodies, nor so near as watery bodies, neither

The reason is plain, seeing we showed before, have they any good agreement with the air am- that hard things, and oily or roscid, are hardly bient.

dissipated; notwithstanding, there is difference, (as we also noted in the tenth operation,) that

juice somewhat hard is indeed less dissipable, The speedy flying forth of the watery humour but then it is withal less reparable; therefore, a conserves the oily the longer in his being,

convenience is interlaced with an inconvenience,

and for this cause no wonderful matter will be We said before, that the watery humours, as achieved by this. But roscid juice will admit being consubstantial to the air, fiy forth soonest; both operations; therefore this would be princithe oily later, as having small agreement with pally endeavoured. the air. Now, whereas these two humours are in most bodies, it comes to pass that the watery doth in a sort betray the oily, for that issuing forth in- Whatsoever is of thin par's to penetrate, and yet sensibly carrieth this together with it. Therefore, hath no acrimony to bile, begetieth roscid juiccs. there is nothing more furthereth the conservation of bodies, than a gentle drying of them, which causeth the watery humour to expire, and inviteth This canon is more hard to practise than to not the oily; for then the oily enjoyeth the proper understand. For it is manisest, whatsoever penenature. And this tendeth not only to the inhibit-trateth well, but yet with a sting or tooth, (as do ing of putrefaction, (though that also followeth,) all sharp and sour things,) it leaveth behind it, but to the conservation of greenness. Hence it wheresoever it goeth, some mark or print of dryis, that gentle frications, and moderate exercises, ness and cleaving, so that it hardeneth the juices, causing rather perspiration than sweating, con- and chappeth the parts; contrarily, whatsoever cuce much to long life.

things penetrate through their thinness merely,









as it were by stealth, and by way of insinuation without violence, they bedew and water in their Malacissation is wrought by consubstantials, by passage. Of which sort we have recounted imprinters, and by closers up. many in the fourth and seventh overations.





The reason is manifest, for that consubstantials Assimilation is best done when all local motion is do properly supple the body, imprinters do carry expended.

in, closers up do retain and bridle the perspiration, which is a motion opposite to malacissation'.

And, therefore, (as we described in the ninth This canon we have sufficiently explained in operation,) malacissation cannot well be done at

once, but in a course or order. First, by excluding our discourse upon the eighth operation.

the liquor by thickness; for an outward and gross infusion doth not well compact the body; that

which entereth must be subtile, and a kind of Alimentation from without, at least some other way than by the stomach, is most profitable for long of consubstantials: for bodies upon the touch of

vapour. Secondly, by intenerating by the consent life, if it can be done.

those things which have good agreement with them, open themselves, and relax their pores.

Thirdly, imprinters are convoys, and insinuate We see that all things which are done by nu-l into the parts the consubstantials, and the mixtrition ask a long time, but those which are done ture of gentle astringents doth somewhat restrain by embracing of the like (as it is in infusions) the perspiration. But then, in the fourth place, require no long time. And, therefore, alimenta- follows that great astriction and closure up of the tion from without would be of principal use; and body by emplasteration, and then afterwards by so much the more, because the faculties of con- inunction, until the supple be turned into solia, coction decay in old age; so that if there could as we said in the proper place. be some auxiliary nutritions by bathing, unctions, or else by clysters, these things in conjunction might do much, which single are less available. Frequent renoration of the parts reparable,

waierelh and renewelh the less reparable also.






Where the concoction is weak to thrust forth the aliment, there the outward parts should be strengthen

We said in the preface to this history, that the

way of death was this, that the parts reparable ed to call forth the aliment.

died in the fellowship of the parts less reparable ; so that in the reparation of these same less repa

rable parts, all our forces would be employed. That which is propounded in this canon, is not And, therefore, being admonished by Aristotle's the same thing with the former, for it is one thing observation touching plants, namely, that the for the outward aliment to be attracted inward, putting forth of new shoots and branches reanother for the inward aliment to be attracted out- fresheth the body of the tree in the passage; we ward; yet herein they concur, that they both conceive the like reason might be, if the flesh help the weakness of the inward concoctions, and blood in the body of man were often renewed, though by divers ways.

that thereby the bones themselves, and mem

branes, and other parts, which in their own CANON XXV.

nature are less reparable, partly by the cheerful All sudden renovation of the body is wrought passage of the juices, partly by that new clothing either by the spirit, or by malacissations.

of the young flesh and blood, might be watered and renewed.


There are two things in the body, spirits and

CANON XXVIII. paris; to both these the way by nutrition is long Refrigeration, or cooling of the body, which and about; but it is a short way to the spirits by passeth some other ways than by the stomach, is vapours, and by the affections, and to the parts useful for long life. by malacissations. But this is diligently to be noted, that by no means we confound alimenta

THE EXPLICATION. tion from without with malacissation; for the The reason is at hand; for seeing a Jefrigeraintention of malacissation is not to nourish the tion not temperate, but powerful, (especially of the parts, but only to make them more fit to be blood,) is above all things necessary to long life ; nourished.

this can by no means be effected from within as

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