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airs which smell not so ill as others that are less gold and pearls work a good effect, not only hurtful; so, on the contrary, there are some airs within the veins, but in their passage, and about most wholesome and friendly to the spirits, which the parts near the heart; namely, by cooling, either smell not at all, or are less pleasing and without any malignant quality. fragrant to the sense. And generally, when the 38. Of bezoar-stone we believe well, because air is good, odours should be taken but now and of many trials; but then the manner of taking then; for a continual odour, though never so it ought to be such, as the virtue thereof may good, is burdensome to the spirits.
more easily be communicated to the spirits. 31. We commend, above all others, (as we Therefore, we approve not the taking of it in have touched before,) odour of plants growing, broths or syrups, or in rose-water, or any such and not plucked, taken in the open air ; the prin- like; but only in wine, cinnamon-water, or the cipal of that kind are, violets, gilliflowers, pinks, like distilled water, but that weak or small, not bean-flowers, lime tree blossoms, vine-buds, ho- burning or strong. neysuckles, yellow wallflowers, musk-roses, (for 39. Of the affections we have spoken before: other ruses growing are fast of their smells,) we only add this, that every noble, and resolute, strawberry leaves, especially dying, sweetbrier, and (as they call it) heroical desire, strengtheneth principally in the early spring, wild mint, lavender and enlargeth the powers of the heart. And flowered ; and in the hotter countries, orange touching the heart, thus much. tree, citron tree, myrtle, laurel. Therefore, to 40. As for the brain, where the seat and court walk or sit near the breath of these plants, would of the animal spirits is kept, those things which not be neglected.
were inquired before touching opium, and nitre, 32. For the comforting of the heart, we prefer and the subordinates to them both ; also touching cool sinells before hot sinells; therefore, the best the procuring of placid sleep, may likewise be perfume is, either in the morning, or about the referred hither. This also is most certain, that heat of the day, to take an equal portion of vine- the brain is in some sort in the custody of the gar, rose-water, and claret wine, and to pour them stomach; and, therefore, those things which comupon a firepan somewhat heated.
fort and strengthen the stomach, do help the brain 33. Neither let us be thought to sacrifice to by consent, and may no less be transferred our inother the earth, though we advise that, in hither. We will add a few observations, three digging or ploughing the earth for health, a quan- outward, one inward. tity of claret wine be poured thereon.
41. We would have bathing of the feet to be 34. Orange-flower water, pure and good, with often used, at least once in a week; and the bath a small portion of rose-water, and brisk wine, to be made of lye with bay-salt, and a liule sage, snuffed up into the nostrils, or put into the nos- camomile, fennel, sweet marjoram, and peppertrils with a syringe, after the manner of an errhine, wort, with the leaves of angelica green. (but not too frequently,) is very good.
42. We commend also a fume or suffumigation 35. But champing, (though we have no betel,) every morning of dried rosemary, bay leaves or holding in the mouth only of such things as dried, and lignum aloes; for all sweet gums cheer the spirits, (even daily done,) is exceed- oppress the head. ing comfortable. Therefore, for that purpose 43. Especially care must be taken that no hot make grains, or little cakes of ambergris, musk, things be applied to the head outwardly; such are lignum aloes, lignum rhodium, orras powder, and all kind of spices, the very nutineg not excepted ; roses; and let those grains or cakes be made up for those hot things, we debase them to the soles with rose-water which hath passed through a lit- of the feet, and would have them applied there tle Indian balsam.
only; but a light anointing of the head with oil, 36. The vapours which, arising from things mixed with roses, myrtle, and a little salt and inwardly taken, do fortify and cherish the heart, saffron, we much commend. ought to have these three properties, that they be 44. Not forgetting those things which we have friendly, clear, and cooling; for hot vapours are before delivered touching opiates, nitre, and the naught, and wine itself, which is thought to have like, which so much condense the spirits; we only a heating vapour, is not altogether void of an I think it not impertinent to that effect that once in opiate quality. Now we call these vapours clear, fourteen days broth be taken in the morning with which have more of the vapours than of the ex- three or four grains of castoreum, and a little anhalation, and which are not smoky, or fuliginous, gelica seed, and calamus, which both fortify the or unctuous, but moist and equal.
brain, and in that aforesaid densiny of the sub37. Out of that unprofitable rabble of cordials stance of the spirits, (so necessary to long a few ought to be taken into daily diet; instead life,) add also a vivacity of motion and viguil of all, ambergris, saffron, and the grain of Kermes, to them. of the hotter sort. Roots of bugloss and borage, 45. In handling the comforters of the four citrons, sweet lemons, and pearmains, of the principal bowels we have propounded those colder sort. Also, that way which we said, both I things which are both proper anu choice, and inay
safely and conveniently be transferred into diets, or the like, but of plain meat and drink; yet that and regiment of life; for variety of medicines is very light, and in moderate quantity. the daughter of ignorance; and it is not more 7. Exercises used for the irrigation of the true, that many dishes have caused many diseases, members, ought to be equal to all the members; as the proverb is, than this is true, that many not (as Socrates said) that the legs should move, medicines have caused few cares. And touching and the arms should rest, or on the contrary; but the operation upon the principal bowels for their that all the parts may participate of the motion. extrusion of aliment, thus much.
And it is altogether requisite to long life, that the
body should never abide long in one posture, but VI. The Operation upon the Outward Parts for that every half hour, at least, it change the postheir Attraction of Aliment.
ture, saving only in sleep.
8. Those things which are used to mortificaThe history.
tion, may be transferred to vivification; for both 1. Although a good concoction performed by hair-shirts, and scourgings, and all vexations of the inward parts be the principal towards a per- the outward paris, do fortify the attractive force fect aliinentation, yet the actions of the outward
of them. parts ought also to concur; that like as the
9. Cardan commends nettling, even to let out inward faculty sendeth forth and extrudeth the melancholy; but of this we have no experience. aliment, so the faculty of the outward parts may And, besides, we have no good opinion of it, call forth, and attract the same; and the more lest, through the venomous quality of the nettle, weak the faculty of concoction shall be, the more it may with often use breed itches, and other disneed is there of a concurring help of the attractive eases of the skin. And touching the operation faculty.
the outward parts for their attraction of 2. A strong attraction of the outward parts is aliment, thus much. chiefly caused by the motion of the body, by which the parts being heated and comforted, do
VII. The Operation upon the Aliment itself, for more cheerfully call forth and attract the aliment
the Insinuation thereof. into themselves. 3. But this is most of all to be foreseen and
The history. avoided, that the same motion and heat which 1. The vulgar reproof touching many dishes, calls the new juice to the members, doth not again doth rather become a severe reformer, than a phy. despoil the member of that juice wherewith it sician; or, howsoever it may be good for preserhad been before refreshed.
vation of health, yet it is hurtful to length of life, 4. Fricatirns used in the morning serve espe- by reason that a various mixture of aliments, and cially to this intention; but this must evermore somewhat heterogeneous, finds a passage into the accompany them, that after the frication, the part veins and juices of the body more lively and heing lightly anointed with oil, lest the attrition cheerfully, than a simple and homogeneous diet of the outward parts make them by perspiration doth; besides, it is more forcible to stir up appedry and juiceless.
tite, which is the spur of digestion. Therefore 5. The next is exercise, (by which the parts we allow both a full table, and a continual change confricate and chafe themselves,) so it be mode-ing of dishes, according to the seasons of the rate, and which (as was noted before) is not
other occasions. swift, nor to the utmost strength, nor unto weari- 2. Also that opinion of the simplicity of meats
But in exercise and frication there is the without sauces, is but a simplicity of judgment; same reason and caution, that the body may not for good and well chosen sauces are the most perspire, or exhale too much. Therefore exercise wholesome preparation of meats, and conduce is better in the open air than in the house, and both to health and to long life. better in winter than in summer. And, again, 3. It must ordered, that with meats hard of exercise is not only to be concluded with unction, digestion be conjoined strong liquors, and sauces as frication is, but in vehement exercises unction that may penetrate and make way; but with is to be used both in the beginning and in the end, meats more easy of digestion, smaller liquors, and as it was anciently to champions.
fat sauces. 6. That exercise may resolve either the spirits 4. Whereas we advised before, that the first or the juices as little as may be, it is necessary draught at supper should be taken warm; now we that it be used when the stomach is not altogether add, that for the preparation of the stomach, a empty; and, therefore, that it may not be used good draught of that liquor (10 which every man lipon a full stomach, (which doth much concern is most accustomed) be taken warm half an hour health,) nor yet upon an empty stomach, (which before meat also, but a little spiced, to please the doth no less concern long life,) it is best to take a taste. loreakfast in the morning, not of any physical 5. The preparation of meats, and bread, and drugs, or of any liquors, or of raisins, or of figs, I drinks, that they may be rightly handled, and in
order to this intention, is of exceeding great mo- by land, or by hanging the vessels upon lines, ment, howsoever it may seem a mechanical thing, and daily stirring them, or some such other way; and savouring of the kitchen and buttery; yet it for it is certain, that this local motion doth both is of more consequence than those fables of gold, subtilize the parts, and doch so incorporate and and precious stones, and the like.
compact the spirits with the parts, that they have 6. 'The moistening of the juices of the body by no leisure to turn to sourness, which is a kind of a moist preparation of the aliment, is a childish putrefaction. thing, it may be somewhat available against the But in extreme old age such a preparation of fervours of diseases, but it is altogether averse to meats is to be made, as may be almost in the roscid alimentation. Therefore, boiling of meats, middle way to chylous. And touching the disas concerning our intention, is far inferior to tillations of meats, they are mere toys, for the r.vassing, and baking, and the like.
nutritive part, at least the best of it, doth not 7. Roasting ought to be with a quick fire, and ascend in vapours. soon despatched, not with a dull fire and in long 14. The incorporating of meat and drink before tiine.
they meet in the stomach, is a degree to chylous; 8. All solid fleshes ought to be served in not therefore let chickens, or partridges, or pheasants, altogether fresh, but somewhat powdered or or the like, be taken and boiled in water, with a corned; the less salt may be spent at the table little salt, then let them be cleansed and dried, with them, or none at all; for salt incorporated afterward let them be infused in must or ale bewith the meat before, is better distributed in the fore it hath done working, with a little sugar. body than eaten with it at the table.
Also grazies of meat, and the mincings of them 9. There would be brought into use several and small, well seasoned, are good for old persons; good macerations and infusions of meats in con- and the rather, for that they are destituted of the venient liquors, before the roasting of them, the office of their teeth in chewing, which is a prin. like whereof are sometime in use before they bake cipal kind of preparation. them, and in the pickles of some fishes.
16. And as for the helps of that defect, (namely, 10. But beatings, and as it were scourgings, of of the strength of teeth to grind the meat,) there flesh meats before they be boiled, would work no are three things which may conduce thereunto. small matter. We see it is confessed, that par- First, that new teeth may put forth; that which tridges and pheasants killed with a hawk, also seems altogether difficult, and cannot be accombucks and stays killed in hunting, if they stand not plished without an inward and powerful restauraout too long, eat better even to the taste, and some tion of the body. Secondly, that the jaws be so fishes scourged and beaten become more tender confirmed by due astringents, that they may in and wholesome; also hard and sour pears, and some sort supply the office of the teeth ; which some other fruits, grow sweet with rolling them. may possibly be effected. Thirdly, that the meat It were good to practise some such beating and be so prepared, that there shall be no need of bruising of the harder kinds of fleshes before they chewing, which remedy is at hand be brought to the fire, and this would be one of 17. We have some thought also touching the the best preparations of all.
quantity of the meat and drink, that the same 11. Bread a little leavened and very little salted taken in a larger quantity at some times, is good is best, and which is baked in an oven thoroughly for the irrigation of the body; therefore both heated, and not with a faint heat.
great feastings, and free drinkings, are not alto12. The preparation of drinks, in order to long gether to be inhibited. And touching the operalife, shall not exceed one precept; and as touch- tion upon the aliments, and the preparation of ing water drinkers, we have noihing to say: such them, thus much. a diet (as we said before) may prolong life to an indifferent term, but to no eminent length; but in other drinks that are full of spirit, (snch as are
VIII. The Operation upon the last Act of Assimi
lation. wine, ale, mead, and the like,) this one thing is to be observed and pursued as the sum of all, Touching the last act of assimilation, (unto That the parts of the liquor may be exceeding which the three operations immediately preceding thin and subtile, and the spirit exceeding mild. chiefly tend,) our advice shall be brief and single, This is hard to be done by age alone, for that and the thing itself rather needs explication than makes the parts a little more subtile, but the any various rules. spirits much more sharp and eager; therefore, of 1. It is certain, that all bodies are endued with the infusions in the vessels of some fat substance, some desire of assimilating those things which which may restrain the acrimony of the spirits, are next them. This the rare and pneumatical counsel hath been given before. There is also bodies, as ilame, spirit, air, perform generously another way without infusion or mixture ; this is, and with alacrity ; on the contrary, those that that the liquor might be continually agitated, carry a gross and tangible bulk about them do but either by carriage upon the water, or by carriage weakly, in regard that the desire of assimilating VOL. III.-6-1
other things is bound in by a stronger desire of
The bistory. rest, and containing themselves from motion. 1. In the fable of restoring Pelias to youth
2. Again, it is certain that the desire of as- again, Medea, when she feigned to do it, prosimilating being bound, as we said, in a gross pounded this way of accomplishing the same; body, and made ineffectual, is somewhat freed and that the old man's body should be cut into several stirred up by the heat and neighbouring spirit, so pieces, and then boiled in a caldron with certain that it is then actuated; which is the only cause inedicaments. There may, perhaps, some boiling why inanimates assimilate not, and animates as- be required to this matter, but the cutting into similate.
pieces is not needful. 3. This also is certain, that the harder the con- 2. Notwithstanding, this cutting into pieces sistence of the body is, the more doth that body seems in some sort to be used, not with a knife, stand in need of a greater heat to prick forward but with judgment. For, whereas the consistence the assimilation; which falls out ill for old men, of the bowels and parts is very diverse, it is because in them the parts are more obstinate, and needful that the inteneration of them both be not the heat weaker, and therefore either the obstinacy effected the same way, but that there be a cure of their parts is to be softened or their heat in- designed of each in particular, besides those creased. And, as touching the malacissation or things which pertain to the inteneration of the mollifying of the members, we shall speak after- whole mass of the body; of which, notwithward, having also formerly propounded many standing, in the first place. things which pertain to the prohibiting and pre- 3. This operation (if, perhaps, it be within our venting of this kind of hardness. For the other, power) is most likely to be done by bathis, unctouching the increasing of the heat, we will now tions, and the like, concerning which, these deliver a single precept, after we have first as- things that follow are to be observed. sumed this axiom.
4. We must not be too forward in hoping to 4. The act of assimilation (which, as we said, accomplish this matter, from the examples of is excited by the heat circumfused) is a motion those things which we see done in the imbibiexceeding accurate, subtile, and in little; now, tions and macerations of inanimates, by which all such motions do then come to their vigour, they are intenerated, whereof we introduced some when the local motion wholly ceaseth which dis- instances before : for this kind of operation is turbeth it. For the motion of separation into more easy upon inanimates, because they attract homogeneal parts, which is in milk, that the and suck in the liquor; but upon the bodies of cream should swim above, and the whey sink to living creatures it is harder, because in them the the bottom, will never work, if the milk be never motion rather tendeth outward, and to the circumso little agitated; neither will any putrefaction ference. proceed in water or mixed bodies, if the same be 5. Therefore, the emollient baths which are in in continual local motion. So, then, from this use do little good, but on the contrary hurt, assumption we will conclude this for the present because they rather draw forth than make eninquisition.
trance, and resolve the structure of the body, 5. The act itself of assimilation, is chiefly rather than consolidate it. accomplished in sleep and rest, especially to- 6. The baths and unctions which may serve to wards the morning, the distribution being finished. the present operation, (namely, of intenerating Therefore, we have nothing else to advise but the body truly and really,) ought to have three that men keep themselves hot in their sleep; and properties. further, that towards the morning there be used 7. The first and principal is, that they consist some anointing, or shirt tincted with oil, such as of those things which, in their whole substance, may gently stir up heat, and after that to fall are like unto the body and flesh of man, and which asleep again. And, touching the last act of assi- have a feeding and nursing virtue from without. milation, thus much.
8. The second is, that they be mixed with such IX. The Operation upon the Inteneration of that make entrance, and so insinuate and convey their
things as, through the subtilty of their parts, may which begins to be arefied, or the Malacissation nourishing virtue into the body. of the Body.
9. The third is, that they receive some mixture We have inquired formerly touching the intene- (though much inferior to the rest of such things ration from within, which is done by many as are astringent; I mean not sour or tart things, windings and circuits, as well of alimentation as but onctuous and comforting, that while the other of detaining the spirit from issuing forth, and, two do operate, the exbaling out of the body, therefore, is accomplished slowly. Now, we are which destroyeth the virtue of the things inteneto inquire touching that inteneration which is from rating, may, as much as possible, be prohibited; without, and is affected, as it were, suddenly; or and the motion to the inward parts, by the astricinuching the malacissation and supplying of the tion of the skin, and closing of the passages, hody.
may be promoted and furthered.
10. That which is most consubstantial to the sicians and posterity will find out better things body of man is warm blood, either of man, or hereafter. of some other living creature. But the device 21. But the operation will be much better, and of Ficinus, touching the sucking of blood out of more powerful, if such a bath as we have prothe arın of a wholesome young man, for the re-pounded (which we hold to be the principal storation of strength, in old men, is very frivo- matter) be attended with a fourfold course and lous; for that which nourisheth from within, order. ought no way to be equal or hoinogeneal to the 22. First, that there go before the bath a fricabody nourished, but in some sort inferior and sub- tion of the body, and an anointing with oil, with ordinate, that it may be converted. But in things some thickening substance, that the virtue and applied outwardly, by how much the substance moistening heat of the bath may pierce the body, is liker, by so much the consent is better. and not the watery part of the liquor; then let the
11. It hath been anciently received, that a bath bath follow, for the space of some two hours. made of the blood of infants will cure the leprosy, After the bath, let the body be emplastered with and heal the filesh already putrefied; insomuch mastick, myrrhe, tragacanth, diapalma, and that this thing hath begot envy towards some saffron, that the perspiration of the body may (as kings from the common people.
much as possible) be inhibited, till the supple 12. It is r’ported that Heraclitus, for cure of matter be by degrees turned into solid. This to the dropsy, was put into the warm belly of an ox be continued for the space of twenty-four hours, newly slain.
or more. Lastly, the emplastering being removed, 13. They use the blood of kitlings warm to let there be an anointing with oil mixed with salt cure the disease called St. Anthony's Fire, and to and saffron, and let this bath, together with the restore the flesh and skin.
emplastering and unction (as before) be renew14. An arm, or other member newly cut off, or ed every fifth day. This malacissation, or supthat, upon some other occasion, will not leave plying of the body, be continued for one whole bleeding, is with good success put into the belly month. of some creatures newly ripped up, for it worketh 23. Also during the time of this malacissation, potently to stanch the blood; the blood of the we hold it useful and proper, and according to member cut off, by consent sucking in, and vehe- our intention, that men nourish their bodies well, mently drawing to itself the warm blood of the and keep out of the cold air, and drink nothing creature slain, whereby itself is stopped, and but warm drink. retireth.
24. Now, this is one of those things (as we 15. It is much used in extreme and desperate warned in general in the beginning) whereof we diseases to cut in two young pigeons yet living, have made no trial by experiinent, but only set it and apply them to the soles of the feet, and to down out of our aiming and leveling at the end. shift them one after another, whereby sometimes For having set up the mark, we deliver the light there followeth wonderful ease This is im- to others. puted vulgarly, as if they should draw down the 25. Neither ought the warmths and cherishing malignity of the disease: but, howsoever, this of living bodies to be nglected. Ficinus saith, application goeth to the head, and comforteth the and that seriously enough, 'That the laying of the animal spirit.
young maid in David's bosom was wholesome 16. But these bloody baths and unctions seem for him, but it came too late. He should also to us sluttish and odious: let us search out some have added, that the young maid, after the manothers, which perhaps have less loathsomeness in ner of the Persian virgins, ought to have been them, and yet no less benefit.
anointed with myrrh, and such like, not for deli17. Next unto warm blood, things alike in ciousness, but to increase the virtue of this chesubstance to the body of a man are nutritives; rishing by a living body. fat fleshes of oxen, swine, deer, oysters amongst 26. Barbarossa, in his extreme old age, by the fishes, milk, butter, yolks of eggs, flower of advice of a physician, a Jew, did continually wheat, sweet wine, either sugared, or before it be apply young boys to his stomach and belly, for fined.
warmth and cherishing. Also some old men lay 18. Such things as we would have mixed to whelps (creatures of the hottest kind) close to make impression, are instead of all salts, espe- their stomachs every night. cially bay-salt: also wine (when it is full of spirit) 27. There hath gone a report, almost un. maketh entrance, and is an excellent convoy. doubted, and that under several names, of certain
19. Astringents of that kind which we de- men that had great noses, who, being weary of scribed, namely, onctuous and comfortable the derision of people, have cut off the bunches or things, are saffron, mastic, myrrh, and myrtle- gillocks of their noses, and then making a wide berries.
gash in their arms, have held their noses in the 20. Of these parts, in our judgment, may very place for a certain time, and so brought forth fair well be made such a bath as we design: phy- and comely noses; which, if it be true, it shows