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tell what. And now lastly, it seemeth they would company. And, therefore, I dare not advise to go back to lay it upon the whites: And, therefore, adventure this great trade of the kingdom (which whether your majesty will any more rest and hath been so long under government) in a free build this great wheel of your kingdom, upon or loose trade. The third is, a compounded way these broken and brittle pins, and try experiments of both, which is, to go on with the trade of whites further upon the health and body of your state, I by the Old Company restored; and, that your leave to your princely judgment. majesty's profit be raised by order amongst themselves, rather than by double custom, wherein you must be the actor: and, that, nevertheless, there be added a privilege to the same company to carry out cloths dyed and dressed custom free; which will still continue as a glorious beam of your majesty's royal design. I hope and wish at least that this, which I have written, may be of some use to your majesty to settle by the advice of the lords about you this great business. At the least it is the effect of my care and poor ability, which if in me be any, it is given me to no other end but faithfully to serve your majesty. God ever preserve you.

The other answer of repulse is a kind of opposing them what they will do after the three years contracted for? Which is a point hitherto not much stirred, though Sir Lionel Cranfield hath ever beaten upon it in his speech with me: for after three years they are not tied, otherways than as trade shall give encouragement; of which encouragement your majesty hath a bitter taste. And if they should hold on according to the third year's proportion, and not rise on by further gradation, your majesty hath not your end. No, I fear, and having long feared that this feeding of the foreigner may be dangerous. For as we may think to hold up our clothing by vent of whites, till we can dye and dress; so they (I mean the Dutch) will think to hold up their manufacture of dying and dressing upon our whites till they can cloth so as your majesty hath the greatest reason in the world to make the New Company to come in and strengthen that part of their contract; and they refusing (as it is confidently believed they will) to make their default more visible to all men.

Your majesty's most humble subject, and bounden servant.


SIR,-I humbly pray you not to think me over brance of my motion of strengthening me with the hasty or much in appetite, if I put you in rememoath and trust of a privy councillor; not for mine armed within,) but for the strength of my service. own strength, (for as to that, I thank God I am The times, I submit to you who knoweth them best. But sure I am, there were never times well armed, and (as I said once to you) to wear a which did more require a king's attorney to be gauntlet and not a glove. The arraignments, when they proceed; the contention between the Chancery and King's Bench; the great cause of the rege inconsulto, which is so precious to the king's prerogative; divers other services that concern the king's revenue, and the repair of his estate. Besides, it pleaseth his majesty to accept well of my relations touching his business; which call it) for one that is no councillor. But I leave may seem a kind of interloping (as the merchants all unto you, thinking myself infinitely bounden unto you for your great favours; the beams whereof I see plainly reflect upon me even from others:

For the second main part of your majesty's consultation, (that is, what shall be done, supposing an absolute breach,) I have had some speech with Mr. Secretary Lake, and likewise with Sir Lionel Cranfield; and (as I conceive) there may be three ways taken into consideration. The first is, that the Old Company be restored, who (no doubt) are in appetite, and (as I find by Sir Lionel Cranfield) not unprepared; and that the licenses, the one, that of 30,000 cloths, which was the old license; the other, that of my Lord of Cumberland's, which is without stint, (my Lord of Cumberland receiving satisfaction,) be compounded into one entire license without stint; and then that they amongst themselves take order for that profit which hath been offered to your majesty. This is a plain and known way, wherein your majesty is not an actor; only it hath this, that the work of dying and dressing cloths, which hath been so much glorified, seemeth to be wholly, relinquished if you leave there. The second is, that there be a free trade of cloth, with this difference; that the dyed and dressed pay no custom, and the whites double custom, it being a merchandise prohibited and only licentiate. This continueth in life and fame the work desired, and will have popular applause. But I do confess I did ever think, that trading in companies is most agree- A Letter to sir george Villiers, TOUCHING

able to the English nature, which wanteth that sane general vein of a republic, which runneth in the Dutch; and serveth to them instead of a

so that now I have no greater ambition than this;
that as the king showeth himself to you the best
In which wish and vow, I shall ever rest,
master, so I might be found your best servant.
Most devoted and affectionate to obey
your commands.


SIR, The time is, as I should think, now or never, for his majesty to finish his good meaning

towards me; if it please him to consider what is received in your presence. I then told his mapast, and what is to come.

If I would tender my profit, and oblige men unto me by my place and practice, I could have more profit than I could devise, and could oblige all the world and offend none; which is a brave condition for a man's private. But my heart is not on these things. Yet, on the other side, I would be sorry that worthless persons should make a note that I get nothing but pains and enemies; and a little popular reputation, which followeth me whether I will or no. If any thing be to be done for yourself, I should take infinite contentment, that my honour might wait upon yours: But I would be loath it should wait upon

jesty my memory was not able to keep way with
his, and therefore his majesty will pardon me for
any omission or errors, and be pleased to supply
and reform the same. I am preparing some other
materials for his majesty's excellent hand con-
cerning business that is coming on. For since
his majesty hath renewed my heart within me.
methinks I should double my endeavours.
ever preserve and prosper you. I rest
Your most devoted,


and bounden servant.

JUNE 12, 1616.

any man's else. If you would put your strength A LETTER TO SIR GEORGE Villiers, for the to this business it is done; and that done many things more will begin. God keep you ever; I rest,

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SIR, I do think you may do yourself honour, and (that which is more) do a good work, if you will assist and perfect a motion begun (and that upon a good ground, both of submission and conformity) for the restoring of Doctor Burgis to preach; and I wish, likewise, that if Gray's-Inn should think good (after he is free from the state) to choose him for their preacher, his majesty should not be against it; for certainly we should watch him well if he should fly forth; so as he cannot be placed in a more safe auditory. This may seem a trifle, but I do assure you, I do scarce know a particular wherein you may open more honest mouths to speak honour of you than this. And I do extremely desire there may be a full cry from all sorts of people (especially the best) to speak and to trumpet out your commendations. I pray you take it to heart, and do somewhat in it. I rest

Your devoted and bounden servant.

SIR,—The king giveth me a noble choice, and you are the man my heart ever told me you were. Ambition would draw me to the latter part of the choice; but in respect of my hearty wishes that my lord chancellor may live long, and the small hopes I have, that I shall live long myself, and above all, because I see his majesty's service daily and instantly bleedeth; towards which I persuade myself (vainly, perhaps, but yet in mine own thoughts firmly and constantly) that I shall give, when I am of the table, some effectual furtherance, (as a poor thread of the labyrinth, which hath no other virtue but a united continuance, without interruption or distraction,) I do accept A LETTER TO THE king, touching SIR GEORGE of the former, to be councillor for the present, and to give over pleading at bar: let the other matter rest upon my proof and his majesty's pleasure, IT MAY PLEASE YOUR MOST excellent MAJESTY, and the accidents of time. For, to speak plainly I have sent Sir George Villiers' patent, drawn I would be loath that my lord chancellor, to again, containing also a barony; the name whom I owe most after the king and yourself, Bletchley is his own, and to my thinking, soundshould be locked to his successor for any advance-eth better than Whaddon. I have included both ment or gracing of me. So I ever remain

Your true, and most devoted,

and obliged servant.


SIR,-I send his majesty a draught of the act of council, concerning the judges' letter; penned - near as I could to his majesty's instructions VOL. III.-7


in one patent, to avoid a double preface, and as hath been used in the patents of earls of like nature; nevertheless, the ceremony of robing, and otherwise, is to be double, as is also used in like cases of earls.

It resteth that I express unto your majesty my great joy in your honouring and advancing this gentleman; whom to describe, not with colours, but with true lines, I may say this; your majesty certainly hath found out and chosen a safe nature, a capable man, an honest will, generous and noble affections, and a courage well lodged; and one, that I know, loveth your majesty


Your true and most devoted servant.

unfeignedly; and admireth you as much as is in a I shall never, whilst I breathe, alter mine own man to admire his sovereign upon earth. Only style in being your majesty's school (wherein he hath already so well profited as in this entrance upon the stage, being the time of greatest danger, he hath not committed any manifest error) will add perfection to your majesty's comfort, and the great THE LORD KEEPER'S LETTER TO THE UNIVER contentment of your people. God ever preserve and prosper your majesty. I rest, in all humble


Your majesty's most bounden and most
devoted subject and servant.



MY LORD,-I am debtor to you of your letters,
and of the time likewise that I have taken to
answer them; but as soon as I could choose
what to think on, I thought good to let you

SENDING OF HIS patent for the CREATION know, that although you may err much in your


SIR,—I took much contentment in that I perceive by your letter that you took in so good part the freedom of my advice, and that yourself in

your own nature consented therewith. Certainly, no service is comparable to good counsel; and the reason is, because no man can do so much for another as a man may do for himself; now good counsel helpeth a man to help himself, but you have so happy a master as supplieth all; my service and good will shall not be wanting.

valuation of me, yet you shall not be deceived in your assurance; and for the other part also, though the manner be to mend the picture by the life, yet I would be glad to mend the life by the picture, and to become, and be, as you express

me to be. Your gratulations shall be no more welcome to me than your business or occasions, which I will attend; and yet not so but that I shall endeavour to prevent them by my care of your good. And so I commend you to God's


Your most loving and assured friend and son,
Gorhambury, April 12, 1617.

It was graciously and kindly done also of his majesty towards me to tell you that you were beholding to me; but it must be then, for thinking of you as I do; for otherwise, for speaking as I think, it is but the part of an honest man. I send you your patent, whereof God give you joy: A LETTER OF KING JAMES, WRITTEN TO HIS and I send you here enclosed a little note of remembrance for that part of the ceremony which concerneth the patent; for, as for other ceremo. nies, I leave to others.

My lord chancellor despatched your patent presently upon the receipt; and wrote to me how glad he was of it, and how well he wished you. If you write to him a few words of thanks, I think you shall do well. God keep you, and prosper you.

Your true and most devoted servant.



SIR,-I am more and more bound unto his majesty, who, I think, knowing me to have other ends than ambition, is contented to make me judge of mine own desires. I am now beating my brains, (amongst many cares of his majesty's business) touching the redeeming of time in this business of cloth. The great question is, how to miss, or how to mate the Flemings; how to pass by them, or how to pass over them.


MY LORD, I have received your letter, and your book; than the which you could not have sent a more acceptable present unto me. How thankful I am for it cannot better be expressed by me than by a firm resolution I have taken; first, to read it through with care and attention, though I should steal some hours from my sleep, having otherwise as little spare time to read it as you had to write it. And then, to use the liberty of a true friend in not sparing to ask you the question in any point where I shall stand in doubt; "Nam ejus est explicare cujus est condere;" as, on the other part, I will willingly give a due commendation to such places as in my opinion shall deserve it. In the mean time, I can with comfort assure you, that you could not have made choice of a subject more befitting your place, and your universal methodic knowledge; and in the general, I have already observed, that you jump with me in taking the midway between the two extremes; as also in some particulars 1 have found that you agree fully with my opinion.

In my next letter 1 shall alter your style; but And so, praying God to give your work as good

October 16, 1620.




success as your heart can wish, and your labours mend your lordship as Xenophon commended the deserve, I bid you heartily farewell. state of his country, which was this: that having chosen the worst form of government of all others, they governed the best in that kind. "Hoc pace et veniâ tuâ," according to my charter. Now, as your lordship is my witness that I would not trouble you whilst your own cause was in hand, (though that I know that the further from the term the better the time was to deal for me,) so, that being concluded, I presume I shall be one of your next cares., And having communicated with my brother of some course either to perfit the first, or to make me some other way; or rather, by seeming to make me some other way, to perfit the first, wherewith he agreed to acquaint your lordship; I am desirous, for mine own better satisfaction, to speak with your lordship myself, which I had rather were somewhere else than at court; and as soon as your lordship will assign me to wait on you. And so, in, etc.

I may perceive, by my Lord Keeper, that your lordship, as the time served, signified unto him an intention to confer with his lordship at better opportunity; which in regard of your several and weighty occasions I have thought good to put your lordship in remembrance of; that now at his coming to the court it may be executed; desiring your good lordship, nevertheless, not to conceive out of this my diligence in soliciting this matter, that I am either much in appetite or much in hope. For, as for appetite, the waters of Parnassus are not like the waters of the Spa, that give a stomach, but rather they quench appetite and desires; and for hope, how can he hope much that can allege no other reason than the reason of an evil debtor, who will persuade his creditor to lend him new sums, and to enter further in with him to make him satisfy the old? And, to her majesty, no other reason but the reason of a waterman; I am her first man of those who serve in counsel of law. And so I commit your lordship to God's best preservation.


MY LORD,-Conceiving that your lordship came now up in the person of a good servant to see your sovereign mistress; which kind of compliments are many times "instar magnorum meritorum ;" and therefore that it would be hard for me to find you, I have committed to this poor paper the humble salutations of him that is more yours than any man's; and more yours than any man. To these salutations I add a due and joyful gratulation, confessing that your lordship, in your last conference with me before your journey, spake not in vain, God making it good, that you trusted we should say, "quis putasset?" Which, as it is found true in a happy sense, so I wish you do not find another "quis putasset," in the manner of taking this so great a service; but I hope it is as he said, “nubecula est citò transibit;" and that your lordship's wisdom and obsequious circumspection and patience will turn all to the best. So, referring all to some time that I may attend you, I commit you to God's best preservation.


SIR,-Your honour knoweth my manner is, though it be not the wisest way, yet taking it for the honestest, to do as Alexander did by his physician in drinking the medicine and delivering the advertisement of suspicion; so I trust on and yet do not smother what I hear. I do assure you, sir, that by a wise friend of mine, and not factious toward your honour, I was told with asseveration, that your honour was bought by Mr. Coventry, for 2000 angels; and that you wrought in a contrary spirit to my lord your father. And he said further, that from your servants, from your lady, from some counsellors that have observed you in my business, he knew you wrought underhand against me. The truth of which tale I do not believe; you know the event will show, and God will right. But as I reject this report, (though the strangeness of my case might make me credulous,) so I admit a conceit that the last! messenger my lord and yourself used, dealt ill with your honours; and that word (speculation) which was in the queen's mouth rebounded from him as a commendation, for I am not ignorant of those little arts. Therefore, I pray, trust not him again in my matter. This was much to write, but I think my fortune will set me at liberty, who am weary of asserviling myself to every man's charity. Thus I, etc.


MY LORD, I am glad your lordship hath plunged out of your own business; wherein I must com


SIR,-Your good promises sleep, which it may seem now no time to awake, but that I do not find that any general calendar of observation of time serveth for the court; and, besides, if that be

done which I hope by this time is done, and that | find you conceive of me for the obtaining of a other matter shall be done which we wish may De done, I hope to my poor matter, the one of these great matters may clear the way and the other give the occasion. And though my lord treasurer be absent, whose health, nevertheless, will enable him to be sooner at court than is expected; especially if this hard weather (too hard to continue) shall relent; yet we abroad say, his lordship's spirit may be there though his person be away. Once I take for a good ground that her majesty's business ought to keep neither vacation nor holiday, either in the execution or in the care and preparation of those whom her majesty calleth and useth; and, therefore, I would think no time barred from remembering that with such discretion and respect as appertaineth. The conclusion shall be to put you in mind to maintain that which you have kindly begun, according to the reliance I have upon the sincerity of your affection and the soundness of your judgment. And so I commend you to God's preservation.



I am very sorry her majesty should take my motion to travail in offence; but surely, under her majesty's royal correction, it is such an offence as it should be an offence to the sun, when a man to avoid the scorching heat thereof flieth into the shade. And your lordship may easily think, that having now these twenty years (for so long it is, and more, since I went with Sir Amyas Paulett into France, from her majesty's royal hand) I made her majesty's service the scope of my life: I shall never find a greater grief than this, "relinquere amorem primum." But since "principia actionum sunt tantum in nostra potestate;" I hope her majesty of her clemency, yea, and justice, will pardon me, and not force me to pine here with melancholy. For though mine heart be good, yet mine eyes will be sore, so as I shall have no pleasure to look abroad, and if I should otherwise be affected, her majesty in her wisdom will think me an impudent man that would face out a disgrace; therefore, as I have ever found you my good lord and true friend, so I pray open the matter so to her majesty, as she may discern the necessity of it, without adding hard conceit to her rejection; of which I am sure the latter I never deserved. Thus, etc.



I am to give you humble thanks for your favourable opinion, which by Mr. Secretary's report I

good place which some of my honourable friends have wished unto me, "nec opinanti." I will use no reason to persuade your lordship's mediation but this, that your lordship and my other friends shall in this beg my life of the queen; for I see well the bar will be my bier, as I must and will use it rather than my poor estate of reputation shall decay; but I stand indifferent whether God call me or her majesty. Had I that in possession which by your lordship's only means against the greatest opposition her majesty granted me, I would never trouble her majesty, but serve her still voluntarily without pay. Neither do I in this more than obey my friends' conceits as one that would not be wholly wanting to myself. Your lordship's good opinion doth somewhat confirm me, as that I take comfort in above all others; assuring your lordship that I never thought so well of myself for any one thing as that I have found a fitness to my thinking in myself to observe and revere your virtues; for the continuance whereof in the prolonging of your days I will still be your beadsman; accordingly, at this time, commend your lordship to the divine protection.


SIR, I understand of your pains to have visited me, for which I thank you. My matter is an endless question. I assure you, I had said, “requiesce anima mea;" but now I am otherwise put to my psalter, "nolite confidere," I dare go no farther. Her majesty had by set speech more than once assured me of her intention to call me to her service; which I could not understand but of the place I had been named to. And now, whether "invidus homo hoc fecit," or whether my matter must be an appendix to my Lord of Essex's suit, or whether her majesty, pretending to prove my ability, meaneth but to take advantage of some errors, which, like enough, at one time or other I may commit, or what it is, but her majesty is not ready to despatch it. And what though the master of the rolls and my Lord of Essex, and yourself and others think my case without doubt, yet, in the mean time I have a hard condition to stand so, that whatsoever service I do to her majesty, it shall be thought to be but "servitium viscatum," lime-twigs and fetches to place myself; and so I shall have envy, not thanks. This is a course to quench all good spirits, and to corrupt every man's nature; which will, I fear, much hurt her majesty's service in the end. I have been like a piece of stuff bespoken in the shop: and if her majesty will not take me, it may be the selling by parcels will be more gainful. For to be, as I told you, like a child following a bird, which, when he is nearest, flieth away and lighteth a little before,

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