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were good for lengthening of life; such were though this secret be wholly suppressed. Now, those of Democritus, Philolaus, Xenophanes, the if the body of gold could be opened with these astrologians and stoics. Also those which had corrosive waters, or by these corrosive waters no profound speculation in them, but discoursed (so the venemous quality were wanting) well calmly on both sides, out of common sense and washed, we conceive it would be no unprofitable the received opinions, without any sharp inquisi- medicine. tions, were likewise good ; such were those of 2. Pearls are taken either in a fine powder, or Carneades and the academics, also of the rhetori- in a certain mass or dissolution, by the juice of cians and grammarians. But, contrary, philo- four and new lemons, and they are given somesophies conversant in perplexing subtilties, and times in aromatical confections, sometimes in which pronounced peremptorily, and which exa- liquor. The pearl, no doubt, hath some affinity mined and wrested all things to the scale of prin- with the shell in which it groweth, and may be ciples. Lastly, which were thorny and narrow of the same quality with the shells of crawfishes. were evil; such were those commonly of the peri- 3. Amongst the transparent precious stones, patetics, and of the schoolmen.
two only are accounted cordial, the emerald and 49. The country life also is well fitted for long the jacinth, which are given under the same forms 'life; it is much abroad, and in the open air; it is that the pearls are; save only, that the dissolunot slothful, but ever in employment; it feedeth tions of them, as far as we know, are not in use. upon fresh cates, and unbought; it is without But we suspect these glassy jewels, lest they cares and envy.
should be cutting. 50. For the military life, we have a good opinion Of these which we have mentioned, how far of that whilst a man is young. Certainly many and in what manner they are helpful, shall be excellent warriors have been long-lived ; Corvi- spoken hereafter. nus, Camillus, Xenophon, Agesilaus, with others, 4. Bezoar stone is of approved virtue for reboth ancient and modern. No doubt it furthereth freshing the spirits and procuring a gentle sweat. long life, to have all things from our youth to our As for the unicorn's horn, it hath lost the credit elder age mend, and grow to the better, that a with us; yet so as it may keep rank with hartsyouth full of crosses may minister sweetness to horn, and the bone in the heart of a hart, and our old age. We conceive also, that military ivory, and such like. affections, inflamed with a desire of fighting, and Ambergris is one of the best to appease and hope of victory, do infuse such a heat into the comfort the spirits. spirits, as may be profitable for long life.
5. Hereafter, follow the names only of the
simple cordials, seeing their virtues are suffiMedicines for Long Life.
Hot.--Saffron, folium indum, lignum aloes, The art of physic, which we now have, looks citron pill or rind, balm, basil, clove-gilly flowers, no further commonly than to conservation of orange flowers, rosemary, mint, betony, carduus health, and cure of diseases. As for those things benedictus. which tend properly to long life, there is but Cold.-Nitre, roses, violets, strawberry leaves, slight mention, and by the way only. Notwith strawberries, juice of sweet lemons, juice of standing, we will propound those medicines sweet oranges, juice of pearmains, borage, buwhich are notable in this kind, I mean those gloss, burnet, sanders, camphire. which are cordials. For it is consonant to reason, Seeing our speech now is of those things which that those things which being taken in cures do may be transferred into diet, all hot waters and defend and fortify the heart, or, more truly, the chymical oils, (which, as a certain trifler saith, spirits, against poisons and diseases being trans- are under the planet Mars, and have a furious ferred with judgment and choice into diet, should and destructive force,) as, also, all hot and biting have a good effect, in some sort, towards the pro- spices are to be rejected, and a consideration to longing of life. This we will do, not heaping be had how waters and liquors may be made of :hem promiscuously together, (as the manner is,) the former simples; not those phlegmatic distilled but selecting the best.
waters, nor again those burning waters or spirits 1. Gold is given in three forms, either in that of wine, but such as may be more temperate, and which they call aurum potabile, or in wine yet lively, and sending forth a benign vapour. wherein gold liath been quenched, or in gold in 6. I make some question touching the frequent the substance, such as are leaf-gold, and the letting of blood, whether it conduceth to long fiiings of gold. As for aurum potabile, it is life or not; and I am rather in the opinion that it used to be given in desperate or dangerous dis- doth, if it be turned into a habit, and other things cases, and that not without good success. But be well disposed, for it letteth out the old juice we suppose that the spirits of the salt, by which of the body and bringeth in new. the gold is dissolved, do rather minister that vir- I suppose also, that some emaciating diseases, tue which is found in it, than the gold itself, well cured, do profit to long life, for they yield
To the tenth article.
new juice, the old being consumed, and as (he prehensions. But mine intentions do both come saith) to recover a sickness, is to renew youth. home to the matter, and are far from vain and Therefore it were good to make some artificial credulous imaginations; being also such, as ] diseases, which is done by strict and emaciating conceive, posterity may add much to the matters diets, of which I shall speak hereafter.
which satisfy these intentions; but to the intentions themselves, but a little. Notwithstanding
there are a few things, and those of very great The Intentions.
moment, of which I would have men to be foreTo the twelfth, thirteenth, and fourteenth articles. warned. Having finished the inquisition according to First, We are of that opinion, that we esteem the subjects, as, namely, of inanimate bodies, the offices of life to be more worthy than life itself. vegetables, living creatures, man, I will come 'Therefore, if there be any thing of that kind that now nearer to the matter, and order mine inquisi- may indeed exactly answer our intentions, yet so tions by certain intentions, such as are true and that the offices and duties of life be thereby hinproper (as I am wholly persuaded,) and which dered, whatsoever it be of this kind, we reject it. are the very paths to mortal life. For in this Perhaps we may make some light mention of part, nothing that is of worth hath hitherto been some things, but we insist not upon them. For inquired, but the contemplations of men have we make no serious nor diligent discourse, either been but simple and non-proficients. For when of leading the life in caves, where the sunbeams I hear men on the one side speak of comforting and several changes of the air pierce noi, like natural heat, and the radical moisture, and of Epimenides his cave; or of perpetual baths, meats which breed good blood, such as may made of liquors prepared; or of shirts and searneither be burnt nor phleginatic, and of the cloths, so applied, that the body should be alcheering and recreating the spirits, I suppose ways, as it were, in a box; or of thick paintings them to be no bad men which speak these things; of the body, after the manner of some barbarous but none of these worketh effectually towards nations; or of an exact ordering of our life and the end. But when, on the other side, I hear diet, which aimeth only at this, and mindeth several discourses touching medicines made of nothing else but that a man live, (as was that of gold, because gold is not subject to corruption; Herodicus amongst the ancients, and of Cornarus and touching precious stones, to refresh the the Venetian in our days, but with greater modespirits by their hidden properties and lustre, and ration,) or of any such prodigy, tediousness, or that if they could be taken and retained in ves- inconvenience; but we propound such remedies sels, the balsams and quintessences of living and precepts, by which the offices of life may creatures would make men conceive a proud hope neither be deserted nor receive any great interof immortality. And that the fiesh of serpents ruptions or molestations. and harts, by a certain consent, are powerful to Secondly, On the other side, we denounce unto the renovation of life, because the one casteth his men that they will give over trifling, and not imaskin, the other his horns; (they should also have gine that so great a work as the stopping and added the flesh of eagles, because the eagle turning back the powerful course of nature can changes his bill.) And that a certain man, when be brought to pass by some morning draught, or he had found an ointment hidden under the the taking of some precious drug, but that they ground, and had anointed himself therewith from would be assured that it must needs be, that this head to foot, (excepting only the soles of his feet) is a work of labour, and consisteth of many remedid, by his anointing, live three hundred years dies, and a fit connexion of them amongst themwithout any disease, save only some tumours in selves; for no man can be so stupid as to imagine the soles of his feet. And of Artesius, who, that what was never yet done can be done, but when he found his spirit ready to depart, drew by such ways as were never yet attempted. into his body the spirit of a certain young man, Thirdly, We ingeniously profess that some of and thereby made him breathless, but himself those things which we shall propound, have not lived many years by another man's spirit. And been tried by us by way of experiment, (for our of fortunate hours, according to the figures of course of life doth not permit that,) but are deheaven, in which medicines are to be gathered rived (as we suppose) upon good reasons, out of and compounded for the prolongation of life ; and our principles and grounds, (of which some we of the seals of planets, by which virtues may be set down, others we reserve in our mind,) and drawn and fetched down from heaven to prolong are, as it were, cut and digged out of the rock life; and such like fabulous and superstitious and mine of nature herself. Nevertheless, we vanities. I wonder exceedingly that men should have been careful, and that with all providence
, so much dote as to suffer themselves to be deluded and circumspection, (seeing the Scripture saith of with these things. And, again, I do pity man- the body of man, that it is more worth than raikind that they should have the hard fortune to be ment,) to propound such remedies as may at least besieged with such frivolous and senseless ap- be safe, if peradventure they be not fruitful.
Fourthly, We would have men rightly to ob-| I. The Operation upon the Spirits, rhal they may serve and distinguish that those things which are
remain youthful, and renew their Vigour. good for a healthful life, are not always good for a long life; for there are some things which do
The bistory. further the alacrity of the spirits, and the strength 1. The spirits are the master workmen of all and vigour of the functions, which, notwithstand- effects in the body. This is manifest by consent, ing, do cut off from the sum of life: and there and by infinite instances. are other things which are profitable to prolonga- 2. If any man could procure that a young tion of life, which, are not withont some peril of man's spirit could be conveyed into an old man's health, unless this matter be salved by fit reme- body, it is not unlikely but this great wheel of dies; of which, notwithstanding, as occasion shall the spirits might turn about the lesser wheels of be offered, we will not omit to give some cautions the parts, and so the course of nature become and monitions.
retrograde. Lastly, We have thought good to propound 3. In every consumption, whether it be by fire sundry remedies according to the several inten- or by age, the more the spirit of the body, or the tions, but the choice of those remedies, and the heat, preyeth upon the moisture, the lesser is the order of them, to leave to discretion; for to set duration of that thing. This occurs everywhere, down exactly which of them agreeth best, with and is manifest. which constitution of body, which with the 4. The spirits are to be put into such a temseveral courses of life, which with each man's perament and degree of activity, that they should particular age, and how they are to be taken one not (as he saith) drink and guzzle the juices of after another, and how the whole practique of the body, but sip them only. these things is to be administered and governed, 5. There are two kinds of flames, the one eager would be too long, neither is it fit to be pub- and weak, which consumes slight substances, but lished.
hath little power over the harder, as the fiame of In the topics we propounded three intentions; straw or small sticks: the other strong and conthe prohibiting of consumption, the perfecting of stant, which converts hard and obstinate subreparation, and the renewing of oldness. But stances; as the flame of hard wood, and such seeing those things which shall be said are no- like. thing less than words, we will deduce these three 6. The eager flames, and yet less robust, do dry intentions to ten operations.
bodies, and render them exhaust and sapless; 1. The first is the operation upon the spirits, but the stronger flames do intenerate and melt that they may renew their vigour.
them. 2. The second operation is upon the exclusion 7. Also in dissipating medicines, some vapour of the air.
forth the thin part of the tumours or swellings, 3. The third operation is upon the blood, and and these harden the tumour; others potently disthe sanguifying heat.
cuss, and these soften it. 4. The fourth operation is upon the juices of 8. Also in purging and absterging medicines, the body.
some carry away the fluid humours violently, 5. The fifth operation is upon the bowels, for others draw the more obstinate and viscous. their extrusion of aliment.
9. The spirits ought to be invested and armed 6. The sixth operation is upon the outer parts, with such a heat, that they may choose rather to for their attraction of aliment.
stir and undermine hard and obstinate matters, 7 The seventh operation is upon the aliment than to discharge and carry away the thin and itself, for the insinuation thereof.
prepared : for by that means the body becomes 8. The eighth operation is upon the last act of green and solid. assimilation.
10. The spirits are so to be wrought and temper9. The ninth operation is upon the inteneration ed, that they may be in substance dense, not rare; of the parts, after they begin to be dried. in heat strong, not eager; in quantity sufficient for
10. The tenth operation is upon the purging the offices of life, not redundant or turgid ; in moaway of old juice, and supplying of new juice. tion appeased, not dancing or unequal.
Of these operations, the four first belong to 11. That vapours work powerfully upon the the first intention, the four next to the second spirits it is manifest by sleep, by drunkenness, intention, and the two last to the third inten- by melancholic passions, by letificant medicines, tion.
by odours, calling the spirits back again in swoonBut because this part touching the intentions ings and faintings. doth tend to practice, under the name of history, 12. The spirits are condensed four ways; either we will not only comprise experiments and obser- by putting them to flight, or by refrigerating and vations, but also counsels, remedies, explications cooling them, or by stroking them, or by quieting of causes, assumptions, and whatsoever hath re- them. And first of their condensation, by putting ference hereunto.
them to flight.
13. Whatsoever putteth to flight on all parts little sharpen them both in their courage and in driveth the body into his centre, and so con- their wits; notwithstanding, if it be taken in a denseth.
large quantity, it affects and disturbs the mind; 14. To the condensation of the spirits by whereby it is manifest, that it is of the same flight, the most powerful and effectual is opium, nature with opiates. and next opiates, and generally all soporiferous 26. There is a root much renowned in all the things.
eastern parts which they call betel, which the In15. The force of opium to the condensation of dians and others use to carry in their mouths, and the spirits is exceeding strong, when as perhaps to champ it, and by that champing they are wonthree grains thereof will in a short time so coagu- derfully enabled both to endure labours, and to late the spirits, that they return no more, but are overcome sicknesses, and to the act of carnal extinguished, and become immovable.
copulation: it seems to be a kind of stupefactive, 16. Opium, and the like, put not the spirits to because it exceedingly blacks the teeth. flight by their coldness, for they have parts mani- 27. Tobacco in our age is immoderately grown festly hot, but on the contrary cool by their put into use, and it affects men with a secret kind of ting the spirits to flight.
delight, insomuch that they who have once inured 17. The Night of the spirits by opium and opi- themselves unto it, can hardly afterwards leave ate medicines is best seen by applying the same it; and no doubt it hath power to lighten the outwardly, for the spirits straight withdraw them- body, and to shake off weariness. Now, the selves, and will return no more, but the part is virtue of it is commonly thought to be, because it mortified, and turns to a gangrene.
opens the passages, and voids humours; but it 18. Opiates in grievous pains, as in the stone, may more rightly be referred to the condensation or the cutting off of a limb, mitigate pains most of the spirits, for it is a kind of henbane, and mani. of all, by putting the spirits to fight.
festly troubles the head as opiates do. 19. Opiates obtain a good effect from a bad 28. There are sometimes humours engendered cause; for the flight of the spirits is evil, but the in the body, which are as it were opiate them. condensation of them through their flight is good. selves; as it is in some kind of melancholies,
20. The Grecians attributed much both for with which if a man be affected it is a sign of very health and for prolongation of life, as opiates, but long life. the Arabians much more, insomuch that their 29. The simple opiates (which are also called grand medicines (which they called the god's stupefactives) are these; opium itself, which is hands) had opium for their basis and principal the juice of poppy, both the poppies as well in the ingredient, other things being mixed to abate and herb as in the seed, henbane, mandrake, hemlock, correct the noxious qualities thereof; such were tobacco, nightshade. treacle, mithridate, and the rest.
30. The compound opiates are, treacle, mithri. 21. Whatsoever is given with good success in date, trifera, laudanum, paracelsi, diaconium, diathe curing of pestilential and malignant diseases, scordium, philonium, pills of houndstongue. to stop and bridle the spirits, lest they grow tur- 31. From this which hath been said, certain bulent and tumultuous, may very happily be designations or counsels may be deduced for the transferred to the prolongation of life ; for one prolongation of life, according to the present inthing is effectual unto both, namely, the conden- tention, namely, of condensing the spirits by sation of the spirits: now, there is nothing better opiates. for that than opiates.
32. Let there be, therefore, every year, from 22. The 'Turks find opium, even in a reasonable adult years of youth, an opiate diet; let it be taken good quantity, harmless and comfortable, inso- about the end of May, because the spirits in the much that they take it before their battle to excite summer are more loose and attenuated, and there courage; but to us, unless it be in a very small are less dangers from cold humours; let it be quantity, and with good correctives, it is mortal. some magistral opiate, weaker than those that are
23. Opium and opiates are manifestly found to commonly in use, both in respect of a smaller excite Venus; which shows them to have force to quantity of opium, and of a more sparing mixture corroborate the spirits.
of extreme hot things; let it be taken in the morn21. Distilled water out of wild poppy is given ing betwixt sleeps. The fare for that time would with good success in surseits, agues, and divers be more simple and sparing than ordinary, withdiseases; which, no doubt, is a temperate kind out wine, or spices, or vaporous things. This of opiate. Neither let any man wonder at the medicine to be taken only each other day, and to various use of it, for that is familiar to opiates, in be continued for a fortnight. This designation regard that the spirits, corroborated and con- in our judgment comes home to the intention. densed, will rise up against any disease.
33. Opiates also may be taken not only by the 25. 'The Turks use a kind of herb which they mouth, but also by fumes; but the fumes must bo call caphe, which they dry and powder, and then such as may not move the expulsive faculty too drink in warm water, which they say doth not a strongly, nor force down humours, but only taken in a weft, may work upon the spirits within the the tops of dry mountains, or in champaigns open brain. And, therefore, a suffumigation of tobacco, to the wind, and yet not without some shade. lignum aloes, rosemary leaves dried, and a little 41. As for the refrigeration and condensation myrrh snuffed up in the morning at the mouth and of the spirits by vapours, the root of this operanostrils, would be very good.
tion we place in nitre, as a creature purposely 34. In grand opiates, such as are treacle, made and chosen for this end, being thereunto led mithridate, and the rest, it would not be amiss and persuaded by these arguments. (especially in youth) to take rather the distilled 42. Nitre is a kind of cool spice; this is appa. waters of them, than themselves in their bodies ; rent to the sense itself, for it bites the tongue and for the vapour in distilling doth rise, but the heat palate with cold, as spices do with heat, and it is of the medicine commonly settleth. Now, dis- the only thing, as far as we know, that hath this tilled waters are good in those virtues which are property. conveyed by vapours, in other things but weak. 43. Almost all cold things (which are cold pro
35. There are medicines which have a certain perly and not by accident, as opium is) are poor weak and hidden degree, and therefore safe to an and jejune of spirit; contrarily, things full of spiopiate virtue; these send forth a slow and copious rit are almost all hot, only nitre is found amongst vapour, but not malignant as opiates do; there- vegetables, which aboundeth with spirit and yet fore they put not the spirits to flight, notwithstand is cold. As for camphire, which is full of spirit, ing they congregate them, and somewhat thicken and yet performeth the actions of cold, it cooleth them.
by accident only, as namely, for that by the thin36. Medicines, in order to opiates, are princi- ness thereof, without acrimony, it helpeth perspipally saffron, next folium indum, ambergris, ration and inflammations. coriander seed prepared, amomum, pseuda mo- 44. In congealing and freezing of liquors mum, lignum rhodium, orange-flower water, and (which is lately grown into use) by laying snow much more the infusion of the same flowers new and ice on the outside of the vessel, nitre is also gathered in the oil of almonds, nutmegs pricked added, and no doubt it exciteth and fortifieth the full of holes and macerated in rosewater. congelation. It is true, that they use also for this
37. As opiates are to be taken very sparingly, work ordinary bay-salt, which doth rather give and at certain times, as was said, so these second- activity to the coldness of the snow, than cool by aries may be taken familiarly, and in our daily itself; but, as I have heard, in the hotter regions, diet, and they will be very effectual to prolonga- where snow falls not, the congealing is wrought tion of life. Certainly an apothecary of Calecute, by nitre alone; but this I cannot certainly affirm. by the use of amber, is said to have lived a hun- 45. It is affirmed that gunpowder, which condred and sixty years, and the noblemen of Bar- sisteth principally of nitre, being taken in drink bary through the use thereof are certified to be doth conduce to valour, and that it is used oftenvery long-lived, whereas the mean people are but times by mariners and soldiers before they begin of short life. And our ancestors, who were their battles, as the Turks do opium. longer lived than we, did use saffron much in 46. Nitre is given with good success in burntheir cakes, broths, and the like. And touching ing agues, and pestilential fevers, to mitigate and the first way of condensing the spirits of opiates, bridle their pernicious heats. and the subordinates thereto, thus much.
47. It is manifest, that nitre in gunpowder doth 38. Now we will inquire of the second way of mightily abhor the flame, from whence is caused condensing the spirits by cold, for the proper that horrible crack and puffing. work of cold is condensation, and it is done with- 48. Nitre is found to be, as it were, the spirit out any malignity, or adverse quality; and there of the earth; for this is most certain, that any fore it is a safer operation than by opiates, though earth, though pure and unmixed with nitrous matsomewhat less powerful, if it be done by turns ter, if it be so laid up and covered, that it be free only as opiates are. But then again, because it from the sunbeams, and putteth forth no vegetable, may be used familiarly, and in our daily diet will gather nitre, even in good abundance. By with moderation, it is much more powerful for which it is clear, that the spirit of nitre is not only the prolongation of life than by opiates.
inferior to the spirit of living creatures, but also to 39. The refrigeration of the spirits is effected the spirit of vegetables. three ways, either by respiration, or by vapours, 49. Cattle, which drink of nitrous water, do or by aliment. The first is the best, but, in a manifestly grow fat, which is a sign of the cold in sort, out of our power; the second is potent, but nitre. vet ready and at hand; the third is weak and 50. The manuring of the soil is chiefly by somewhat about.
nitrous substances; for all dung is nitrous, and 40. Air clear and pure, and which hath no fog- this is a sign of the spirit in nitre. giness in it before it be received into the lungs, 51. From hence it appears, that the spirits of und which is least exposed to the sunbeams, con- man may be cooled and condensed by the spirit denseth the spirits best. Such is found either on of nitre, and be made more crude and less eager.