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years of age; a man devout and contemplative, kings in Italy, the father and the son, are reported though not untit for civil affairs; his life was aus- to have lived, the one eight hundred, the other tere and mortifying, notwithstanding he lived in a six hundred years; but this is delivered unto us kind of glorious solitude, and exercised a com- by certain philologists, who, though otherwise mand, for he had his monks under him. And, credulous enough, yet themselves have suspected besides, many Christians and philosophers came the truth of this matter, or rather condemned it. to visit him as a living image, from which they Others record some Arcadian kings to have lived parted not without some adoration. St. Athanasius three hundred years; the country, no doubt, is a exceeded the term of eighty years; a man of an place apt for long life, but the relation I suspect

I invincible constancy, commanding fame, and not to be fabulous. They tell of one Dando, in Illyyielding to fortune. He was free towards the rium, that lived without the inconveniences of great ones, with the people gracious and accept- old age, to five hundred years. They tell, also, able, beaten and practised to oppositions, and in of the Epians, a part of Ætolia, that the whole delivering himself from them, stout and wise. nation of them were exceeding long-lived, insoSt. Hierom, by the consent of most writers, ex- much that many of them were two hundred years ceeded ninety years of age; a man powerful in his old; and that one principal man amongst them, pen, and of a manly eloquence, variously learned named Litorius, a man of giantlike stature, could both in the tongues and sciences; also a traveller, have told three hundred years. It is recorded, and that lived strictly towards his old age, in an that on the top of the mountain Timolus, anestate private, and not dignified; he bore high ciently called Tempsis, many of the inhabitants spirits, and shined far out of obscurity.

lived to a hundred and fifty years. We read 18. The Popes of Rome are in number, to this that the Esseans, amongst the Jews, did usually day, two hundred, forty, and one. Of so great extend their life to a hundred years. Now, that a number, five only have attained to the age of sect used a single or abstemious diet, after the foorscore years or upwards. But, in many of rule of Pythagoras. Apollonius Tyaneus exthe first popes, their full age was intercepted by ceeded a hundred years, his face bewraying no the prerogative and crown of martyrdom. John, such age; he was an admirable man, of the the twenty-third Pope of Rome, fulfilled the heathens reputed to have something divine in ninetieth year of his age; a man of an unquiet him, of the Christians held for a sorcerer; in his disposition, and one that studied novelty; he diet pythagorical, a great traveller, much renownaltered many things, some to the better, others ed, and by some adored as a god; nothwithstandonly to the new, a great accumulator of riches ing, towards the end of his life, he was subject and treasures. Gregory, called the twelfth, to many complaints against him, and reproaches, created in schism, and not fully acknowledged all which he made shift to escape. But, lest his pope, died at ninety years. Of him, in respect long life should be imputed to his pythagorical of his short papacy, we find nothing to make a diet, and not rather that it was hereditary, his judgment upon. Paul, the third, lived eighty grandfather before him lived a hundred and thirty years and one; a temperate man, and of a pro- years. It is undoubted, that Quintus Metellus found wisdom; he was learned, an astrologer, lived above a hundred years; and that, after and one that tended his health carefully, but, several consulships happily administered, in his after the example of old Eli the priest, over-in- old age he was made Pontifex Maximus, and dulgent to his family. Paul the fourth attained exercised those holy duties full two-and-twenty to the age of eighty-three years; a man of a years; in the performance of which rites his harsh nature, and severe, of a haughty mind, voice never failed, nor his hand trembled. It is and imperious, prone to anger, his speech was most certain, that Appius Cæcus was very old, but eloquent and ready. Gregory the thirteenth ful- his years are not extant, the most part whereof he filled the like age of eighty-three years; an abso- passed after he was blind, yet this misfortune no lute good man, sound in mind and body, politic, whit softened him, but that he was able to govern a temperate, full of good works, and an almsgiver. numerous family, a great retinue and dependence,

19. Those that follow are to be more promis- yea, even the commonwealth itself, with great cuous in their order, more doubtful in their faith, stoutness. In his extreme old age he was brought and more barren of observation. King Argan- in a litter into the senate-house, and vehemently thenius, who reigned at Cadiz in Spain, lived a dissuaded the peace with Pyrrhus; the beginning hundred and thirty, or, as some would have it, a of his oration was very memorable, showing an inhundred and forty years, of which he reigned vincible spirit and strength of mind. “I have, eighty. Concerning his manders, institution of with great grief of mind, (Fathers Conscript,) his life, and the time wherein he reigned, there these many years borne my blindness, but now ]

a general silence. Cynirus, King of Cyprus, could wish that I were deaf also, when I hear you living in the island then termed the happy and speak to such dishonourable treaties.” Marcus pleasant island, is affirmed to have attained to a Perpenna lived ninety-eight years, surviving all hundred and fifty or sixty years. Two Latin 'those whose suffrages he had gathered in the




senate-house, being consul, I mean all the sena- treme old man, no less than a hundred and fourtors at that time, as also all those whom, a little teen years of age, which could not possibly be, after, being consul, he chose into the senate, seven it being as improbable that a decrepit old man only being excepted. Hiero, King of Sicily, in should be set over Nero's youth, as, on the conthe time of the second Punic war, lived almost a trary, it was true, that he was able to manage hundred years; a man inoderate both in his go with great dexterity the affairs of state. Besides, vernment and in his life, a worshipper of the a little before, in the midst of Claudius his reign, gods, and a religious conserver of friendship, he was banished Rome for adulteries committed liberal, and constantly fortunate. Statilia, de- with some noble ladies, which was a crime no scended of a noble family, in the days of Claudius, way compatible with so extreme old age. Jo lived ninety-nine years. Clodia, the daughter of hannes de Temporibus, among all the men of our Osilius, a hundred and fifteen. Xenophilus, an latter ages, out of a common fame and vulgar ancient philosopher, of the sect of Pythagoras, opinion, was reputed long-lived, even to a miraattained to a hundred and six years, remaining cle, or rather even to a fable; his age hath been healthful and vigorous in his old age, and famous counted above three hundred years. He was by amongst the vulgar for his learning. The island-nation a Frenchman, and followed the wars under ers of Corcyra were anciently accounted long- Charles the Great. Garcius Aretine, great-grandlived, but now they live after the rate of other father to Petrarch, arrived at the age of a hundred men. Hipocrates Cous, the famous physician, and four years; he had ever enjoyed the benefit lived a hundred and four years, and approved and of good health, besides, at the last, he felt rather credited his own art by so long a life; a man that a decay of his strength, than any sickness or coupled learning and wisdom together, very con- malady, which is the true resolution by old age. versant in experience and observation; one that Amongst the Venetians there have been found haunted not after words or methods, but served not a few long livers, and those of the more emithe very nerves of science, and so propounded nent sort. Franciscus Donatus, duke; Thomas them. Demonax, a philosopher, not only in pro- Contarerus, procurator of Saint Mark; Francisfession, but practice, lived in the days of Adrian, cus Molinus, procurator also of Saint Mark, and almost to a hundred years; a man of a high mind, others. But, most memorable, is that of Cornaand a vanquisher of his own mind, and that truly rus the Venetian, who, being in his youth of a and without affectation; a contemner of the world, sickly body, began first to eat and drink by meaand yet civil and courteous. When his friends sure to a certain weight, thereby to recover his spake to him about his burial, he said, Take no health ; this cure turned by use into a diet, that care for my burial, for stench will bury a carcass. diet to an extraordinary long life, even of a hunThey replied, Is it your mind then to be cast out dred years and better, without any decay in his to birds and dogs ? He said, again, Seeing in senses, and with a constant enjoying of his health. my lifetime I endeavoured to my uttermost to In our age, William Pestel, a Frenchman, lived benefit men, what hurt is it, if, when I am dead, to a hundred and well nigh twenty years, the top I benefit beasts? Certain Indian people, called of his beard on the upper lip being black, and Pandora, are exceeding long-lived, even to no not gray at all; a man crazed in his brain, and less than two hundred years. They had a thing of a fancy not altogether sound; a great traveller, more marvellous, that having, when they are mathematician, and somewhat stained with heboys, an air somewhat whitish, in their old age, resy. before their gray hairs, they grow coalblack, 20. I suppose there is scarce a village with us though, indeed, this be everywhere to be seen, in England, if it be any whit populous, but it that they which have white hair whilst they are affords some man or woman of fourscore years of boys, in their man's estate, change their hairs into age; nay, a few years since, there was in the a darker colour. The Seres, another people of county of Hereford a May-game, or morriceIndia, with their wine of palms, are accounted dance, consisting of eight men, whose age com. long livers, even to a hundred and thirty years. puted together made up eight hundred years ; Euphranor, the grammarian, grew old in his insomuch that what some of them wanted of a school and taught scholars when he was above a hundred, others exceeded as much. hundred years old. The elder Ovid, father to the 21. In the hospital of Bethlehem, corruptly poet, lived ninety years, differing much from the called Bedlam, in the suburbs of London, there disposition of his son, for he contemned the are found from time to time many mad persons muses, and dissuaded his son from poetry. Asi- that live to a great age. nius Pollio, intimate with Augustus, exceeded the 22. The ages of nymphs, fawns, and satyrs, age of a hundred years; a man of an unreasonable whom they make to be indeed mortal, but yet profuseness, eloquent, and a lover of learning, exceedingly long-lived, (a thing which ancient but vehement, proud, cruel, and one that made superstition, and the late credulity of some have his private ends the centre of his thoughts. admitted,) we account bat for fables and dreams, There was an opinion, that Seneca was an ex- especially being that which hath neither con


sent with philosophy, nor with divinity. And summer, and double winter, and where the days as touching the history of long life in man by and nights are more equal, (if other things be conindividuals, or next unto individuals, thus much. curring,) they live also very long, as in Peru and Now we will pass on to observations by certain Taprobane. heads.

25. Islanders are, for the most part, longer 23. The running on of ages, and succession of lived than those that live in continents; for they generations, seem to have no whit abated from live not so long in Russia as in the Orcades, nor the length of life. For we see, that from the so long in Africa, though under the same parallel, time of Moses unto these our days, the term of as in the Canaries and Terceras; and the Japoman's life hath stood about fourscore years of nians are longer lived than the Chinese, though age; neither hath it declined (as a man would the Chinese are made upon long life. And this have thought) by little and little. No doubt there thing is no marvel, seeing the air of the sea doth are times in every country wherein men are heat and cherish in cooler regions, and cool in longer or shorter lived. Longer, for the most hotter. part, when the times are barbarous, and men fare 26. High situations do rather asford long livers less deliciously, and are more given to bodily than low, especially if they be not tops of mounexercises. Shorter, when the times are more tains, but rising grounds, as to their general situacivil, and men abandon themseles to luxury and tions; such as was Arcadia in Greece, and that ease. But these things pass on by their turns, part of Ætolia, where we related them to have the succession of generations alters it not. The lived so long. Now, there would be the same reasame, no doubt, is in other living creatures, for son for mountains themselves, because of the pureneither oxen, nor horses, nor sheep, nor any ness and clearness of the air, but that they are corthe like, are abridged of their wonted ages at rupted by accident, namely, by the vapours rising this day. And, therefore, the great abridger thither out of the valleys, and resting there ; and, of age was the flood; and perhaps some such therefore, in snowy mountains there is not found notable accidents (as particular inundations, any notable long life, not in the Alps, not in the long droughts, earthquakes, or the like) may Pyrenean mountains, not in the Apennine; yet do the same again. And the like reason is in in the tops of the mountains running along tothe dimension and stature of bodies, for neither wards Æthiopia, and the Abyssines, where, by are they lessened by succession of generations; reason of the sands beneath, little or no vapour howsoever Virgil (following the vulgar opinion) riseth to the mountains; they live long, even at divined that after-ages would bring forth lesser this very day, attaining many times to a hundred bodies than the then present. Whereupon, and fifty years. speaking of ploughing up the Æmathian and 27. Marshes and fens are propitious to the naÆmmensian fields, he saith, Grandiaque effossis tives, and malignant to strangers, as touching the mirabitur ossa sepulchris, That after-ages shall lengthening and shortening of their lives; and admire the great bones digged up in ancient se- that which may seem more marvellous, salt pulchres. For whereas it is manifested, that marshes, where the sea ebbs and flows, are less there were heretofore men of gigantine statures, wholesome than those of fresh water. (such as for certain have been found in Sicily 28. The countries which have been observed and elsewhere, in ancient sepulchres and caves,) to produce long livers are these; Arcadia, Ætolia, yet within these last three thousand years, a time India on this side Ganges, Brazil, Taprobane, whereof we have sure memory, those very places Britain, Ireland, with the islands of the Orcades have produced none such, although this thing and Hebrides: for as for Æthiopia, which by one also hath certain turns and changes, by the civil- of the ancients is reported to bring forth long izing of a nation, no less than the former. And livers, it is but a toy. this is the rather to be noted, because men are 29. It is a secret; the healthfulness of air, wholly carried away with an opinion, that there especially in any perfection, is better found by is a continual decay by succession of ages, as experiment than by discourse or conjecture. You well in the term of man's life, as in the stature may make a trial by a lock of wool exposed for a and strength of his body; and that all things de- few days in the open air, if the weight be not cline and change to the worse.

much increased ; another by a piece of Aesh ex24. In cold and northern countries men live posed likewise, if it corrupt not over soon; another longer commonly than in hot, which must needs by a weatherglass, if the water interchange not be, in respect the skin is more compact and close, too suddenly. Of these, and the like, inquire and the juices of the body less dissipable, and further. the spirits themselves less eager to consume,

and 30. Not only the goodness or pureness of the in better disposition to repair, and the air (as air, but also the equality of the air, is material di being little heated by the sunbeams) less preda- long life. Intermixture of hills and dales is plea. tory. And yet, under the equinoctial line, where sant to the sight, but suspected for long life. A the sun passeth to and fro, and canseth a double plain, moderately dry, but yet not over barrer or


sandy, nor altogether without trees and shade, is at twelve or fourteen years; and if there were any very convenient for length of life.

thing eminent in the Spartans, that was rather to 31. Inequality of air (as was even now said) in be imputed to the parsimony of their diet, than to the place of our dwelling is naught; but change the late marriages of their women. But this we of air by travelling, after one be used unto it, is are taught by experience, that there are some races good, and, therefore, great travellers have been which are long-lived for a few descents, so that long lived. Also those that have lived perpetually life is like some diseases, a thing hereditary in a little cottage, in the same place, have been within certain bounds. long livers; for air accustomed consumeth less, 33. Fair in face, or skin, or hair, are shorter but air changed nourisheth and repaireth more. livers; black, or red, or freckled, longer. Also,

32. As the continuation and number of succes. too fresh a colour in youth doth less promise long sions (which we said before) makes nothing to life than paleness. A hard skin is a sign of long the length and shortness of life, so the immediate life rather than a soft; but we understand not this condition of the parents (as well the father as the of a rugged skin, such as they call the goose-skin, mother) without doubt availeth much. For some which is, as it were, spongy, but of that which is are begotten of old men, some of young men, hard and close. A forehead with deep furrows some of men of middle age. Again, some are and wrinkles is a better sign than a smcoth and begotten of fathers healthful and well disposed, plain forehead. others of diseased and languishing. Again, some 34. The hairs of the head hard, and like bristles, of fathers immediately after repletion, or when do betoken longer life than those that are soft and they are drunk; others after sleeping, or in the delicate. Curled hairs betoken the same thing, morning. Again, some after a long intermission if they be hard withal; but the contrary, if they of Venus, others upon the act repeated. Again, be soft and shining; the like if the curling be some in the fervency of the father's love, (as it is rather thick in large bunches. commonly in bastards,) others after the cooling 35. Early or late, baldness is an indifferent of it, as in long married couples. The same thing, seeing many which have been bald betimes things may be considered on the part of the mother, have lived long. Also, early gray hairs (howunto which must be added the condition of the soever they may seem forerunners of old age apmother whilst she is with child, as touching her proaching) are no sure signs, for many that have health, as touching her diet, the time of her bear-grown gray betimes, have lived to great years ; ing in the womb, to the tenth month or earlier. nay, hasty gray hairs, without baldness, is a To reduce these things to a rule, how far they token of long life; contrarily, if they be accommay concern long life, is hard ; and so much the panied with baldness. harder, for that those things which a man would 36. Hairiness of the upper parts is a sign of conceive to be the best, will fall out to the con- short life, and they that have extraordinary inuch trary. For that alacrity in the generation which hair on their breasts, live not long; but hairiness begets lusty and lively children, will be less pro- of the lower parts, as of the thighs and legs, is a fitable to long life, because of the acrimony and sign of long life. inflaming of the spirits. We said before, that to 37. Tallness of stature, (if it be not immodepartake more of the mother's blood conduceth to rate,) with convenient making, and not too slen. long life. Also we suppose all things in modera- der, especially if the body be active withal, is a tion to be best; rather conjugal love than mere- sign of long life. Also, on the contrary, men of tricious; the hour for generation to be the morn-low stature live long, if they be not too active and ing, a state of body not too lusty or full, and such stirring. like. It ought to be well observed, that a strong 38. In the proportion of the body, they which constitution in the parents, is rather good for them are short to the waists, with long legs, are longer than for the child, especially in the mother. And, lived than they which are long to the waists, and therefore, Plato thought ignorantly enough, that have short legs. Also, they which are large in the virtue of generations halted, because the the nether parts, and straight in the upper, (the woman used not the same exercise both of mind making of their body rising, as it were, into a and body with the men. The contrary is rather sharp figure,) are longer lived than they that true; for the difference of virtue betwixt the male have broad shoulders, and are slender downand the female is most profitable for the child, wards. and the thinner women yield more towards the 39. Leanness, where the affections are settled, nourishment of the child, which also holds in calm, and peaceable; also, a more fat habit of

Neither did the Spartan women, which body, joined with choler, and a disposition stirmarried not before twenty-two, or, as some say, ring and peremptory, signify long life; but cortwenty-five, (and therefore were called manlike pulency in youth foreshows short life; in age,

it women,) bring forth a more generous or long- is a thing more indifferent. Jived progeny than the Roman, or Athenian, or 40. To be long and slow in growing, is a sign Theban women did, whicn were ripe for marriage of long life; if to a greater stature, the greater




sign; if to a lesser stature, yet a sign; though, speak more exactly when we come to the inquicontrarily, to grow quickly to a great stature, is sition, according to intentions. Meanwhile that an evil sign; if to a small stature, the less evil. of Celsus, who was not only a learned physician,

41. Firm flesh, a rawbone body, and veins lay- but a wise man, is not to be omitted, who ad. ing higher than the flesh, betoken long life; the viseth interchanging and alternation of the diet, contrary to these, short life.

but still with an inclination to the more benign; 42. A head somewhat lesser than to the pro- as that a man should sometimes accustom himportion of the body, a moderate neck, not long, self to watching, sometimes to sleep, but to sleep nor slender, nor flat, nor too short; wide nostrils, oftenest. Again, that he should sometimes give whatsoever the form of the nose be; a large mouth, himself to fasting, sometimes to feasting, but to and ear gristly, not fleshy ; teeth strong and con- feasting oftenest; that he should sometimes inure tiguous, small or thin set, foretoken long life; himself to great labours of the mind, sometimes and, much more, if some new teeth put forth in to relaxations of the same, but to relaxations our elder years.

oftenest. Certainly this is without all question, 43. A broad breast, yet not bearing out, but that diet well ordered bears the greatest part in rather bending inwards;' shoulders somewhat the prolongation of life; neither did I ever meet crooked, and (as they call such persons) round- an extreme long-lived man, but being asked of backed, a flat belly, a hand large, and with few his course, he observed something peculiar; some lines in the palm; a short and round foot, thighs one thing, some another. I remember an old not fieshy, and calves of the legs not hanging man, above a hundred years of age, who was proover, but neat, are signs of long life.

duced, as witness, touching an ancient prescrip44. Eyes somewhat large, and the circles of tion. When he had finished his testimony, the them inclined to greenness; senses not too quick; judge familiarly asked him how he came to live the pulse in youth slower, towards old age quick- so long : He answered, beside expectation, and er; facility of holding the breath, and longer than not without the laughter of the hearers, By eating usual; the body in youth inclined to be bound, in before I was hungry, and drinking before I was the decline of years more laxative, are also signs dry. But of these things we shall speak hereaster. of long life.

47. A life led in religion, and in holy exercises, 45. Concerning the times of nativity, as they seemeth to conduce to long life. There are in refer to long life, nothing has been observed this kind of life these things, leisure, admiration, worthy the setting down, save only astrological and contemplation of heavenly things, joys not observations, which we rejected in our topics. A sensual, noble hopes, wholesome fears, sweet birth at the eighth month is not only long-lived, sorrows. Lastly, continual renovations by observbut not likely to live. Also, winter births are ances, penances, expiations, all which are very accounted the longer lived.

powerful to the prolongation of life. Unto which 46. A pythagorical or monastical diet, accord- | if you add that austere diet which hardeneth ing to strict rules, and always exactly equal, (as the mass of the body, and humbleth the spirits, that of Conarus was,) seemeth to be very effectual no marvel if an extraordinary length of life do for long life. Yet, on the contrary, amongst those follow; such was that of Paul, the hermit, Simeon that live freely, and after the common sort, such Stelita, the columnar anchorite, and of many other as have good stomachs and feed more plentifully, hermits and anchorites. are often the longest lived. The middle diet, 48. Next to this is the life, led in good letters, which we account the temperate, is commended, such as was that of philosophers, rhetoricians, and conduceth to good health, but not to long life; grammarians. This life is also led in leisure, for the spare diet begets few spirits, and dull, and and in those thoughts, which, seeing they are so wasteth the body less; and the liberal diet severed from the affairs of the world, bite not, yieldeth more ample nourishment, and so repair- but rather delight, through their variety and imeth more; but the middle diet doth neither of pertinency. They live also at their pleasure, both; for, where the extremes are hurtful, there spending their time in such things as like them the mean is best; but where the extremes are best, and for the most part in the company of helpful, there the mean is nothing worth. young men, which is ever the most cheerful.

Now, to that spare diet there are requisite But in philosophies there is great difference bewatching, lest the spirits, being few, should be twixt the sect3, as touching long life; for those oppressed with much sleep; litile exercise, lest philosophies which have in them a touch of they should exhale; abstinence from venery, lest superstition, and are conversant in high con. they should be exhausted; but to the liberal diet, templations, are the best, as the pythagorical and on the other side, are requisite much sleep, fre- platonic. Also those which did institute a peramquent exercises, and a seasonable use of venery. bulation of the world, and considered the variety Baths and anointings (such as were anciently in of natural things, and had reachless, and high, use) did rather tend to deliciousness, than to pro- 'and magnanimous thoughts, (as of infinitum, of longing of life. But of all these things we shall the stars, of the heroical virtues, and such like,)

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