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3. The first breeding of creatures is ever mate- lived, for it shows that nature finished her periods rial, either to their hurt or benefit. And, there- by larger circles. fore, it stands with reason, that the lesser com- 10. Milder creatures are not long-lived, as the pression, and the more liberal alimentation of the sheep and dove; for choler is as the whetstone young one in the womb, should confer much to and spur to many functions in the body. iong life. Now, this happens when either the 11. Creatures whose flesh is more duskish, young ones are brought forth successively, as in are longer lived than those that have white flesh; birds ; or when they are single birth, as in crea- for it showeth that the juice of the body is more tures bearing but one at a burden.
firm, and less apt to dissipate. 4. But long bearing in the womb makes for 12. In every corruptible body quantity maketh length of life three ways. First, for that the much to the conservation of the whole; for a young one partakes more of the substance of the great fire is longer in quenching, a small portion mother, as hath been said. Secondly, that it of water is sooner evaporated, the body of a tree comes forth more strong and able. Thirdly, that withereth not so fast as a twig. And, therefore, it undergoes the predatory force of the air later. generally, (I'speak it of species, not of indiviBesides, it shows that nature intendeth to finish duals,) creatures that are large in body are longer their periods by larger circles. Now, though lived than those that are small, unless there be oxen, and sheep, which are borne in the womb some other potent cause to hinder it. about six months, are but short-lived, that happens for other causes.
Alimentation or Nourishment; and the way of 5. Feeders upon grass and mere herbs are but
Nourishing. short livers, and creatures feeding upon flesh, or
To the fourth article. The history. seeds, or fruits, long livers, as some birds are. As for harts, which are long-lived, they take the 1. Nourishment ought to be of an inferior one-half of their meat (as men use to say) from nature, and more simple substances than the above their heads; and the goose, besides grass, thing nourished. Plants are nourished with findeth something in the water and stubble to the earth and water, living creatures with
plants, man with living creatures. There are 6. We suppose that a good clothing of the also certain creatures feeding upon flesh, and body maketh much to long life ; for it fenceth man himself takes plants into a part of his and armeth against the intemperances of the air, nourishment; but man and creatures feeding which do wonderfully assail and decay the body; upon flesh are scarcely nourished with plants which benefit birds especially have. Now, that alone; perhaps fruit or grains, baked or boiled, sheep, which have so good fleeces, should be so may, with long use, nourish them; but leaves, or short-lived, that is to be imputed to diseases, plants, or herbs, will not do it, as the order of whereof that creature is full, and to the bare eat. Foliatanes showed by experience. ing of grass.
2. Over-great affinity or consubstantiality of 7. The seat of the spirits, without doubt, is the nourishment to the thing nourished, proveth principally the head, which, though it be usually not well; creatures feeding upon herbs touch no understood of the animal spirits only, yet this is flesh; and of creatures feeding upon fiesh, few of all in all. Again, it is not to be doubted but the them eat their own kind. As for men which are spirits do most of all waste and prey upon the cannibals, they feed not ordinarily upon man's body, so that when they are either in greater flesh, but reserve it as a dainty, either to serve plenty, or in greater inflammation and acrimony, their revenge upon their enemies, or to satisfy there the life is much shortened. And, therefore, I their appetite at some times. So the ground is conceive a great cause of long life in birds to be best sown with seed growing elsewhere, and the smallness of their heads in comparison of men do not use to graft or inoculate upon the their bodies; for even men, which have very great same stock. heads, I suppose to be the shorter livers. I
3. By how much the more the nourishment is 8. I am of opinion that carriage is, of all other better prepared, and approacheth nearer in likemotions, the most helpful to long life, which I ness to the thing nourished, by so much the more also noted before. Now, there are carried water- are plants more fruitful, and living creatures in fowls upon the water, as swans; all birds in better liking and plight; for a young slip or cion their flying, but with a strong endeavour of their is not so well nourished if it be pricked into the limbs; and fishes, of the length of whose lives ground, as if it be grafted into a stock agreeing we have no certainty.
with it in nature, and where it finds the nourishi9. Those creatures which are long before they ment already digested and prepared; neither (as come to their perfection, (not speaking of growth is reported) will the seed of an onion, or some in stature only, but of other steps to maturity, as such like, sown in the bare earth, bring forth so inan puts forth, first, his teeth, next, the signs of large a fruit as if it be put into another onion, priberty, then his beard, and so forward,) are long- which is a new kind of grafting into the root or
under ground. Again, it hath been found out or some other way than by the stomach, then the lately, that a slip of a wild tree, as of an elm, weakness of concoction, which is incident to olid oak, ash, or such like, grafted into a stock of the men, might be recompensed by these helps, and same kind, will bring forth larger leaves than concoction restored to them entire. those that grow without grafting. Also men are not nourished so well with raw flesh as with that Length and Shortness of Life in Man. which hath passed the fire.
To the fish, sixth, seventh, eighth, ninth, and elevenen ar. 4. Living creatures are nourished by the mouth,
ticles The History. plants by the root, young ones in the womb by the 1. Before the food, as the sacred Scriptures navel. Birds for a while are nourished with the relate, men lived many hundred years; yet yolk in the egg, whereof some is found in their none of the fathers attained to a full thousand. crops after they are hatched.
Neither was this length of life peculiar only to 5. All nourishment moveth from the centre grace or the holy line; for there are reckoned of to the circumference, or from the inward to the the fathers, until the flood, eleven generations ; outward; yet it is to be noted, that in trees and but of the sons of Adam, by Cain, only eight plants the nourishment passeth rather by the generations; so as the posterity of Cain may bark and outward parts, than by the pith and seem the longer lived. But this length of life, inward parts; for if the bark be pulled off, though immediately after the flood, was reduced to a but for a small breadth round, they live no more; moiety, but in the postnati; for Noah, who was and the blood in the veins of living creatures born before, equalled the age of his ancestors, doth no less nourish the flesh beneath than the and Sem saw the six hundredth year of his life. flesh above it.
Afterwards, three generations being run from the 6. In all alimentation or nourishment there is flood, the life of man was brought down to a a twofold action, extusion, and attraction; where fourth part of the primitive age, that was, to of the former proceeds from the inward function, about two hundred years. the latter from the outward.
2. Abraham lived a hundred and seventy and 7. Vegetables assimilate their nourishment sim- five years; a man of a high courage, and prosperply, without excerning; for gums and tears of ous in all things. Isaac came to a hundred and trees are rather exuberances than excrements, and eighty years of age; a chaste man, and enjoying knots or knobs are nothing but diseases. But more quietness than his father. But Jacob, after the substance of living creatures is more percep- many crosses, and a numerous progeny, lasted to tible of the like; and, therefore, it is conjoined the one hundred and forty-seventh year of his life; with a kind of disdain, whereby it rejecteth the a patient, gentle, and wise man. Ismael, a milibad and assimilateth the good.
tary man, lived a hundred and thirty and seven 8. It is a strange thing of the stalks of fruits, years. Sarah (whose years only amongst women that all the nourishment which produceth some are recorded) died in the hundred and twentytimes such great fruits, should be forced to pass seventh year of her age; a beautiful and magthrough so narrow necks; for the fruit is never nanimous woman, a singular good mother and joined to the stocks without some stalk.
wife, and yet no less famous for her liberty than 9. It is to be noted, that the seeds of living obsequiousness towards her husband. Joseph, creatures will not be fruitful but when they new also, a prudent and politic man, passing his shed, but the seeds of plants will be fruitful a youth in affliction, afterwards advanced to the long time after they are gathered; yet the slips or height of honour and prosperity, lived a hundred cions of trees will not grow unless they be graft- and ten years. But his brother Levi, older than ed green, neither will the roots keep long fresh himself, attained to a hundred and thirty-seven unless they be covered with earth.
years; a man impatient of contumely and re10. In living creatures there are degrees of vengeful. Near unto the same age attained the nourishment according to their age; in the womb, son of Levi; also his grandchild, the father of the young one is nourished with the mother's Aaron and Moses. blood; when it is new-born, with milk; after- 3. Moses lived a hundred and twenty years ; a wards with meats and drinks: and in old age the stout man, and yet the meekest upon the earth most nourishing and savoury meats please best. and of a very slow tongue. Howsoever, Moses,
Above all, it maketh to the present inquisition, in his psalm, pronounceth that the life of man is to inquire diligently and attentively whether a but seventy years, and if a man have strength, man may not receive nourishment from without, then eighty ; which term of man's life standeth at least some other way besides the mouth. We firm in many particulars even at this day. Aaron, know that baths of milk are used in some hectic who was three years the older, died the same fevers, and when the body is brought extreme year with his brother; a man of a readier speech, low, and physicians do provide nourishing glis- of a more facile disposition, and less constant. ters. This matter would be well studied; for if But Phineas, grandchild of Aaron, (perhaps out nourishment may be made either from without, of extraordinary grace,) may be collected to bave
lived three hundred years ; if so be the war of the we find nothing of moment in those works that Israelites against the tribe of Benjamin (in which are extant, as touching long life; for their kings expedition Phineas consulted with) were perform- which reigned longest did not exceed fifty, or ed in the same order of time in which the history five-and-fifty years; which is no great matter, hath ranked it; he was a man of a most eminent seeing many at this day attain to those years. zeal. Joshua, a martial man and an excellent But the Arcadian kings are fabulously reported to leader, and evermore victorious, lived to the hun- have lived very long. Surely that country was dred and tenth year of his life. Caleb was his con- mountainous, full of flocks of sheep, and brought temporary, and seemeth to have been of as great forth most wholesome food, notwithstanding, years. Ebud, the judge, seems to have been no seeing Pan was their god, we may conceive that less than a hundred years old, in regard that after all things about them were panic and vain, and the victory over the Moabites, the Holy Land had subject to fables. rest under his government eighty years; he was 7. Numa, King of the Romans, lived to eighty a man fierce and undaunted, and one that in a years; a man peaceable, contemplative, and much sort neglected his life for the good of his people. devoted to religion. Marcus Valerius Corvinus
4. Job lived, after the restoration of his happi- saw a hundred years complete, there being betwixt ness, a hundred and forty years, being, before his his first and sixth consulship forty-six years; a afflictions, of that age that he had sons at man's man valorous, affable, popular, and always fortu. estate; a man politic, eloquent, charitable, and nate. the example of patience. Eli, the priest, lived 8. Solon of Athens, the lawgiver, and one of ninety-eight years; a corpulent man, calm of dis- the seven wise men, lived above eighty years, a position, and indulgent to his children. But man of high courage, but popular, and afected 10 Elizæus, the prophet, may seem to have died his country; also learned, given to pleasures, and when he was above a hundred years old; for he a soft kind of life. Epimenides, the Cretian, is is found to have lived after the assumption of reported to have lived a hundred and fifty-seven Elias sixty years; and at the time of that as- years; the matter is mixed with a prodigious sumption he was of those years, that the boys relation, for fifty-seven of those years he is said mocked him by the name of bald head; a man ve- to have slept in a cave. Half an age after, Xenohement and severe, and of an austere life, and a phon, the Colophonian, lived a hundred and two contemner of riches. Also Isaiah, the prophet, years, or rather more; for at the age of twentyseemeth to have been a hundred years old ; for five years he left his country, seventy-seven comhe is found to have exercised the function of a plete years he travelled, and after that returned ; prophet seventy years together, the years both of but how long he lived after his return appears not ; his beginning to prophecy, and of his death, being a man no less wandering in mind than in body; uncertain ; a man of an admirable eloquence, an for his name was changed for the madness of his evangelical prophet, full of the promises of God opinions, from Xenophanes to Xenomanes; a of the New Testament, as a bottle with sweet man, no doubt, of a vast conceit, and that minded wine.
nothing but infinitum. 5. Tobias, the elder, lived a hundred and fifty- 9. Anacreon, the poet, lived eighty years, and eight years, the younger a hundred and twenty-somewhat better, a man lascivious, voluptuous, seven; merciful men, and great alms-givers. It and given to drink. Pindarus, the Theban, lived seems, in the time of the captivity, many of the to eighty years; a poet of a high fancy, singular Jews who returned out of Babylon were of great in his conceits, and a great adorer of the gods. years, seeing they could remember both temples, Sophocles, the Athenian, atlained to the like age; (there being no less than seventy years betwixt a lofty tragic poet, given over wholly to writing, them,) and wept for the unlikeness of them. and neglectful of his family. Many ages after that, in the time of our Saviour, 10. Artaxerxes, King of Persia, lived ninety-four lived old Simeon, to the age of ninety; a devout years; a man of a dull wit, averse to the despatch man, and full both of hope and expectation. Into of business, desirous of glory, but rather of ease. the same time also fell Anna, the prophetess, who At the same time lived Agesilaus, King of Sparta, could not possibly be less than a hundred years to eighty-four years of age; a moderate prince, as old, for she had been seven years a wife, about being a philosopher among kings, but, notwith. eighty-four years a widow, besides the years of standing, ambitions, and a warrior, and no less her virginity, and the time that she lived after her stout in war than in business. prophecy of our Saviour; she was a holy woman, 11. Gorgias, the Sicilian, was a hundred and and passed her days in fastings and prayers. eight years old ; a rhetorician, and a great boaster
6. The long lives of men mentioned in heathen of his faculty, one that taught youth for profii. authors have no great certainty in them; both for He had seen many countries, and a little before the intermixture of fables, whereunto those kind his death said, that he had done nothing worthy of relations were very prone, and for their false of blame since he was an old man. Protagoras, calculation of years. Certainly of the Egyptians of Abdera, saw ninety years of age. This mao
was likewise a rhetorician, but professed not so 13. Terentia, Cicero's wife, lived a hundred much to teach the liberal arts, as the art of govern- and three years; a woman afflicted with many ing commonwealths and states; notwithstanding crosses; first, with the banishment of her hushe was a great wanderer in the world, no less band, then with the difference betwixt them; than Gorgias. Isocrates, the Athenian, lived lastly, with his last fatal misfortune. She was ninety-eight years; he was a rhetorician also, but also oftentimes vexed with the gout. Luceia must an exceeding modest man, one that shunned the needs exceed a hundred by many years, for it is public light, and opened his school only in his said, that she acted a whole hundred years upon own house. Democritus, of Abdera, reached to a the stage, at first, perhaps, representing the person hundred and nine years; he was a great philoso- of some young girl, at last of some decrepit old wopher, and, if ever any man amongst the Grecians, man. But Galeria Copiola, a player also, and a a true naturalist, a surveyor of many countries, dancer, was brought upon the stage as a novice, in but much more of nature; also a diligent search- what year of her age is not known; but ninety-nine er into experiments, and (as Aristotle objected years after, at the dedication of the theatre by against him) one that followed similitudes more Pompey the Great, she was shown upon the stage, than the laws of arguments. Diogenes, the not now for an actress, but for a wonder. Neither Sinopean, lived ninety years; a man that used was this all; for after that, in the solemnities for liberty towards others, but tyranny over himself, the health and life of Augustus, she was shown a coarse diet, and of much patience. Zeno, of upon the stage the third time. Citium, lacked about two years of a hundred; a 14. There was another actress, somewhat inman of a high mind, and a contemner of other ferior in age, but much superior in dignity, which men's opinions; also of a great acuteness, but lived well near ninety years, I mean Livia Julia yet not troublesome, choosing rather to take Augusta, wife to Augustus Cæsar, and mother to men's minds than to enforce them. The like Tiberius. For, if Augustus his life were a play, whereof afterwards was in Seneca. Plato, the (as himself would have it, when as upon his Athenian, attained to eighty-one years; a man death-bed he charged his friends they should give of a great courage, but yet a lover of ease, in his him a plaudit after he was dead,) certainly this notions sublime, and of a fancy, neat and deli- lady was an excellent actress, who could carry it cate in his life, rather calm than merry, and one so well with her husband by a dissembled obethat carried a kind of majesty in his countenance. dience, and with her son by power and authority. Theophrastus, the Eressian, arrived at eighty-five A woman affable, and yet of a matronal carriage, years of age; a man sweet for his eloquence, pragmatical, and unholding her power. sweet for the variety of his matters, and who se- Junia, the wife of Caius Cassius, and sister of lected the pleasant things of philosophy, and let Marcus Brutus, was also ninety years old, for she the bitter and harsh go. Carneades, of Cyrena, survived the Philippic batile sixty-four years; a many years after, came to the like age of eighty- magnanimous woman, in her great wealth happy, five years; a man of a fluent eloquence, and one in the calamity of her husband, and near kinsfolks, who, by the acceptable and pleasant variety of and in a long widowhood unhappy, notwithstandhis knowledge, delighted both himself and others. ing much honoured of all. But Orbilius, who lived in Cicero's time, no 15. The year of our Lord seventy-six, falling philosopher or rhetorician, but a grammarian, at- into the time of Vespasian, is memorable; in tained to a hundred years of age; he was first a which we shall find, as it were, a calendar of soldier, then a schoolmaster; a man by nature long-lived men; for that year there was a taxing: tart both in his tongue and pen, and severe to- (now, a taxing is the most authentical and truest wards his scholars.
informer touching the ages of men;) and in that 12. Quintius Fabius Maximus was augur sixty- part of Italy, which lieth betwixt the Apennine three years, which showed him to be above eighty mountains and the river Po, there were found a years of age at his death ; though it be true, that hundred and four-and-twenty persons that either in the augırship nobility was more respected than equalled or exceeded a hundred years of age : age; a wise man, and a great deliberator, and in namely, of a hundred years, just fifty-four persons; all his proceedings moderate, and not without of a hundrad and ten, fifty seven persons ; of a hunaffability severe. Masinissa, King of Numidia, dred and five-and-twenty, two only; of a hundred iived ninety years, and being more than eighty- and thirty, four men; of a hundred and five-andfive, got a son; a daring man, and trusting upon thirty, or seven-and-thirty, four more; of a hundred his fortune, who in his youth had tasted of the and forty, three men. Besides these,Parma in partiinconstancy of fortune, but in his succeeding age cularafforded five, whereof three fulfilled a hundred was constantly happy. But Marcus Porcius Cato and twenty years, and two a hundred and thirty. lived above ninety years of age; man of an iron Brussels afforded one of a hundred and twenty five body and mind; he had a bitter tongue, and loved years old. Placentia one, aged a hundredthirtyto cherish factions; he was given to husbandry, and one. Faventia one woman, aged one hundred and was to himself and his family a physician. thirty-and-two. A certain town, then called VelVOL. III.-61
leiatium, situate in the hills about Placentia, short in the performance. Anastasius, surnamed assorded ten, whereof six fulfilled a hundred and Dicorut, lived eighty-eight years; he was of a ten years of age, four a hundred and twenty. settled mind, but too abject, and superstitious, Lastly, Rimini, one of a hundred and fifty years, and fearful. Anicius Justinianus lived to eightywhose name was Marcus Aponius.
three years, a man greedy of glory, performing That our catalogue might not be extended too nothing in his own person, but in the valvur of much in length, we have thought fit, as well in his captains happy and renowned, nxorious, and those whom we have rehearsed, as in those whom not his own, but suffering others to lead him. we shall rehearse, to offer none under eighty years Helena, of Britain, mother of Constantine the of age. Now we have affixed to every one a true Great, was fourscore years old; a woman that in. and short character or elogy; but of that sort termeddled not in matters of state, neither in her whereunto, in our judgment, length of life (which husband's nor son's reign, but devoted herself is not a little subject to the manners and fortunes wholly to religion; magnanimous, and perpetuof men) hath some relation, and that in a twofold ally flourishing. Theodora, the empress, (who respect; either that such kind of men are for the was sister to Zoes, wife of Monomachus, and most part long-lived, or that such men may some- reigned alone after her decease,) lived above times be of long life, though otherwise not well eighty years; a pragmatical woman, and one that disposed for it.
took delight in governing ; fortunate in the highest 16. Amongst the Roman and Grecian empe- degree, and through her good fortunes credulous. rors, also, the French and Almain, to these our 17. We will proceed now from these secular days, which make up the number of well near princes to the princes in the church; St. John, two hundred princes, there are only four found an apostle of our Saviour, and the beloved discichat lived to eighty years of age; unto whom we ple, lived ninety-three years. He was rightly may add the two first emperors, Augustus and denoted under the emblem of the eagle, for his Tiberius, whereof the latter fulfilled the seventy- piercing sight into the divinity, and was a seraph and-eighth year, the former the seventy-and-sixth amongst the apostles, in respect of his burning year of his age, and might both, perhaps, have love. St. Luke, the Evangelist, fulfilled fourlived to forescore, if Livia and Caius had been score and four years; an eloquent man, and a pleased. Augustus (as was said) lived seventy- traveller, St. Paul's inseparable companion, and and-six years; a man of moderate disposition, in a physician. Simeon, the son of Cleophas, accomplishing his designs vehement, but other called the brother of our Lord, and Bishop of wise calm and serene; in meat and drink sober, Jerusalem, lived a hundred and twenty years, venery intemperate, through all his lifetime hap- though he was cut short by nartyrdom ; a stout py; and who, about the thirtieth year of his life, man, and constant, and full of good works. had a great and dangerous sickness, insomuch as Polycarpus, disciple unto the apostles, and Bishop they despaired of life in him, whom Antonius of Smyrna, seemeth to have extended his age to Musa, the physician, when other physicians had a hundred years and more, though he were also applied hot medicines, as most agreeable to his cut off by martyrdom; a man of a high mind, of disease, on the contrary cured with cold medi- an heroical patience, and unwearied with labours. cines, which perchance might be some help to Dionysius Areopagita, contemporary io the aposthe prolonging of his life. Tiberius lived to be tle St. Paul, lived ninety years; he was called two years older; a man with lean chaps, as Au- the bird of heaven for his high-flying divinity, gustus was wont to say, for his speech stuck and was famous, as well for his holy life as for within his jaws, but was weighty. He was his meditations. Aquila and Priscilla, first St. bloody, a drinker, and one that took lust into a Paul the apostle's hosts, afterwards his fellow.
a part of his diet; notwithstanding a great observer helpers, lived together in a happy and famous of his health, insomuch that he used to say that wedlock, at least to a hundred years of age apiece, he was a fool, that after thirty years of age took for they were both alive under Pope Xistus the advice of a physician. Gordian, the elder, lived First; a noble pair, and prone to all kind of chaeighty years, and yet died a violent death, when rity, who amongst other their comforts (which no he was scarce warm in his empire; a man of a doubt were great unto the first founders of the high spirit, and renowned, learned, and a poet, church) had this added, to enjoy each other so and constantly happy throughout the whole course long in a happy marriage. St. Paul, the hermit, of his life, save only that he ended his days by lived a hundred and thirteen years; now, he lived i violent death. Valerian, the emperor, was in a cave, his diet was so slender and strict, that seventy-six years of age before he was taken it was thought almost impossible to support hu. prisoner by Sapor, King of Persia. Aster his man nature therewithal; he passed his years only captivity he lived seven years in reproaches, and in meditations and soliloquies; yet he was nut then died a violent death also; a man of a poor illiterate, or an idiot, but learned. Saint Anthony, mind, and not valiant, notwithstanding lifted up the first founder of monks, or (as some will have iu his own, and the opinion of men, but falling it) the restorer only, attained to a hundred and five