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houses, with windows towards the east and oil, keep long, much more in honey or spirit north, is very commodious. Some, also, make of wine, but most of all, as some say, in quick. two sollars, an upper and a lower, and the upper silver. sollar hath a hole in it, through which the grain 20. Fruits enclosed in wax, pitch, plaster, continually descendeth, like sand in an hour- paste, or any the like case or covering, keep green glass, and after a few days they throw it up again very long. with shovels, that so it may be in continual mo- 21. It is manifest that flies, spiders, ants, or the tion. Now, it is to be noted that this doth not like small creatures, falling by chance into amber, only prevent the fustiness, but conserveth the or the gums of trees, and so finding a burial in greenness, and slacketh the desiccation of it. them, do never after corrupt or rot, although they The cause is that which we noted before; that be soft and tender bodies. the discharging of the watery humour, which is 22. Grapes are kept long by being hanged up quickened by the motion and the winds, preserves in bunches; the same is of other fruits. For the oily humour in his being, which otherwise there is a twofold commodity of this thing; tho would fly out together with the watery humour. one, that they are kept without pressing or Also, in some mountains, where the air is very bruising, which they must needs suffer, if they pure, dead carcasses may be kept for a good were laid upon any hard substance; the other, while without any great decay.
that the air doth encompass them on every side 13. Fruits, as pomegranates, citrons, apples, alike. pears, and the like; also, flowers, as roses and 23. It is observed that putrefaction, no less than lilies, may be kept a long time in earthen vessels desiccation in vegetables, doth not begin in every close stopped; howsoever, they are not free from part alike, but chiefly in that part where, being the injuries of the outward air, which will affect alive, it did attract nourishment. Therefore some them with his unequal temper through the sides advise to cover the stalks of apples or other fruits of the vessel, as it is manifest in heat and cold. with wax or pitch. Therefore, it will be good to stop the mouths of 24. Great wicks of candles or lamps do sooner the vessels carefully, and to bury them within consume the tallow or oil than lesser wicks; also the earth; and it will be as good not to bury wicks of cotton sooner than those of rush or them in the earth, but to sink them in the water, straw, or small twigs; and in staves of torches. so as the place be shady, as in wells or cisterns those of juniper or fir sooner than those of ash; placed within doors; but those that be sunk in likewise flame moved and fanned with the wind water will do better in glass vessels than in sooner than that which is still. And, therefore, earthen.
candles set in a lantern will last longer than in 14. Generally, those things which are kept in the open air. There is a tradition, that lamps set the earth, or in vaults under ground, or in the in sepulchres will last an incredible time. bottom of a well, will preserve their freshness 25. The nature also and preparation of the noulonger than those things that are kept above rishment conduceth no less to the lasting of lamps ground.
and candles, than the nature of the flame; for 15. They say it hath been observed, that in wax will last longer than tallow, and tallow conservatories of snow, (whether they were in a little wet longer than tallow dry, and wax mountains, in natural pits, or in wells made by candles old made longer than wax candles new art for that purpose,) an apple, or chestnut, or nut, made. by chance falling in, after many months, when 26. Trees, if you stir the earth about their root the snow hath melted, hath been found in the every year, will continue less time; if once in snow as fresh and fair as if it had been gathered four or perhaps in ten years, much longer; also the day before.
cutting off the suckers and young shoots will 16. Country people keep clusters of grapes in make them live the longer; but dunging them, meal, which, though it makes them less pleasant or laying of marl about their roots, or much wato the taste, yet it preserves their moisture and tering them, adds to their fertility, but cuts off freshness. Also the harder sort of fruits may be from their long lasting. And thus much touching kept long, not only in meal, but also in sawdust the prohibiting of desiccation or consumption. and in heaps of corn.
27. The inteneration or making tender of that 17. There is an opinion held, bodies may be which is dried (which is the chief matter) afpreserved fresh in liquors of their own kind, as in fords but a small number of experiments. And their proper menstrua, as to keep grapes in wine, therefore some few experiments which are found olives in oil.
in living creatures, and also in man, shall be 18. Pomegranates and quinces are kept long, joined together. being lightly dipped in sea water or salt water, 28. Bands of willow, wherewith they use to and some after taken out again, and then dried in bind trees, laid in water, grow more fiexible ; the open air, so it be in the shade.
likewise they put boughs of birch (the ends of 19. Bodies put in wine, oil, or the lees of 'them) in earthen pots filled with water, to keep Vol. III.-60
2 R 2
as a steer.
them from withering; and bowls cleft with dry- lessened in their weight, and become hollow. ness steeped in water close again.
porous, and resounding from within. Now it is 29. Boots grown hard and obstinate with age, most certain, that the inward spirit of any thing by greasing them before the fire with tallow, wax confers nothing to the weight, but rather lighters soft, or being only held before the fire, get some it; and therefore it must needs be, that the same softness. Bladders and parchments hardened also spirit hath turned into it the moisture and juice of become tender with warm water mixed with tallow the body which weighed before, by which means or any fat thing, but much the better if they be a the weight is lessened. And this is the first ac. little chafed.
tion, the attenuation of the moisture and convert. 30. Trees grown very old, that have stood long ing it into spirit. without any culture, by digging and opening the 5. The second action, which is the issuing earth about the roots of them, seem to grow forth or fight of the spirit, is as manifest also. young again, and put forth young branches. For that issuing forth, when it is in throngs, is
31. Old draught oxen worn out with labour, apparent even to the sense, in vapours to the being taken from the yoke, and put into fresh sight, in odours to the smelling; but if it issueth pasture, will get young and tender flesh again; forth slowly, (as when a thing is decayed by age.) insomuch that they will eat as fresh and tender then it is not apparent to the sense, but the mat
ter is the same. Again, where composure of the 32. A strict emaciating diet of guiacum, bis-body is either so strait, or so tenacious, that the cuit, and the like, (wherewith they use to cure spirit can find no pores or passages by which to the French pox, old catarrhs, and some kind of depart, then in the striving to get out, it drives dropsies,) doth first bring men to great poverty before it the grosser parts of the body, and proand leanness, by wasting the juices and humours trudes them beyond the superfices or surface of of the body, which after they begin to be repaired the body; as it is in the rust of metals, and again seem manifestly more vigorous and young. inould of all fat things. And this is the second Nay, and I am of opinion, that emaciating diseases action, the issuing forth or flight of the spirit. afterwards well cured have advanced many in the
6. The third action is somewhat more obscure, way of long life.
but full as certain; that is, the contraction of
the grosser parts after the spirit issued forth. Observations.
And this appears, first, in that bodies after the 1. Men see clearly, like owls, in the night of spirit issued forth do manifestly shrink, and fill a their own notions, but in experience, as in the less room, as it is in the kernels of nuts, which daylight, they wink, and are but half-sighted. after they are dried, are too little for the shells: They speak much of the elementary quality of and in beams and planchers of houses, which at siccity or dryness, and of things desiccating, and first lay close together, but after they are dried of the natural periods of bodies in which they are give, and likewise in bowls, which through corrupted and consumed; but meanwhile, either drought grow full of crannies, the parts of the in the beginnings, or middle passages, or last bowl contracting themselves together, and after acts of desiccation and consumption, they observe contraction must needs be empty spaces. Secondnothing that is of moment.
ly, it appears by the wrinkles of bodies dried; 2. Desiccation or consumption in the process for the endeavour of contracting itself is such, thereof is finished by three actions; and all these that by the contraction it brings the parts nearer (as was said before) have their original from the together, and so lifts them up; for whatsoever is native spirit of bodies.
contracted on the sides, is listed up in the midst: 3. The first action is the attenuation of the and this is to be seen in papers and old parchmoisture into spirit; the second is, the issuing ments, and in the skins of living creatures, and forth or flight of the spirit; the third is, the in the coats of soft cheeses, all which with age contraction of the grosser parts of the body gather wrinkles. Thirdly, this contraction shows immediately after the spirit issued forth. And itself most in those things which by heat are not this last is, that desiccation and induration, only wrinkled, but ruffled and plighted, and, as it which we chiefly handle, the former two con- were, rolled together, as it is in papers, and sume only.
parchments, and leaves, brought near the fire ; 1. Touching attenuation, the matter is manifest: for contraction by age, which is more slow, com for the spirit which is enclosed in every tangible monly causeth wrinkles, but contraction by the body forgets not its nature, but whatsoever it fire, which is more speedy, causeth plighting. meets withal in the body (in which it is enclosed) Now in most things where it comes not to that it can digest and master, and turn into itself, wrinkling or plighting, there is simple contracthat it plainly alters and subdues, and multiplies tion, and angustiation or straitening, and indura. itself upon it, and begets new spirit. And this tion or hardening, and desiccation, as was showed evicted by one proof, instead of many; for that in the first place. But if the issuing forth of the those things which are thoroughly dried are spirit, and absumption or waste of the moisture
be so great that there is not left body sufficient to not so certain, for that may be caused by their unite and contract itself, then of necessity con- strong breath. traction must cease, and the body beeome putrid, 4. The bear is a great sleeper, a dull beast, and and nothing else but a little dust cleaving to-' given to ease, and yet not noted for long life; gether, which with a light touch is dispersed, nay, he has this sign of short life, that his bear and falleth asunder; as it is in bodies that are ing in the womb is but short, scarce full forty rotten, and in paper burnt, and linen made into days. tinder, and carcasses embalmed after many ages. 5. The fox seems to be well disposed in many And this is the third action, the contraction of the things for long life; he is well skinned, feeds on grosser parts after the spirit issueth forth. flesh, lives in dens, and yet he is noted not to
7. It is to be noted, that fire and heat dry only have that property. Certainly he is a kind of by accident, for their proper work is to attenuate dog, and that kind is but short-lived. and dilate the spirit and moisture, and then it 6. The camel is a long liver, a lean creature, follows by accident that the other parts should con- and sinewy; so that he doth ordinarily attain to tract themselves, either for the flying of vacuum fifty, and sometimes to a hundred years. alone, or for soine other motion withal, whereof 7. The horse lives but to a moderate age, scarce we now speak not.
to forty years, his ordinary period is twenty years. 8. It is certain that putrefaction taketh its but, perhaps, he is beholden for this shortness of original from the native spirit, no less than are life to man; for we have now no horses of the faction, but it goeth on a far different way; for in sun that live freely, and at pleasure, in good putrefaction, the spirit is not simply vapoured pastures; notwithstanding, the horse grows till forth, but being detained in part, works strange he be six years old, and is able for generation in garboils, and the grosser parts are not so much his old age. Besides, the mare goeth longer with locally contracted, as they congregate themselves her young one than a woman, and brings forth to parts of the same nature.
two at a burden more rarely. The ass lives
commonly to the horse's age, but the mule outLength and Shortness of Life in living Creatures. lives them both.
8. The hart is famous amongst men for long To the first article. The history.
life, yet not upon any relation that is undoubted. Touching the length and shortness of life in They tell of a certain hart that was found with a living creatures, the information which may be collar about his neck, and that collar hidden with had is but slender, observation is negligent, and fat. The long life of the hart is the less credible. tradition fabulous. In tame creatures their de- because he comes to his perfection at the fifth generate life corrupteth them, in wild creatures year, and not long after his horns (which he their exposing to all weathers often intercepteth sheds and renews yearly) grow more narrow at them; neither do those things which may seem the root, and less branched. concomitants give any furtherance to this informa- 9. The dog is but a short liver, he exceeds not tion, (the greatness of their bodies, their time of the age of twenty years, and, for the most part, bearing in the womb, the number of their young lives not to fourteen years; a creature of the ones, the time of their growth, and the rest,) in hottest temper, and living in extremes, for he is regard that these things are intermixed, and some commonly either in vehement motion, or sleeping; times they concur, sometimes they sever. besides, the bitch bringeth forth many at a burden,
1. Man's age (as far as can be gathered by any and goeth nine weeks. certain narration) doth exceed the age of all other 10. The ox likewise, for the greatness of his living creatures, except it be of a very few only, body and strength, is but a short liver, about some and the concomitants in him are very equally dis- sixteen years, and the males live longer than the posed, his stature and proportion large, his bear- females: notwithstanding, they bear usually but ing in the womb nine months, his fruit commonly one at a burden, and go nine months; a creature one at a birth, his puberty at the age of fourteen dull, fleshy, and soon fatted, and living only upon years, his time of growing till twenty.
herby substances, without grain. 2. The elephant, by undoubted relation, ex- 11. The sheep seldom lives to ten years, though ceeds the ordinary race of man's life, but his he be a creature of a moderate size, and excellentbearing in the womb the space of ten years is ly clad; and, that which may seem a wonder, fabulous; of two years, or at least above one, being a creature with so little a gall, yet he hath is certain. Now, his bulk is great, his time of the most curled coat of any other, for the hair of growth until the thirtieth year, his teeth exceed- no creature is so much curled as wool is. The ing hard, neither hath it been observed that his rams generate not before the third year, and conblood is the coldest of all creatures; his age hath tinue able for generation until the eighth. The sometimes reached to two hundred years. ewes bear young as long as they live. The sheep
3. Lions are accounted long livers, because is a diseased creature, and rarely lives to his full many of them have been found toothless, a sign age.
12. The goat lives to the same age with the comes that old proverb, the old age of an eagle. sheep, and is not much unlike in other things, Notwithstanding, perchance, the matter may be though he be a creature more nimble, and of thus, that the renewing of the eagle doth not cast somewhat a firmer flesh, and so should be longer his bill, but the casting of his bill is the renewing lived; but then he is much more lascivious, and of the eagle; for, after that his bill is drawn to a that shortens his life.
great crookedness, the eagle feeds with much dif13. The sow lives to fifteen years, sometimes ficulty. to twenty; and though it be a creature of the 24. Vultures are also affirmed to be long livers, moistest fesh, yet that seems to make nothing to insomuch that they extend their life well near to length of life. Of the wild boar, or sow, we a hundred years. Kites likewise, and so all have nothing certain.
birds that feed upon flesh, and birds of prey, live 14. The cat's age is betwixt six and ten years; long. As for hawks, because they lead a degenea creature nimble and full of spirit, whose seed rate and servile life, for the delight of men, the (as Ælian reports) burneth the female ; where- term of their natural life is not certainly known; upon, it is said, that the cat conceives with pain, notwithstanding, amongst mewed hawks, some and brings forth with ease. A creature ravenous have been found to have lived thirty years, and in eating, rather swallowing down his meat amongst wild hawks, forty years. whole than feeding.
25. The raven, likewise, is reported to live 15. Hares and coneys attain scarce to seven long, sometimes to a hundred years. He feeds years, being both creatures generative, and with on carrion, and flies not often, but rather is a young ones of several conceptions in their bellies. sedentary and melancholic bird, and hath very In this they are unlike, that the coney lives under black flesh. But the crow, like unto him in most ground, and the hare above ground. And, again, things, (except in greatness and voice,) lives not that the hare is of a more duskish flesh.
altogether so long, and yet is reckoned amongst 16. Birds, for the size of their bodies, are much the long livers. lesser than beasts; for an eagle or swan is but a 26. The swan is certainly found to be a long small thing in comparison of an ox or horse, and liver, and exceeds not unfrequently a hundred so is an ostrich to an elephant.
years. He is a bird excellently plumed, a feeder 17. Birds are excellently well clad, for feathers, upon fish, and is always carried, and that in runfor warmth and close sitting to the body, exceed ning waters. wool and hairs.
27. The goose also may pass amongst the long 18. Birds, though they hateh many young ones livers, though his food be commonly grass, and together, yet they bear them not all in their bodies such kind of nourishment, especially the wild at once, but lay their eggs by turns, whereby goose; whereupon this proverb grew amongst the their fruit hath the more plentiful nourishment Germans, Magis senex quam anser nivalis; older whilst it is in their bodies.
than a wild
goose. 19. Birds chew little or nothing, but their meat 28. Storks must needs be long livers, if that is found whole in their crops, notwithstanding, be true which was anciently observed of them, they will break the shells of fruit and pick out that they never came to Thebes, because that city the kernels; they are thought to be of a very hot was often sacked. This, if it were so, then either and strong concoction.
they must have the knowledge of more ages than 20. The motion of birds in their flying, is a one, or else the old ones must tell their mixed motion, consisting of a moving of the history. But there is nothing more frequent than Jimbs, and of a kind of carriage, which is the fables. most wholesome kind of exercise.
29. For fables do so abound touching the pha21. Aristotle noted well touching the genera- nix, that the truth is utterly lost, if any such bird tion of birds, (but he transferred it ill to other there be. As for that which was so much adliving creatures, that the seed of the male con- mired, that she was ever seen abroad with a great fers less to generation than the female, but that it troop of birds about her, it is no such wonder; rather affords activity than matter; so that fruit- for the same is usually seen about an owl flying ful eggs and unfruitful eggs are hardly distin- in the daytime, or a parrot let out of a cage. guished.
30. The parrot hath been certainly known to 22. Birds (almost all of them) come to their have lived threescore years in England, how old full growth the first year, or a little after. It is soever he was before he was brought over; a bird true, that their feathers, in some kinds, and their eating almost all kinds of meats, chewing his bills, in others, show their years; but, for the meat, and renewing his bill: likewise curst and growth of their bodies, it is not so.
mischievous, and of a black flesh. 23. The eagle is accounted a long liver, yet 31. The peacock lives twenty years, but he bis years are not set down; and, it is alleged, as comes not forth with his argus eyes before he be a sign of his long life, that he casts his bill, three years old; a bird slow of pace, having whereby he grows young again; from whence whitish flesh.
32. The dunghill cock is venereous, martial, water, is found to last longest, sometimes to forty and but of a short life; a crank bird, having also years; he is a ravener, of a flesh somewhat dry white flesh.
and firm. 33. The Indian cock, commonly called the 46. But the carp, bream, trench, eel, and the turkey cock, lives not much longer than the dung- like, are not held to live above ten years. hill cock; an angry bird, and hath exceeding 47. Salmons are quick of growth, short of life; white flesh.
so are trouts; but the perch is slow of growth, 34. The ringdoves are of the longest sort of long of life. livers, insomuch that they attain sometimes to 48. Touching that monstrous bulk of the whale fifty years of age; an airy bird, and both builds or ork, how long it is weiled by vital spirit, we and sits on high. But doves and turtles are but have received nothing certain; neither yet touchshort-lived, not exceeding eight years.
ing the sea-calf, and sea-hog, and other innume35. But pheasants and partridges may live to rable fishes. sixteen years. They are great breeders, but not 49. Crocodiles are reported to be exceeding so white of Aesh as the ordinary pullen. long-lived, and are famous for the times of their
36. The blackbird is reported to be, amongst growth, for that they, amongst all other creatures, the lesser birds, one of the longest livers; an are thought to grow during their whole life. unhappy bird, and a good singer.
They are of those creatures that lay eggs, raven37. The sparrow is noted to be of a very short ons, cruel, and well fenced against the waters. life; and it is imputed in the males to their lasci- Touching the other kinds of shell-fish, we find viousness. But the linnet, no bigger in body nothing certain how long they live. than the sparrow, hath been observed to have lived twenty years.
Observation. 38. Of the ostrich we have nothing certain; To find out a rule touching length and shortthose that were kept here have been so unfortu- ness of life in living creatures is very difficult, by nate, but no long life appeared by them. Of the reason of the negligence of observations, and the bird ibis we find only that he liveth long, but his intermixing of causes. A few things we will set years are not recorded.
down. 39. The age of fishes is more uncertain than 1. There are more kinds of birds found to be that of terrestrial creatures, because living under long-lived than of beasts; as the eagle, the vulthe water they are the less observed; many of ture, the kite, the pelican, the raven, the crow, them breathe not, by which means their vital the swan, the goose, the stork, the crane, the bird spirit is more closed in; and, therefore, though called the ibis, the parrot, the ringdove, with the they receive some refrigeration by their gills, yet rest, though they come to their full growth within that refrigeration is not so continual as when it is a year, and are less of bodies ; surely their clothby breathing.
ing is excellent good against the distemperatures 40. They are free from the des ccation and de- of the weather; and, besides, living for the most predation of the air ambient, because they live in part in the open air, they are like the inhabitants the water, yet there is no doubt but the water, of pure mountains, which are long-lived. Again, ambient, and piercing, and received into the pores their motion, which (as 1 elsewhere said) is a of the body, doth more hurt to long life than the mixed motion, compounded of a moving of their air doth.
limbs and of a carriage in the air, doth less weary 41. It is affirmed, too, that their blood is not and wear them, and it is more wholesome. Nei. warm. Some of them are great devourers, even ther do they suffer any compression or want of of their own kind. Their flesh is softer and more nourishment in their mother's bellies, because the tender than that of terrestrial creatures; they eggs are laid by turns. But the chiefest cause of grow exceedingly fat, insomuch that an incredible all I take to be is this, that birds are made more quantity of oil will be extracted out of one whale. of the substance of the mother than of the father,
42. Dolphins are reported to live about thirty whereby their spirits are not so eager and hot. years; of which thing a trial was taken in some 2. It may be a position, that creatures which of them by cutting off their tails: they grow until partake more of the substance of their mother ten years of age.
than of their father, are long-lived, as birds are, 43. That which they report of some fishes is which was said before. Also, that those which, strange, that after a certain age their bodies will have a longer time of bearing in the womb, do waste and grow very slender, only their head and partake more of the substance of their mother, tail retaining their former greatness.
less of the father, and so are longer lived; inso44. There were found in Cæsar's fishponds much what I am of opinion, that even amongsi lampreys to have lived threescore years; they men, (which I have noted in some,) those that were grown so familiar with long use, that Cras- resemble their mothers most are longest lived : sus, the orator, solemnly lamented one of them. and so are the children of old men begotten of
45. The pike, amongst fishes living in fresh young wives, if the fathers be sound, not diseased.