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instice upon the commission for the indicting of ble to truth and your majesty's service. If this the great person, one of the judges asked him New Company break, it must either be put upon whether Roper were dead? He saith, he for his the patent or upon the order made by themselves. part knew not; ancther of the judges answered, For the patent, I satisfied the board that there was It should concern you, my lord, to know it. no title in it which was not either verbatim in the Whereupon he turned his speech to me, and said, patent of the Old Company, or by special warNo, Mr. Attorney, I will not wrestle now in my rant from the table, inserted. My Lord Coke, latter times. My lord, (said I,) you speak like a with much respect to me, acknowledged, but wise man. Well, (saith he,) they have had no disliked the old patent itself, and disclaimed his luck with it that have had it. I said again, being at the table when the additions were “Those days be past.” Here you have the dia- allowed. But in my opinion, (howsvever my logue to make you merry, but in sadness I was Lord Coke, to magnify his science in law, glad to perceive he meant not to contest. I can draweth every thing, though sometimes unprcbut honour and love you, and rest

perly and unseasonably, to that kind of question,) Your assured friend and servant. it is not convenient to break the business upon

these points. For, considering they were but clauses that were in the former patents, and in

many other patents of companies, and that the A LETTER TO THE KING, ADVISING HOW to additions likewise passed the allowance of the

FEB- table, it will be but clamoured, and perhaps conRUARY 3, 1615.

ceived, that to quarrel them now is but an occa

sion taken, and that the times are changed rather IT MAY PLEASE YOUR EXCELLENT MAJESTY, than the matter. But that which preserveth

I spake yesternight long with my Lord Coke; entire your majesty's honour, and the constancy and for the Rege Inconsulto," I conceive by of your proceedings, is to put the breach upon him it will be “an ampliùs deliberandum their orders. censeo,” (as I thought at first,) so as for the For this light I gave in my report, which the present your majesty shall not need to renew your table readily apprehended and much approved ; commandment of stay. I spake with him also that if the table reject their orders as unlawful about some propositions concerning your majes- and unjust, it doth free you from their contract; ty's casual revenue, wherein I found him to con- for whosoever contracteth, or undertaketh any sent with me fully; assuming, nevertheless, that thing, is always understood to perform it by he had thought of them before ; but it is one lawful means; so, as they have plainly abused thing to have the vapour of a thought; another to the state if that which they have undertaken be digest business aright. He, on his part, imparted either impossible or unjust. to me divers things of great weight concerning I am bold to present this consideration to that the reparation of your majesty's means and excellent faculty of your majesty's judgment, finances, which I heard gladly; insomuch as he because I think it importeth that future good perceiving the same, I think, was the readier to which may grow to your majesty in the close of open himself to me in one circumstance, which this basiness; that the falling off be without all he did much inculcate. I concur freely with exception. God have you in his precious him that they are to be held secret; for I never custody. saw but that business is like a child which is Your majesty's most humble and framed invisibly in the womb, and if it come

bounden subject and servant. forth too soon it will be abortive. I know in most of them the prosecution must rest much upon myself. But I, that bad the power to prevail in the farmer's case of the French wines, A LETTER TO THE KING TOUCHING THE LORD without the help of my Lord Coke, shall be

CHANCELLOR'S SICKNESS. FEBRUARY 9, 1615. better able to go through these with his help, the IT MAY PLEASE YOUR most exCELLENT MAJESTY, ground being no less just. And this I shall ever I am glad to understand by Mr. Murray that add of mine own, that I shall ever respect your your majesty accepteth well of my poor endeamajesty's honour no less than your profit; and vours in opening unto you the passages of your shall also take care, according to my pensive service; that business may come the less crude, manner, that that which is good for the present and the more prepared to your royal judgment, have not in it hidden seeds of future inconve- the perfection whereof, as I cannot expect they niences.

should satisfy in every particular, so I hope, The matter of the New Company was referred through my assiduity, there will result a good to me by the lords of the privy council; wherein, total. after some private speech with Sir Lionel Cran My lord chancellor's sickness falleth out “dure field, I made that report which I held most agree- tempore.” I have always known him a wise

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man, and of just elevation for monarchy, but, Company, that they are unlawful and unjust, and your majesty's service must not be mortal; and themselves have now acknowledged the work imif you lose him, as your majesty hath now of possible without them by their petition in writing, late purchased many hearts by depressing the now registered in the Council Book: so as this wicked, so God doth minister unto you a coun- conclusion (of their own making) is become terpart to do the like by raising the honest. God peremptory and final to themselves; and the imevermore preserve your majesty.

possibility confessed the practice and abuse, reYour majesty's most humble subject served to the judgment the state shall make of it. and bounden servant. This breach then of this great contract is wholly

on their part; which could not have been, if your inajesty had broken upon the patent: for the

patent was your majesty's act, the orders are their A LETTER TO SIR GEORGE VILLIERS, TOUCIING act; and in the former case they had not been

A MOTION TO SWEAR HIM COUNCILLOR. FEB. liable to further question, now they are.
21, 1615,

There rest two things to be considered : the one Sir,—My lord chancellor's health growing if they (like Proteus when he is hard held) shall with the days, and his resignation being an un- yet again vary their shape, and shall quit their certainty, I would be glad you went on with my orders, convinced of injustice, and lay their imfirst motion, my swearing privy councillor. This position only upon the trade of whites, whether I desire, not so much to make myself more sure your majesty shall further expect? The other, if of the other, and to put it past competition ; (for your majesty dissolve them upon this breach on herein, I rest wholly upon the king, and your ex- their part, what is further to be done for the setcellent self) but, because I find hourly, that I ting of the trade again in joint, and for your own need this strength in his majesty's service, both honour and profit? In both which points I will for

my better warrant, and satisfaction of my con- not presume to give opinion, but only to break science, that I deal not in things above my voca- the business for your majesty's better judginent. tion; and for my better countenance and prevail

For the first, I am sorry the occasion was given, ing where his majesty's service is under any (by my Lord Coke's speech at this time of the pretext opposed, I would it were despatched. 1 commitment of some of them,) that they should remember a greater matter than this, was seek, “omnem movere lapidem," to help themdespatched by a letter from Royston ; which was, selves. Better it had been, if (as my Lord Fenthe placing of the archbishop that now is: and I ton said to me that morning very judiciously, and imagine, the king did on purpose, that the act with a great deal of foresight) that, for that time, might appear to be his own.

they should have had a bridge made for them to My lord chancellor told me yesterday, in plain be gone. But my Lord Coke floweth according terms, that if the king would ask his opinion to his own tides, and not according 10 the tides touching the person that he would commend to of business. The thing which my Lord Coke succeed him, upon death or disability, he would said, was good and too little, but at this time it name me for the fittest man. You may advise was too much. But that is past. Howsoever, if whether use may not be made of this offer.

they should go back, and seek again to entertain I sent a pretty while since a paper to Mr. John your majesty with new orders or offers, (as is said Murray; which was, indeed, a litile remembrance to be intended,) your majesty hath ready two of some things past; concerning my honest and answers of repulse, if it please your majesty to faithful services to his majesty, not by way of use them. boasting, (from which I am far,) but as tokens of

The one, that this is now the fourth time that my studying his service uprightly and carefully. they have mainly broken with your majesty and If you be pleased to call for the paper which is contradicted themselves. First, They undertook to with Mr. John Murray, and to find a fit time, that dye and dress all the cloths of the realm; soon after his majesty may cast an eye upon it, I think it they wound themselves into the trade of whites, will do no hurt: and I have written to Mr. Mur- and came down to the proportion contracted. Seray to deliver the paper if you call for it. God condly, They ought to have performed that conkeep you in all happiness.

tract according to their subscription, pro rata, Your truest servant.

without any of these orders and impositions : soon after they deserted their subscription, and had recourse to these devices of orders. Thirdly, If by

order and not by subscription, yet their orders A LETTER TO THE KING OF ADVICE, UPON THIE' should have laid it upon the whites, which is an

BREACH OF THE NEW COMPANY. FEB. 25, 1615. unlawful and prohibited trade, nevertheless, they
IT MAY PLEASE YOUR MOST EXCELLENT Majesty, would have brought in lawful and settled trades.

Your privy council have wisely and truly dis- full manufactures, merchandise of all natures,
cerned of the orders and demands of the New poll nioney or brotherhood money, and I cannot

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tell what. And now lastly, it seemeth they would company. And, therefore, I dare not advise to go back to lay it upon the whites: And, therefore, adventure this great trade of the kingdom (which whether your majesty will any more rest and hath been so long under government) in a free build this great wheel of your kingdom, upon or loose trade. The third is, a compounded way these broken and brittle pins, and try experiments of both, which is, to go on with the trade of whites further upon the health and body of your state, I, by the Old Company restored; and, that your leave to your princely judgment.

majesty's profit be raised by order amongst themThe other answer of repulse is a kind of oppos- selves, rather than by double custom, wherein you ing them what they will do after the three years must be the actor: and, that, nevertheless, there contracted for? Which is a point hitherto not be added a privilege to the same company to much stirred, though Sir Lionel Cranfield hath carry out cloths dyed and dressed custom free; ever beaten upon it in his speech with me: for which will still continue as a glorious beam of after three years they are not tied, otherways than your majesty's royal design. I hope and wish at as trade shall give encouragement; of which en- least that this, which I have written, may be of couragement your majesty hath a bitter taste. some use to your majesty to settle by the advice And if they should hold on according to the third of the lords about you this great business. At the year's propurtion, and not rise on by further gra- least it is the effect of my care and poor ability, dation, your majesty hath not your end. No, I which if in me be any, it is given me to no other fear, and having long feared that this feeding of end but faithfully to serve your majesty. God the foreigner may be dangerous. For as we may ever preserve you. think to hold up our clothing by vent of whites, Your majesty's most humble subject, till we can dye and dress; so they (I mean the

and bounden servant. Dutch) will think to hold up their manufacture of dying and dressing upon our whites till they

ANOTHER LETTER, TO SIR GEORGE VILLIERS, can cloth : so as your majesty hath the greatest reason in the world to make the New Company

CILLOR. FEBRUARY 27, 1615. to come in and strengthen that part of their con

Sir,-I humbly pray you not to think me over tract; and they refusing (as it is confidently believed they will) to make their default more visi- hasty or much in appetite, if I put you in rememble to all men.

brance of my motion of strengthening me with the For the second main part of your majesty's con

oath and trust of a privy, councillor; not for mine sultation, (that is, what shall be done, supposing armed within,) but for the strength of my service.

own strength, (for as to that, I thank God I am an absolute breach,) I have had some speech with The times, I submit to you who knoweth them Mr. Secretary Lake, and likewise with Sir Lionel best. But sure I am, there were never times Cranfield; and (as I conceive) there may be which did more require a king's attorney to be three ways taken into consideration. The first well armed, and (as I said once to you) to wear a is, that the Old Company be restored, who (no gauntlet and not a glove. The arraignments, doubt) are in appetite, and (as I find by Sir Lionel when they proceed; the contention between the Cranfield) not unprepared ; and that the licenses, Chancery and King's Bench; the great cause of the one, that of 30,000 cloths, which was the the rege inconsulto, which is so precious to the old license; the other, that of my Lord of Cum- king's prerogative; divers other services that berland's, which is without stint, (my Lord of Cumberland receiving satisfaction,) be com

concern the king's revenue, and the repair of his pounded into one entire license without stint; well of my relations touching his business; which

estate. Besides, it pleaseth his majesty to accept and then that they amongst themselves take order for that profit which hath been offered to your call it) for one that is no councillor. But I leave

may seem a kind of interloping (as the merchants majesty. This is a plain and known

all unto you, thinking myself infinitely bounden your majesty is not an actor; only it hath this,

for that the work of dying and dressing cloths, which of I see plainly reflect upon me even from others :

your great favours; the beams wherehath been so much glorified, seemeth to be wholly, relinquished if you leave there. The second is, that as the king showeth himself to you the best

so that now I have no greater ambition than this; that there be a free trade of cloth, with this difference; that the dyed and dressed pay no custom, in which wish and vow, I shall ever rest,

master, so I might be found your best servant. and the whites double custom, it being a merchan

Most devoted and affectionate to obey dise prohibited and only licentiate. This continu

your commands. eth in life and fame the work desired, and will have propular applause. But I do confess I did ever think, that trading in companies is most agree- A LETTER TO SIR GEORGE VILLIERS, TOUCHING able to the English nature, which wanteth that HIS SWEARING COUNCILLOR. MAY 30, 1616. saine general vein of a republic, which runneth Sir,—The time is, as I should think, now or in the Dalch; and serveth to them instead of a 'never, for his majesty to finish his good meaning

way, wherein

unto you




towards me; if it please him to consider what is received in your presence.

I then told his mapast, and what is to come.

jesty my memory was not able to keep way with If I would tender my profit, and oblige men his, and therefore his majesty will pardon me for unto me by my place and practice, I could have any omission or errors, and be pleased to supply more profit than I could devise, and could oblige and reform the same. I am preparing some other all the world and offend none; which is a brave materials for his majesty's excellent hand concondition for a man's private. But my heart is cerning business that is coming on. For since not on these things. Yet, on the other side, I his majesty hath renewed my heart within me, would be sorry that worthless persons should methinks I should double my endeavours. God make a note that I get nothing but pains and ene- ever preserve and prosper you. I rest mies; and a little popular reputation, which

Your most devoted, followeth me whether I will or no. If any thing

and bounden servant. be to be done for yourself, I should take infinite contentment, that my honour might wait upon yours: But I would be loath it should wait upon any man's else. If you would put your strength

A LETTER TO SIR GEORGE VILLIERS, FOR THE to this business it is done; and that done many

JUNE 12, 1616. things more will begin. God keep you ever; I

Sir,—I do think you may do yourself honour, rest, Your true and devoted servant.

and (that which is more) do a good work, if you will assist and perfect a motion begun (and that upon a good ground, both of submission and con

formity) for the restoring of Doctor Burgis to A LETTER TO SIR GEORGE VILLIERS, UPON THE preach; and I wish, likewise, that if Gray's-Inn CHOICE HIS MAJESTY GAVE HIM, WHETHER HE should think good (after he is free from the state)

SWORN COUNCILLOR, OR HAVE to choose him for their preacher, his majesty ASSURANCE TO SUCCEED THE CHANCELLOR. should not be against it; for certainly we should JUNE 3, 1616.

watch him well if he should fly forth; so as he Sir,—The king giveth me a noble choice, and cannot be placed in a more safe auditory. This you are the man my heart ever told me you were. may seem a trifle, but I do assure you, I do Ambition would draw me to the latter part of the scarce know a particular wherein you may open choice; but in respect of my hearty wishes that more honest mouths to speak honour of you than my lord chancellor may live long, and the small this. And I do extremely desire there may be a hepes I have, that I shall live long myself, and full cry from all sorts of people (especially the above all, because I see his majesty's service best) to speak and to trumpet out your commendaily and instantly bleedeth; towards which I dations. I pray you take it to heart, and do persuade myself (vainly, perhaps, but yet in mine somewhat in it. I rest own thoughts firınly and constantly) that I shall

Your devoted and bounden servant. give, when I am of the table, some effectual furtherance, (as a poor thread of the labyrinth, which hath no other virtue but a united continuance, without interruption or distraction,) I do accept A LETTER TO THE KING, TOUCHING SIR GEORGE

VILLIERS' PATENT FOR BARON OF BLETCIILEY of the former, to be councillor for the present, and

AND VISCOUNT VILLIERS. AUGUST 12, 1616. to give over pleading at bar: let the other matter rest upon my proof and his majesty's pleasure, IT MAY PLEASE YOUR MOST EXCELLENT MAJESTY, and the accidents of time. For, to speak plainly

I have sent Sir George Villiers' patent, drawn I would be loath that my lord chancellor, to again, containing also a barony; the name whom I owe most after the king and yourself, Bletchley is his own, and to my thinking, soundshould be locked to his successor for any advance eth better than whaddon. I have included both ment or gracing of me. So I ever remain in one patent, to avoid a double preface, and as Your true, and most devoted,

hath been used in the patents of earls of like and obliged servant.

nature; nevertheless, the ceremony of robing, and otherwise, is to be double, as is also used in like cases of earls.

It resteth that I express unto your majesty niy TO HIS VERY HONOURABLE GOOD FRIEND, sir great joy in your honouring and advancing this GEORGE VILLIERS, MASTER OF THE HORSE to gentleman; whom to describe, not with colours, HIS MAJESTY, AND OF THE MOST NOBLE ORDER but with true lines, I may say this; your majesty OF THE GARTER, JUNE 12, 1616.

certainly hath found out and chosen a safe Sir,—I send his majesty a draught of the act nature, a capable man, an honest will, generous of council, concerning the judges' letter; penned and noble affections, and a courage well lodyed ; -5 near as I could to his majesty's instructions and one, that I know, loveth your majesty Vol. II1.-7


infeignedly; and admireth you as much as is in a I shall never, whilst I breathe, alter mine own man to admire his sovereign upon earth. Only style in being your majesty's school (wherein he hath already

Your true and most devoted servant. so well profited as in this entrance upon the stage, being the time of greatest danger, he hath not committed any manifest error) will add persection to your majesty's comfort, and the great THE LORD KEEPER'S LETTER TO THE UNIVER contentment of your people. God ever preserve


AT HIS FIRST COMING TO THAT PLACE. and prosper your majesty. I rest, in all humbleness,

To The RENOWNED University of CAMBRIDGE, Your majesty's most bounden and most

HIS DEAR AND REVEREND Mother. devoted subject and servant.

My LORD,—I am debtor to you of your letters, and of the time likewise that I have taken to answer them; but as soon as I could choose

what to think on, I thought good to let you A LETTER TO SIR GEORGE VILLIERS, UPON THE SENDING OF 13 PATENT FOR THE CREATION know, that although you may err much in your OF VISCOUNT, SEALED AUGUST 20, 1616.

valuation of me, yet you shall not be deceived in Sir -I took much contentment in that I per- though the manner be to mend the picture by the

your assurance; and for the other part also, ceive by your letter that you took in so good part life, yet I would be glad to mend the life by the the freedom of my advice, and that yourself in

picture, and to become, and be, as you express your own nature consented therewith. Cer

me to be.

Your gratulations shall be no more tainly, no service is comparable to good counsel; welcome to me than your business or occasions, and the reason is, because no man can do so which I will attend ; and yet not so but that I much for another as a man may do for himself; shall endeavour to prevent them by my care of now good counsel helpeth a man to help himself,

your good. And so I commend you to God's but you have so happy a master as supplieth all ;

goodness. my service and good will shall not be wanting.

Your most loving and assured friend and son, It was graciously and kindly done also of his

Fr. Bacon, C. S. majesty towards me to tell you that you were

Gorhambury, April 12, 1617. beholding to me; but it must be then, for thinking of you as I do; for otherwise, for speaking as I think, it is but the part of an honest man. I send you your patent, whereof God give you joy: A LETTER OF KING JAMES, WRITTEN TO HIS and I send you here enclosed a little note of LORDSHIP WHEN HE WAS LORD CHANCELLOR, remembrance for that part of the ceremony which WITH HIS MAJESTY'S OWN HAND, UPON THE concerneth the patent; for, as for other ceremo.

MAGNA, THEN NEWLY PUBLISHED. nies, I leave to others.

My lord chancellor despatched your patent My Lord,,I have received your letter, and presently upon the receipt ; and wrote to me your book; than the which you could not have how glad he was of it, and how well he wished sent a more acceptable present unto me. How you. If you write to him a few words of thanks, thankful I am for it cannot better be expressed I think you shall do well. God keep you, and by me than by a firm resolution I have taken; prosper you.

first, to read it through with care and attention, Your true and most devoted servant. though I should steal some hours from my sleep,

having otherwise as little spare time to read it as you had to write it. And then, to use the liberty

of a true friend in not sparing to ask you the A LETTER TO SIR GEORGE VILLIERS, ACKNOW- question in any point where I shall stand in LEDGING THE KING'S FAVOUR IN GRANTING doubt; “ Nam ejus est explicare cujus est conSOME SUIT OF HIS. AUGUST 22, 1616.

dere;" as, on the other part, I will willingly SIR,—I am more and more bound unto his give a due commendation to such places as in my majesty, who, I think, knowing me to have other opinion shall deserve it. In the mean time, I can ends than ambition, is contented to make me with comfort assure you, that you could not have judge of mine own desires. I am now beating made choice of a subject more befitting your my brains, (amongst many cares of his majesty's place, and your universal methodic knowledge ; business) touching the redeeming of time in this and in the general, I have already observed, that vusiness of cloth. The great question is, how to you jump with me in taking the midway between miss, or how to mate ‘he Flemings; how to pass the two extremes; as also in some particulars 1 boy them, or how to pass over them.

have found that you agree fully with my opinion. In my next letter 1 shall alter your style; but And so, praying God to give your work as good


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