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burdening, is so from the beginning, that which grind more with less wind. A thing very usetul is made by the expiration of the earth, or reper- for gain. cussion from above, a little while after, unless Next. Look concerning this upon our experi. the eruption, or precipitation, or reverberation, ments in the answer to the seven-and-twentieth be exceeding violent.
article, where the thing seems to be, as it were 8. Air will endure some compression before it done. be overburdened, and begins to thrust away the 3. Optative. To foreknow when winds will adjoining air, by reason whereof all winds are a rise and allay. A thing useful for navigation and little thicker than quiet and calın air.
for husbandry, especially for the choosing of 9. Winds are allayed five ways, either by the times for sea-fights. conjunction of vapours, or by their sublimation, Next. To this belong many of those things or by transporting them, or by their being spent. which are observed in the inquisition, and espe
10. Vapours are conjoined, and so the air itself cially in the answer to the two-and-thirtieth arbecomes water, four ways, either by abundance ticle. But a more careful observation hereafter aggravating, or by colds condensing, or by con- (if any shall apply their mind to it) will give far trary winds compelling, or by obstacles reverbe- more exact prognostics, the cause of the winds rating.
being already laid open. 11. Both vapours and exhalations, but wind 4. Optative. To give judgment, and make progvery frequently from vapours. But there is this nostics by winds, of other things, as, first, whether difference, that winds which are made of vapours they be continents or islands in the sea in any do more easily incorporate themselves into pure place, or rather a free, open sea; a thing very air, are sooner allayed, and are not so obstinate useful for new and unknown voyages. as those winds which are engendered of exha- Next. The next is the observation concerning lations.
constant and trade winds; that which Columbus 12. The manner and several conditions of heat seemed to make use of. have no less power in the generation of winds, 5. Optative. Likewise of the plenty or scarcity than the abundance or conditions of the matter. of corn every year. A thing useful for gain, and
13. The heat of the sun ought to be so pro- buying beforehand, and forestalling, as it is reportioned in the generation of winds, that it ported of 'Thales, concerning monopoly of olives. may raise them, but not in such abundance as Next. To this belong some things specified that they gather into rain, nor in so small a in the inquisition of winds, either hurtful or quantity, that they may be quite shaken off and shaking winds, and the times when they do hurt ; dispersed.
to the nine-and-twentieth article. 14. Winds blow from their nurseries, and the 6. Optative. Likewise concerning diseases and nurseries being disposed several ways, divers plagues every year. A thing useful for the credit winds for the most part blow together, but the of physicians, if they can foretell them, also for strongest either quite overthrows, or turns into its the causes and cures of diseases, and some other current the weakest.
civil considerations. 15. Winds are engendered everywhere, from Next. To this likewise belong some things the very superfices of the earth, up into the mid- set down in the inquisition to the thirtieth article. dle region of the air, the more frequent below, Monilion. Of predictions by wind concerning but the stronger above.
corn, fruits, and diseases, look upon histories of 16. The countries which have retaining or husbandry and physic. trade winds, if they be warm, have them warmer 7. Optative. How to raise winds and to allay than according to the measure of their climate; them. if they be cold, they have them colder.
Next. Concerning these things there are some
superstitious opinions, which do not seem worthy A Human Map, or Optatives, with such things as
to be inserted into a serious and severe natural are next to them concerning Winds.
history. Nor can I think of any thing that is
near in this kind. The design may be this, to Optatives.
look thoroughly into and inquire about the nature 1. To frame and dispose sails of ships in such of the air ; whether any thing may be found, a manner, that with less wind they might go a whereof a small quantity put into air may raise greater journey; a thing very useful to shorten and multiply the motion to dilatation, or contracjourneys by sea, and save charges.
tion in the body of the air. For out of this (if Next. The next invention precisely in prac- it might be done) would follow the raisings and lice I have not as yet found; yet, concerning that, allayings of winds. Such as that experiment of look upon our greater observations upon the six- Pliny is, concerning vinegar thrown against the and-twentieth article.
whirlwinds, if it were true. Another design 2. Opłative. That we could make windmills might be, by letting forth of winds out of sub. and their sails in such manner that they may terraneal places; if so be they should gather together anywhere in great abundance, as it is a Next. We have not leisure to enter into common and approved opinion of the well in consideration touching these things. Next to it Dalmatia; but to know such places of prisons, is that common report of the duels of winds. is very hard and difficult.
Questionless many such pleasant things might 8. Optative. To work many fine, pleasant, and very well be found out, both for motions and wonderful conceits by the motion of winds. sounds of winds.
TO THE HISTORIES DESTINED FOR THE NEXT FIVE MONTHS. ·
THE HISTORY OF DENSITY AND RARITY.
It is no marvel is nature be indebted to phi- | create out of nothing, and to reduce unto nothing, losophy and the sciences, seeing it was never yet and that by course of nature this can never be called upon to give an account, for there never done. Therefore the sum of the total matter was any diligent and dispensatory inquisition stands still whole, nothing is added, nothing is made of the quaintity of the matter, and how diminished; yet that this sum is divided by porthat had been distributed into bodies, (in some tions amongst the bodies is unquestionable, for copiously, in others sparingly,) according to the there can no man be so much beside himself true, or at least truest accounts that hath been through any subtile abstractions, as to think that truly received and approved of, that nothing is there is as much matter in one vessel of water as laken away and lost, or added unto the universal in ten vessels of water, nor likewise in one vessel
Likewise that place hath been treated upon of air as much as in ten vessels of air; but in by some, namely, how it can be loosened or con- the same body there is no question but that the tracted without intermixion or vacuity, according abundance of matter is multiplied according to to more or less: but the natures of density and the measure of the body, in divers bodies it is rarity, some have referred to the abundance or questionable. And if it be demonstrated that scarcity of the matter; another hath laughed at one vessel of water turned into air will yield ten the same; the greatest part, following their au- vessels of air, (for we take this computation for a rethor, to discuss and compose the whole matter by ceived opinion, though that of a hundred-fold be the that cold and weak distinction of act and power. truer,) it is well; for now they are no more divers Those also who attribute them to the reasons of bodies, water and air, but the same body of air matter, (which is the true opinion,) do neither in ten vessels; but one vessel of air (as it was quite deprive the materia prima, or primary matter but now granted) is but only the tenth part of ten of its quantum, or quantity, though for other vessels. Therefore it cannot be contradicted but forms they will have it equal, but here do termi- that in one vessel of water there is ten times more nate and end the matter, and seek no further, nor matter than in one vessel of air: therefore, if one do not perceive what followeth thereby; and should affirm, that one whole vessel of water either do not touch at all, or at least do not urge could be converted into one vessel of air, it were home that which hath a regard to infinites, and as much as if one should affirm that something is, as it were, the basis and ground of natural could be reduced to nothing; forasmuch as one philosophy.
tenth part of water would suffice to do it, and the First, therefore, that which is rightly set down other nine parts must of necessity be reduced to must not be moved nor altered; namely, that nothing; and, contrariwise, if one should affirme there is no transaction made in any transmutation that one vessel of air could be turned into a of bodies, either from nothing, or to nothing; but vessel of water, it would be as much as if he that they are works of the same omnipotence, to should say, that something could be created out
HISTORY OF SYMPATHY AND ANTIPATHY OF THINGS.
of nothing; for one vessel of air can attain and which will accrue thereby will largely recomreach but unto the tenth part of a vessel of water, pense. For to know the densities and rarities of and the other nine parts inust needs proceed from the body, and much more, how to procure and nothing. In the mean time we will plainly ac- effect the condensations and rarefactions, is of knowledge and confess, that to understand the great importance and moment both to contemplatrue means of the reasons and calculations of the tive and to the practice. Seeing, then, it is a how much part of the quantum, or how much of thing (if any there be at all) merely fundamental the matter which is in divers bodies, and by and universal, we must go carefully and prepared what industry and sagacity one may be truly about it, seeing that all philosophy without it is informed thereof, is a high matter to be inquired; loose and disjointed. but such as the great and largely extended profit
THE HISTORY OF HEAVY AND LIGHT.
The motion of gravity and lightness, the an- | any of the modern authors do any thing worth cients did illustrate with the name of natural speaking of concerning this, only by adding some motion, for they saw no external efficient, nor no few mechanical things, which they had also apparent resistance; yea, the motion seemed wrested with their demonstrations; but, laying swifter in its progress. This contemplation, or many words aside, it is most certain that a body rather speech, they seasoned with that mathemati- cannot suffer but by a body ; neither can there be cal phantasy of the staying or stopping of heavy any local motion made, unless it be solicited or things at the centre of the earth, (although the set forward, either by the parts of the body itself, earth should be bored quite thorow,) and that which is moved, or by the adjacent bodies, which scholastical invention of the motion of bodies to either touch it or are near unto it, or are, at least, their several places. Having laid, or set down within the orb of its activity. So that Gilbertus these things, supposing they had done their parts, did not unknowingly introduce magnetic powers, they looked no further, but only that which some he also becoming a loadstone, namely, drawing of them more carefully inqu after, nely, of more things by those powers than he should have the centre of gravity in divers figures, and of done, and building a ship, as it were, of a round such things as are carried by water. Neither did piece of wood.
THE HISTORY OF THE SYMPATHY AND ANTIPATHY
Strife and amity in nature, are the eggers on impure, which also they call natural magic, and. of motions, and the keys of works. Hence pro- (which always comes to pass,) where diligence ceeds the union and dissension of bodies ; hence and care hath wanted, there hath hope remained ; the mixion and separation of bodies; hence the but the operation thereof in men is merely like high and intimate impressions of virtues, and that unto certain soporiferous medicines, which cast which they call joining of actives with passives; one asleep, and do, moreover, send and infuse into finally, they are the great and wonderful works him merry and pleasant dreams. For, first, it of nature. But this part of philosophy, namely, casts man's understanding into a sleep, representof the sympathy and antipathy of things, is most ing unto him specifical properties and hidden vir
tues, whereby men awake no more, nor look after bodies; and still they have in their mouths, and, the finding and searching out of true causes, but like undertakers or sureries, they call upon the acquiesce and lie still in these idle ways. Then loadstone, and the consent which is between gold it insinuates an innumerable company of fictions, and quicksilver ; and some few things of this like unto dreams; and vain men hope to know kind they allege for to prove other things, which the nature by the outward shape and show, and, are not bound by any such like contract. But hy extrinsical similitudes, to discover inward God hath appointed the best of things to be properties. Their practice, also, is very like unto inquired out, and be wrought by labours and eniheir inquiry; for the precepts of natural magic deavours. We will be a little more careful in are such as if men should be confident that they searching out the law of nature and the mutual could subdue the earth, and eat their bread with contracts of things, neither favouring miracles, out the sweat of their brow, and to have power nor making too lowly and straitened an inquiover things by idle and easy applications of sition.
THE HISTORY OF SULPHUR, MERCURY, AND SALT.
THE ENTRANCE. Tuis triple of principles hath been introduced the vegetable and animal kind, they are oil and by the chymists, and, as concerning speculatives, water; in the inferior spiritual things, they are is of them which they bring the best invention. air and flame; in the heavenly, the body of a The most subtile and acute of these, and those who star, and the pure sky; but of this last duality we are most philosophical, will have the elements yet say nothing, though it seem to be a probable to be earth, water, air, and the sky; and those deciphering; for, if they mean by salt the fixed they will not have to be the matter of things, but part of the body which is not resolved either into the matrixes in which the specifical seeds of flame or smoke, this belongeth to the inquisition things do engender in the nature of a matrix. of fiuid and determinate things. But if we take But, for the materia prima, or primary matter, salt according to the letter, without any paraboli(which scholars do lay down, as it were, naked cal meaning, salt is no third thing from sulphur and indifferent,) they substitute those three, sul- and mercury, but mixed of both, connexed into phur, mercury, and salt; out of which all bodies one by an acrimonious and sharp spirit; for all are gathered together and mixed. We do accept manner of salt hath inflammable parts, and other of their words, bet their opinions are not very parts, also, which not only will not take fire, but sound. Yet that doth not ill agree with their do also abhor it and fly from it: yet the inquisiopinion, namely, that we hold two of them, to tion of salt, being somewhat allied to the inquiwit, sulphur and mercury, (taken according to sition of the other two, and exceeding useful as our sense,) to be very first and prime natures, being a tie and band of both natures, sulphureous and most inward figurations of matter, and almost and salt, and the very rudiment of life itself, we chief amongst the forms of the first class. But have thought fitting to comprehend it also within we may vary the words of sulphur and mercury, this history and inquisition; but, in the mean and name them otherwise, oily, waterish, fat, time, we give you notice, that those spiritual crude, inflammable, not inflammable, or the like. things, air, water, stars, and sky, we do (as they For these seem to be tw very great things of very well deserve it) reserve them for proper and the three, and which possess and penetrate the peculiar inquisitions, and here in this place to set universe, for, amongst subterraneal things, they down the history only of tangible, that is to say, are sulphur and mercury, as they are called; in mineral or vegetable sulphur and inercury.
THE HISTORY OF LIFE AND DEATH.
THE ENTRANCE. The entrance to this history will be found in the history itself, which follows next in order.
NATURAL AND EXPERIMENTAL,
LIF E A N D D E A TH,
THE PROLONGATION OF LIFE.
TO THE READER.
I am to give advertisement, that there came forth of late a translation of this book by an unknown person, who, though he wished well to the propagating of his lordship’s works, yet he was altogether unacquainted with his lordship’s style and manner of expressions, and so published a translation lame and defective in the whole. Whereupon, I thought fit to recommend the same to be translated anew, by a more diligent and zealous pen, which hath since travelled in it; and, though it still comes short of that lively and incomparable spirit and expression, which lived and died with the author, yet, I dare avouch it to be much more warrantable and agreeable than the former. It is true, this book was not intended to have been published in English; but, seeing it hath already been made free of that language, whatsoever benefit or delight may redound from it, I commend the same to the courteous and judicious reader.
TO THE PRESENT AGE, AND POSTERITY.
Although I had ranked the History of Life and Death as the last amongst my six monthly designations, yet I have thought fit, in respect of the prime use thereof, (in which the least loss of time ought to be esteemed precious,) to invert that order, and to send it forth in the second place. For I have hope, and wish, that it may conduce to a common good; and that the nobler sort of physicians will advance their thoughts, and not employ their times wholly in the sordidness of cures, neither be honoured for necessity only, but that they will become coadjutors and instruments of the Divine omnipotence and clemency in prolonging and renewing the life of man; especially, seeing I prescribe it to be done by safe, and convenient, and civil ways, though hitherto unassayed. For, though we Christians do continually aspire and pant after the land of promise, yet it will be a token of God's favour towards us in our journeyings through this world's wilderness, to have our shoes and garments (I mean those of our frail bodies) little worn or impaired.
FR. ST. ALBANS,