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of the sails, and so turn them, even as little it swiftens the motion of the sails) the whole whirligigs that children play withal, are turned frame of the mill. with the fingers.
4. It is reported that in some countries there 2 If the sails were extended even and equally, are coaches and wagons which move with the it would be doubtful which way the inclination wind; but this must be more diligently looked would be, as in the fall of a staff; but when the after. nearer side which meets with the wind casts the Mandate. Chariots moving by virtue of the violence of it upon the lower side and from wind can be of no use, unless it be in open places thence into distances, so that when the lower and plains; besides, what will be done if the side receives the wind, like the paim of the hand, wind allays ? It had been better to have thought or the sail of a ship’s boat, presently there is a of easing the motion of wagons and coaches by turning on that side. But this is to be observed, sails, which might be set up and taken down, 10 that the beginning of the motion proceeds not ease the oxen or horses which draw them, rather from the first impulsion, which is direct and than to make a motion by wind alone. abreast, but from the lateral impulsion, which is after the compression or straitening of the
Prognostics of Winds. wind. 3. We made some proofs and trials about this,
To the two-and-thirtieth article. Connexion. for the increasing of this motion, as well to be The more divination useth to be polluted by assured we had found the cause, as also for use; vanity and superstition, so much more is the purer feigning an imitation of this motion, with paper part of it to be received and honoured. But nasails, and the wind of a pair of bellows. We, tural divination is sometimes more certain, sometherefore, added to the side of the lower sail a times more slippery and deceitful, according to fold turned in from the wind, that the wind being the subject with which it hath to do; for if it be become a side wind might have somewhat more of a constant and regular nature, it causeth a to beat upon, which did no good, that fold not so certain prediction; if it be of a variable and irremuch assisting the percussion of the wind, as in gular nature, it may make a casual and deceitful consequence hindering the cutting of the air.one: yet, in a various subject the prediction will We placed behind the sails, at some distance, hold true, if it be diligently regulated; peradvencertain obstacles as broad as the diameter of all ture it may not hit upon the very moments, but the sails, that the wind being more compressed in the thing itself it will not err much. Likewise, might hit the stronger; but this did rather for the times of the event and complement, some hurt than good, the repercussion dulling the predictions will hit right enough, namely, those primary motion. Then we made the sails of which are not gathered from the causes, but from a double breadth, that the wind might be the the thing itself, already inchoated, but sooner apmore restrained, and there might be a stronger pearing in an apt and fitly disposed matter than lateral percussion, which at last proved very in another, as we said before in the topics conwell; so that the conversion was caused by a cerning this two-and-thirtieth article. We will far milder gale, and did turn a great deal more now, therefore, set forth the prognostics of winds, swiftly.
of necessity intermixing some of rain and fair Mandate. Peradventure this increase of motion weather, which could not conveniently be sepamight more conveniently be made by eight sails, rated, remitting the full inquiry of them to their than by four, doubling the breath, unless too proper titles. much weight did overburden the motion; which 1. If the sun appears hollow at its rising, it must have trial made of it.
will the very same day yield wind or rain; if it Mandate. Likewise the length of sails doth appears as it were a little hollow, it signifies much conduce to the motion. For in wheelings wind: if deeply hollow, rain. a slight violence about the circumference is equi- 2. If the sun rises pale, or (as we call it) valent to a far greater about the centre. But then waterish, it betokens rain; if it set so, it betothis inconvenience follows, that the longer the kens wind. sails are, the more distant they are at the top, 3. If the body of the sun itself appears at its and the wind is so much the less straitened. setting of the colour of blood, it betokens great Peradventure the business would go well if the winds for many days. sails were a little longer and broader towards the 4. If at sunrising its beams appears rather red lop, like the outermost end of an oar. But this than yellow, it signifies wind rather than rain, we are not sure of.
and the like if they appear so at its setting. Mulion. If these experiments be made trial 5. If at sunrising or setting its rays appear of in windmills, care must be taken of the wind contracted or shortened, and do not shine out mill posts, and the foundations of it; for the more bright, though the weather be not cloudy, it sige the wind is restrained, the more it snakes (though | nifies rain rather than wind,
6. If before sunrising there appear some rays or dusky, or any way blemished, it signifies as forerunners, it signifies both wind and rain. stormy and tempestuous days before the full
7. If the sun at its rising diffuses its rays moon; if it be ill coloured in the middle, temthrough the clouds, the middle of the sun re- pests will come about the full of the moon; if maining still under clouds, it shall signify rain, it be so about the upper part of the horn, they especially if those beams break out downwards, will be about the decreasing of the moon. that the sun appears as it were with a beard. 20. If at the fourth rising the moon appear But if the rays break forth out of the middle, or bright, with sharp horns, not lying fiat, nor standdispersed, and its exterior body, or the out parts ing upright, but in a middle kind of posture beof it, be covered with clouds, it foreshows great tween both, it promises fair weather for the most tempests both of wind and rain.
part until the next new moon. 8. If the sun, when it rises, be encompassed 21. If at the same rising it be red, it portends with a circle, let wind be expected from that side winds; is dusky or black, rain; but, howsoever, on which the circle opens. But if the circle fall it signifies nothing beyond the full moon. off all at one time it will be fair weather.
22. An upright inoon is almost always threaten9. If at the setting of the sun there appears a ing and hurtful, but it chiefly portends winds; white circle about it, it signifies some small storm but if it have blunt horns, and as it were cut off the same night; if black or darkness, much wind short, it rather signifies rain. the day following.
23. If one horn of the moon be sharp and the 10. If the clouds look red at sunrising, they other blunt, it signifies wind; if both be blunt, are prognostics of wind; if at sunsetting, of a rain. fair ensuing day.
24. If a circle or halo appear about the moon, 11. If about the rising of the sun clouds do it signifies rain rather than wind, unless the gather themselves about it, they foreshow rough moon stands directly within that circle, for then storms that day; but if they be driven back from it signifies both. the rising towards the setting of the sun, they 25. Circles about the moon always foreshow signify fair weather.
winds on that side where they break; also a no12. If at sunrising the clouds be dispersed table shining in some part of the circle, signifies from the sides of the sun, some south ward, and winds from that part where the shining is. some northward, though the sky be clear about 26. If the circles about the moon be double or the sun, it foreshows wind.
treble, they foreshow horrible and rough tem13. If the sun goes down in a cloud, it fore- pests, and especially if those circles be not whole, shows rain the next day; but if it rains at sun- but spotted and divided. setting it is a token of wind rather. But if the 27. Full moons, as concerning the colours and clouds seem to be as it were drawn towards the circles, do in a manner foreshow the same things, sun, it signifies both wind and storms.
as the fourth rising, but more present, and not so 14. If clouds at the rising of the sun seem not long delayed. to encompass it, but to lie over it, as if they were 28. Full moons use to be more clear than the about to eclipse it, they foreshow the rising of other ages of the moon, and in winter use to be winds on that side as the clouds incline. And far colder. if they do this about noon, they signify both 29. The moon appearing larger at the going wind and rain.
down of the sun, if it be splendent and not dusky, 15. If the clouds have encompassed the sun, betokens fair weather for many days. the less light they leave it, and the lesser the orb 30. Winds almost continually follow the of the sun appears, so much the more raging eclipses of the moon, and fair weather the shall the tempest be; but if there appear a double eclipses of the sun; rain comes after neither. or treble orb, as though there were two or three 31. From the conjunctions of any of the planets, suns, the tempest will be so much the more vio- but only the sun, you may expect winds both belent for many days.
fore and after; from their conjunctions with the 16. New moons presage the dispositions of the sun, fair weather. air; but especially the fourth rising of it, as if it 32. At the rising of the Pleiades and Hyades were a confirmed new moon. The full moons come showers of rain, but calm ones; after the likewise do presage more than the days which rising of Arcturus and Orion, tempests. come after.
33. Returning and shooting stars (as we call 17. By long observation the fifth day of the them) signify winds to come from that place moon is feared by mariners for stormy.
whence they run, or are shot; but if they fix 18. If the new moon do not appear before the from several, or contrary parts, it is a sign of fourth day, it foreshows a troubled air for the great approaching storms of wind and rain. whole month.
34. When such little stars as those which are 19. If the new moon, at her first appearance, called Aselli are not seen generally all over the or within a few days, have its lower horn obscure sky, it foreshows great tempests and rain within
some few days; but if they be seen in some 45. If at sunsetting there arise black and dark places, and not in other some, it foreshows winds clouds, they presage rain; if against the sun, only, and that suddenly.
namely, in the east, the same night; is near the 25. The sky, when it is all over bright, in a sun in the west, the next day, with winds. new moon, or at the fourth rising of it, portends 46. The clearing of a cloudy sky, if it begins fair weather for many days; if it be all over dark, against the wind which then blows, signifies it foreshows rain; if partly dark and partly fair, clear, fair weather; with the wind it betukens it portends wind of that side where the darkness nothing, but the thing remains uncertain. is seen; but if it grow dark on a sudden, without 47. There are sometimes seen several, as it either cloud or mist to dim the brightness of the were, chambers, or joined stories of clouds, one stars, there are great and rough tempests a- above the other, (so as Gilbertus affirms, he hath breeding.
seen five of them together,) and always the black36. If an entire circle encloseth a planet, or est are lowermost, though sometimes it appears any of the greater stars, it foreshows wind; if it otherwise, because the whitest do more allure the be a broken circle, winds from those parts where sight. A double conjunction of stories, is it be the circle is deficient.
thick, shows approaching rain, (especially is the 37. When the thunder is more than the light- lower cloud seem, as it were, big with child;) nings, there will be great winds; but if the light- more conjunctions presage continuance of rage. ninys be thick amidst the thundering, it fore- 48. If clouds spread abroad like flerces of wool shows thick showers, with great drops.
here and there, they foreshow tempests; but if 38. Morning thunders signify wind; midday they lie one atop of another, like scales or tiles, thunders, rain.
they presage drought and clear weather. 39. Bellowing thunders, which do as it were 19. Feathered clouds, like to the boughs of a pass along, presage winds; and those which palm tree, or the flowers of a rainbow, are proge make a sharp and unequal noise, presage storms nostics of present rain, or immediately to follow. both of wind and rain.
50. When hills and hillocks look as though 40. When it lightens in a clear sky, winds are they wore caps, by reason of the clouds lying at hand, and rain from the part where it lightens; upon them, and encompassing them, it presages but if it lightens in diverse parts, there will fol- imminent tempests. low cruel and horrid tempests.
51. Amber, or gold colour clouds before sun. 41. If it lightens in the cold quarters of the setting, that have, as it were, gilded helms or bore heavens, namely, the east and north, hail will ders, after the sun begins to be quite down, follow; if in the warmer, namely, south and foreshow fair, clear weather. west, we shall have rain and a warm sky.
52. Grayish, and, as it were, clay-coloured 42. Great heats after the sammer solstice, and clouds, show that rain, with wind, are drawing on. commonly with thunder and lightning, and if 53. Some petty cloud showing itself suddenly, those come not, there will be wind and rain for having not been seen before, and all the sky clear many days.
about it, especially if it be in the west, and about 43. The globe of flame, which the ancients noon, shows there is a storın a-coming. called Castor, which is seen by mariners and 54. Clouds and mists ascending, and going seafaring men at sea, if there be but one, upward, presage rain, and that this be done sudpresages a cruel tempest, (Castor is the dead denly, so that they be, as it sucked
up, they brother,) and much more, if it stick not close to presage rain, but if they fall, and reside in the the mast, but dances up and down; but if they valleys, they presage fair weather. be twins, (and Pollux the living brother be pre- 55. A big cloud growing white, which the sent,) and that when the tempest is high, it is a ancients called a white tempest, in summer, is a good presage; but if there be three, (namely, if forerunner of small hail, like comfits, in winter, Helen, the plague of all things, come in,) it will snow. be a more cruel tempest: so that one seems to 56. A fair and clear autumn presages a windy show the indigested matter of the storm; two, a winter; a windy winter a rainy spring; a rainy digested and ripe matter; three or more, an spring, a clear summer; a clear summer, a windy abundance that will hardly be dispersed. autumn. So that the year (as the proverb goes)
44. If we see the clouds drive very fast when is seldom its own debtor, and the same order of it is a clear sky, we must look for winds from seasons will scarce happen two years together. that way from which the clouds are driven; but 57. Fires upon the hearth, when they look if they wheel and tumble up together, when the paler than they are accustomed, and make a mursun draws near to that part in which they are muring noise within themselves, do presage temlumbled up together, they will begin to scatter pests. And if the flame rises, bending and turoand sever; and if they part most towards the ing, it signifies wind chiefly; and when the snuffs north, it betokens wind; if towards the south, of lamps and candles grow like mushrooms with rain.
broad heads, it is a sign of rainy weather.
58. Coals shining bright, and sparkling over- and melancholy upon the san.1, or a crow walking much, signify wind.
up and down, do presage wind only. 59. When the superficies of the sea is calm and 73. Dulphins playing in a calm sea are thought smooth in the harbour, and yet murmurs within to presage wind from that way they come; and, itself, though it doth not swell, signifies wind. if they play and throw up water when the sea is
60. The shores resounding in a calm, and the rough, they presage fair weather. And most sound of the sea itself, with a clear noise, and a kinds of fishes swimming on the top of the water, certain echo, heard plainer and further than ordi- and sometimes leaping, do prognosticate wind. nary, presages winds.
74. Upon the approach of wind, swine will be 61. If, in a calm and smooth sea, we espy froth so terrified and disturbed, and use such strange here and there, or white circles of bubbles of actions, that country people say that creature only water, they are prognostics of winds; and if these can see the wind, and perceive the horridness of it. presages be very apparent, they foreshow rough 75. A little before the wind spiders work and tempests.
spin carefully, as if they prudently forestalled the 62. If, in a rough sea, there appear a shining time, knowing that in windy weather they cannot froth, (which they call sea-lungs,) it foreshows a work. lasting tempest for many days.
76. Before rain, the sound of bells is heard 63. If the sea swell silently, and rises higher further off; but before wind it is heard more unthan ordinary within the harbour, or the tide come equally, drawing near and going further off, as it in sooner than it uses to do, it foretells wind. doth when the wind blows really.
64. Sound from the hills, and the murmur of 77. Pliny affirms for a certain, that three-leaved woods growing louder, and a noise in open cham- grass creeps together, and raises its leaves against pion fields, portend wind. Also a prodigious a storm. murmuring of the element, without thunder, for 78. He says likewise, that vessels, which food the most part, presages winds.
is put into, will leave a kind of sweat in cupboards, 65. Leaves and straws playing on the ground, which presage cruel storms. without any breath of wind that can be felt, and
Monition. Seeing rain and wind have almost a the down of plants flying about, feathers swim- common matter, and seeing always before rain ming and playing upon the water, signify that there is a certain condensation of the air, caused wind is near at hand.
by the new air received into the old, as it appears 66. Waterfowls flying at one another, and flying by the sounding of the shores, and the high flight together in flocks, especially sea-mews and gulls, of herns, and other things; and seeing the wind flying from the sea and lakes, and hastening to likewise thickens, (but afterward in rain the air is the banks and shores, especially if they make a more drawn together, and in winds, contrariwise, noise and play upon dry land, they are prognos- it is enlarged,) of necessity winds must have many tics of winds, especially if they do so in the prognostics common with the rain. Whereof morning.
advise with the prognostics of rain, under their 67. But, contrari wise, sea-fowls going to the own title. water, and beating with their wings, chattering, and bathing themselves, especially the crow, are
Imitations of Winds. all presages of storms.
To the three-and-thirtieth article. Connexion. 68. Duckers and ducks cleanse their feathers If men could be persuaded not to fix their conwith their bills against the wind; but geese, with templations overmuch upon a propounded subject, their importunate crying, call for rain.
and reject others, as it were, by-the-by; and that 69. A hern flying high, so that it sometimes they would not subtilize about that subject in infi. flies over a low cloud, signifies wind; but kites, nitum, and for the most part unprofitably, they when they fly high, foreshow fair weather. would not be seized with such a stupor as they
70. Crows, as it were, barking after a sobbing are; but, transferring their thoughts, and dismanner, if they continue in it, do presage winds, coursing, would find many things at a distance, but if they catchingly swallow up their voice which near at hand are hidden. So that, as in the again, or croak a long time together, it signifies civil law, so we must likewise in the law of that we shall have some showers.
nature, we must carefully proceed to semblable 71. A chattering owl was thought by the things, and such as have a conformity between ancients to foretell change of weather; if it were them. fair, rain; if cloudy, fair weather. But, with 1. Bellows with men are Æolus his bags, out us, the owl making a clear and free noise, for the of which one may take as much as he needeth. most part, signifies fair weather, especially in And likewise spaces between, and openings of winter.
hills, and crooks of buildings, are but, as it were, 72. Birds perching in trees, if they fly to their large bellows. Bellows are most useful either to nests, and give over feeding betimes, it presages kindle fire or for musical organs. The manner of tempest. But the hern, standing, as it were, sad the working of bellows is by sucking in ofte air
shun vacuity, (as they say,) and to send it out trary to the waves below ; so in the air, when by compression.
contrary winds blow together, one flies over the 2. We also use hand fans to make a wind, and other. As there are cataracts of rain within a nar. to cool, only hy driving forward of the air softly. row space, so there are whirlwinds. As waters,
3. The cooling of summer-rooms we spake of however they go forward, yet, if they be troubled, in answer to the ninth article. There may other swell up into waves, sometimes ascending, grow more curious means be found, especially if the air up into heaps, sometimes descending, are as it be drawn in somewhere after the manner of bel- were furrowed; so the winds do the same, lows, and let out at another place; but those only want the notion of gravity. There are also which are now in use have relation only to mere other similitudes which may be observed and compression.
gathered out of those things which have already 4. The breath in man's microcosmos, and in been inquired about. other animals, do very well agree with the winds in the greater world; for they are engendered by Movable Rules concerning Winds. humours, and alter with moisture as wind and rain doth, and are dispersed and blow freer by a greater heat.
And from them that observation is Rules are either particular or general, both 10 be transferred to the winds, namely, that with us are movable; for, as yet, we have not breaths are engendered of matter that yields a affirmed any thing positively. Particular rules tenacious vapour, not easy to be dissolved; as may be taken and gathered almost out of every beans, pulse, and fruits; which is so likewise in article. We will cull out some general ones, greater winds.
and those but a few, and add thereunto. 5. In the distilling of vitriol and other minerals 1. Wind is no other thing but moved air; but which are most windy, they must have great and the air itself moved either by a simple impulsion, large receptacles, otherwise they will break. or by commixion of vapours.
6. Wind composed of nitre and gunpowder, 2. Winds, by a simple impulsion, are caused breaking out and swelling, the flame doth not only four ways, either by the natural motion of the imitate but also exceed winds, which blow abroad air, or by expansion of the air in the sun's ways; in the world, unless they be such as are made by or by reception of air thorow a sudden cold, or thunder.
by the compression of the air by external bodies. 7. But the forces of it are pressed in, as in hu- There may be also a fifth way, by the agitation man engines, as guns, mines, and powder-houses and concussion of the air by stars. But let these set on fire. But it hath not yet been tried whe- things be a while silent, or be given ear unto with ther, in open air, a great heap of gunpowder set on a sparing belief. fire would raise a wind for certain hours, by the 3. Of winds which are made by immixion of commotion of the air.
vapours, the chief cause is the overburdening 8. There lies hidden a flatuous and expansive of the air by air newly made out of vapours, spirit in quicksilver, so that it doth (in some whereby the mass of the air grows bigger, and men's opinions) imitate gunpowder, and a little seeks new room. of it mixed with gunpowder will make the powder 4. A small quantity of air added, causeth a stronger. Likewise, the chymists speak the same great tumour of the air round about it, so that of gold, that being prepared some way, it will new air out of the resolution of vapours doth break out dangerously like to thunder; but these confer more to motion than to matter. But the great things I never tried.
body of wind consists in the former air, neither
doth the new air drive the old air before it, as if A greater Observation.
they were several bodies, but being both comThe motion of winds is for most things seen, mixed, they desire larger room. as it were, in a looking-glass, in the motion of 5. When any other beginning of motion conwaters.
curs, besides the overburdening of the air, it is Great winds are inundations of the air, as we an accessory which strengtheneth and increaseth see inundations of waters, both through the aug- that principal, which is the reason that great and mentation of the quantity. As waters either de violent winds do seldom rise, by the simple overscend from above, or spring out of the earth, so burdening of the air. some winds are cast down, and some rise up. As 6. Four things are accessory to the overbur sometimes in rivers there are contrary motions, dening of the air. The breathing out of subter. one of the flowing of the sea, the other of the cur- raneal places; the casting down out of (as it is rent of the river, yet both become one motion, by called) the middle region of the air; dissipation the prevailing of the flood ; so, when contrary made out of a cloud, and the mobility and acriwinds blow, the greater subdues the lesser. As mony of the exhalation itself. in the currents of the sea, and of some rivers, it 7. The motion of the wind is for the most part sometimes falls out, that the waves above go con- lateral; but that which is made by mere over,