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of winds returns after every four years, which of the winds. Then, when they have found a seems not to be true, för revolutions are not so current, where the air makes no resistance, (as quick. This indeed hath been by some men's water when it finds a falling way,) then, whatso diligence observed, that greatest and most notable ever semblable matter they find by the way, they seasons (for heat, snow, frost, warm winters, and take into their fellowship, and mix it with their cold summers) for the most part return after the currents even as rivers do. So that the winds revolution of five-and-thirty years.

blow always from that side where their nurseries

are which feed them. The Molion of the Winds.

5. Where there are no notable nurseries in any To the twenty-second, twenty-third, twenty-fourth, twenty

certain place, the winds stray very much, and do fifth, twenty-sixth, and twenty-seventh articles. Con easily change their current, as in the middle of nexion.

the and large spacious fields. Men talk as if the wind were some body of it- 6. Where there are great nurseries of the winds self, and by its own force did drive and agitate in one place, but in the way of its progress it the air. Also, when the wind changes its place, hath but small additions, there the winds blow they talk as if it did transport itself into another strongly in their beginnings, and by little and place. This is the vulgar's opinion; yet the little they allay; and contrariwise, where they philosophers themselves apply no remedy there- find good store of matter to feed on by the way, unto, but they likewise stammer at it, and do not they are weak in the beginning, but gather any way contradict and oppose these errors. strength by the way.

1. We must therefore inquire concerning the 7. There are movable nurseries for the winds, raising of the motion of the winds, and of the namely, in the clouds, which many times are direction of it, having already inquired of the carried far away from the nurseries of vapours local beginnings; and of those winds which have of which those clouds were made, by winds their beginning of motion in their first impulsion, blowing high; then the nursery of the wind as in those which are cast down from above or begins to in that place where the clouds do blow out of the earth, the raising of their motion begin to be dissolved into wind. is manifest: others descend below their own be- 8. But the whirling of winds does not happen, ginnings; others ascend, and being resisted by because the wind which blows at first transports the air, become voluminous, especially near the itself, but because either that is allayed and spent, angles of their violence; but of those which are or brought into order by another wind; and all engendered everywhere in this inferior air, (which this business depends on the various placings of are the frequentest of all the winds,) the inquisi- the nurseries of winds, and variety of times, tion seems to be somewhat obscure, although it when vapours issuing out of these nurseries are be a vulgar thing, as we have set down in the dissolved. commentation under the eighth article.

9. If there be nurseries of winds on contrary 2. We found likewise an image or representa- parts, as one nursery on the south, another on the tion of this in that close tower which we spake of north side, the strongest wind will prevail ; neibefore; for we varied that trial three ways. The ther will there be contrary winds, but the stronger first was that which we spake of before ; namely, wind will bfow continually, though it be somea fire of clear burning coals. The second was a what dulled and tamed by the weaker wind, as kettle of seething water, the fire being set away, it is in rivers, when the slowing of the sea comes and then the motion of the cross of feathers was in; for the sea's motion prevails, and is the only more slow and dull. The third was with both fire one, but it is somewhat curbed by the motion of and kettle; and then the agitation of the cross of the river; and if it so happen that one of those feathers was very vehement, so that sometimes it contrary winds, namely, that which was the would whirl up and down, as if it had been in a strongest, be allayed, then presently the contrary petty whirlwind, the water yielding store of va- will blow, from that side where it blew before, pours, and the fire which stood by it dissipating but lay hidden under the force and power of the and dispersing them.

greater. 3. So that the chief cause of exciting motion 10. As for example, if the nursery be at the in the winds is the overcharging of the air by a north-east

, the north-east wind will blow; but it new addition of air engendered by vapours. there be two nurseries of winds, namely, another Now we must see concerning the direction of in the north, those winds for some tract of way the motion, and of the whirling, which is a will blow severally, but after the angle of conchange of the direction.

fluence where they come together they will blow 4. The nurseries and food of the winds doth to the north-east, or with some inclination, accordgovern their progressive motion; which nur- ing as the other nursery shall prove stronger. series and feedings are like unto the springs of 11. If there be a nursery of wind on the north rivers ; namely, the places where there are great side, which may be distant from some country store of vapours, for there is the native country twenty miles, and is the stronger; another on the

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east side, which is distint some ten miles, and is fers from the swelling of waters into waves in weaker; yet the east wind will blow for some this, that in waters, after the waves are risen on hours, and a while after (namely, when its high, they of themselves, and their own accord, journey is ended) the north wind.

do again fall to the place of them; whence it 12. If the northern wind blow, and some hill comes that (whatsoever poets say when they stands in the way of it on the west side, a little aggravate tempests, namely, that the waves are while after the north-east wind will blow, com- raised up to heaven, and again sink down to hell) pounded by the original, and that which is beaten the descent of the waves do not precipitate much back again.

below the plane and superficies of the water. 13. If there be a nursery of winds in the earth But in the swelling of the air, where the motion on the northern side, and the breath thereof be of gravity or weight is wanting, the air is thrust carried directly upward, and it find a cold cloud down and raised almost in an equal manner. And on the west side, which turns it off the contrary thus much of undulation. Now we must inquire way, there will blow a north-east wind.

of the motion of conflict or striving. 14. Munition. Nurseries of winds in sea and 19. The conflicts of winds and compounded land are constant, so that the spring and be conflicts we have partly inquired already. It is ginning of them may be the better perceived; plain that winds are ubiquitary, especially the but the nurseries of winds in the clouds are mildest of them. Which is likewise manifest by movable, so that in one place there is matter this, that there are few days and hours wherein furnished for the winds, and they are formed in some gales do not blow in free places, and that another, which makes the direction of motion in inconstantly and variously enough. For winds winds to be more confused and uncertain. which do not proceed from greater nurseries are

Those things we have produced for example's vagabond and voluble, as it were, playing one sake, the like are after the like manner; and with the other, sometimes driving forward, and hitherto of the direction of the motion of winds: sometimes flying back. now we must see concerning the longitude, and, 20. It hath been seen sometimes at sea, that as it were, the itinerary or journey of the winds, winds have come from contrary parts together, though it may seein we have already inquired of which was plainly to be perceived by the perturthis under the notion of the latitude of winds; bation of the water on both sides, and the calmfor lrtitude may by unlearned men also be taken ness in the middle between them ; but after those for longitude, if winds take up more space late contrary winds have met, either there hath folrally than they go forward in longitude.

lowed a general calm of the water everywhere, 14. If it be true that Columbus could upon namely, when the winds have broken and quelled the coasts of Portugal judge of the continent of one another equally; or the perturbation of the America by the constant winds from the west, water hath continued, namely, when the stronger truly, the winds can travel a long journey. wind hath prevailed.

15. If it be true that the dissolution of snows 21. It is certain that, in the mountains of Peru, about the frozen seas, and Scandia do excite and it hath often chanced that the wind at one time raise northerly winds in Italy and Greece, &c., hath blown on the tops of the hills one way, and in the dogdays, surely these are long journeys. in the valleys the clean contrary way.

16. It hath not yet been observed how much 22. It is likewise certain here with us, that the sooner a storm does arrive, according to the way clouds are carried one way, when the wind near it comes, (as for example, if it be an eastern us hath blown the contrary way. wind,) how much sooner it comes from the east, 23. It is likewise certain, that sometimes the and how much later from the west. And so much higher clouds will outfly the lower clouds, so that concerning the motion of winds in their progres- they will go diverse, yea, and contrary ways, as sion or going forward: now we must see concern- it were in contrary currents. ing the undulation or swelling of winds.

24. It is likewise certain, that sometimes in the 17. The undulation or swelling of winds is done higher part of the air winds have been neither dis. in a few moments, so that a wind will (though it tracted nor moved forward; when here below be strong) rise and fall by turns, at the least a they have been driven forward with a mad kind hundred times in an hour; whereby it appears of violence, for the space of half a mile. that the violence of winds is unequal; for neither 25. And it is likewise certain, contrariwise, vivors, though swift, nor currents in the sea, that here below the air hath been very still, when though strong, do rise in waves, unless the blow- above the clouds have been carried with a fresh ing of wind be joined thereunto, neither hath the and merry gale; but that happen more seldom. fwelling of winds any equality in itself; for like unto the pulse of one's hand, sometimes it beats,

An indirect experiment, and sometimes it intermits.

Likewise in waves, sometimes the upper water 18 The undulation or swelling of the air dif- is swifter, sometimes the lower; and sometimes


there are (but that is seldom) several currents of deep, and eighty-four feet broad at the bottoni, water, of that which is upperinost, and that which and forty-two at the top. lieth beneath.

11. The main-topsail was seven-and-twenty 26. Nor are Virgil's testimonies altogether to feet deep, and two-and-forty broad at the bottom, be rejected, he being not utterly unskilful in natu- and one-and-twenty at the top. ral philosophy

12. The foremast mainsail was forty feet and Together rush the east and south-east wind,

a half deep, and seventy-two feet broad. Nor doth wave calling south-west stay behind.

13. The topsail was six-and-forty feet and a And again :

half deep, and sixty-nine feet broad at the bottom,

and six-and-thirty at the top. I all the winds have seen their battles join.

14. The main-topsail was four-and-twenty feet We have considered of the motions of winds, in deep, six-and-thirty feet broad at the bottom, and the nature of things: we must now consider their eighteen feet at the top. motions in human engines; and, first of all, in the 15. The mizen-mainsail was on the upper part sails of ships.

of the yard one-and-fifty feet broad; in that part

which was joined to the yard seventy-two feet; The Motion of Winds in the Sails of Ships.

the rest ending in a sharp point. 1. In our greatest Britain, ships (for we have 16. The topsail was thirty feet deep, fisty. chosen those for our pattern) there are four masts, seven feet broad at the bottom, and thirty feet and sometimes five, set up one behind the other, at the top. in a direct line drawn through the middle of the 17. If there be two mizenmasts, the hindership. Which masts we will name thus:

most sails are less than the foreniast about the 2. The mainmast, which stands in the middle fifth part. of the ship; the foremast, the mizenmast, (which 18. The mainsail of the boarsprit was eightis sometimes double,) and the spritmast. and-twenty feet deep and a half, and sixty feet

3. Each mast consists of several pieces, which broad. may be lifted up, and fashioned with several knots

19. The topsail five-and-twenty feet and a half and joints, or taken away; some have three of deep, and sixty feet broad at the bottom, and them, some only two.

thirty at the top. 4. The spritsail-mast from the lower joint lies

20. The proportions of masts and sails do vary, bending over the sea, from that it stands upright; not only according to the bigness of ships, but all the other masts stand upright.

also according to the several uses for which they 5. Upon these masts hang ten sails, and when are built: some for fighting, some for merchanthere be two mizenmasts, twelve; the mainmast dise, some for swiftness, &c. But the proportion and foremast have three tiers of sails, which we of the dimension of sails is no way proportioned will call the mainsail, the topsail, and the main to the number of tons whereof the ships consist, topsail; the rest have but two, wanting the main- seeing a ship of five hundred tons, or thereabout, topsail.

may bear almost as large a sail as the other 6. The sails are stretched out across, near the we speak of, which was almost as big again. top of every joint of the mast, by certain beams whence it proceeds that lesser ships are far which we call yards, to which the upper parts of swister and speedier than great ones, not only by the sails are fastened, the lower parts are fastened reason of their lightness, but also by reason of with ropes at each corner; the mainsails to the the largeness of their sails, in respect of the sides of the ship, top and main-topsails to the body of the ship; for to continue that proportion yards which are next below them.

in bigger ships would be too vast and impossible 7. The yard of every mast hangs across, only a thing. the yards of the mizenmast hang sloping, one 21. Each sail being stretched out at the top, end up, and the other down; in the rest they hang and only tied by the corners at the bottom, the straight across the masts, like unto the letter T. wind must needs cause it to swell, especially

8. The mainsails of the mainmast, foremast, about the bottom, where it is slacker. and boarsprit, are of a quadrangular parallello- 22. The swelling is far greater in the lower gram form; the top and main-topsails somewhat sails than in the upper, because they are not only sharp, and growing narrow at the top; but the parallelograms, and the other more pointed at the top mizensails are sharp, the lower or mainsails top, but also because the extent of the yard doth triangular.

so far exceed the breadth of the ship's sides to 9. In a ship of eleven hundred tons, which which they are fastened, that of necessity, bewas one hundred and twelve feet long in the cause of the looseness, there must be a great ree keel, and forty in breadth in the hold; the main- ceipt for the wind; so that in the great shij. sail of the mainmast was two-and-forty feet deep, which we proposed for an example, the swelling and eighty-seven feet broad.

of the sail in a direct wind may be nine or te! 10. The topsail of the same mast was fifty feet feet inward,



23. By the same reason it also happens that 31. The lower boarsprit-sail can hardly ever be all sails which are swelled by the wind, do gather unuseful, for it cannot be robbed from gathering themselves into a kind of arch or bow, so that of the wind which way soever it doth blow, either necessity much wind must slip through ; inso- about the ship sides, or under the rest of the much, that in such a ship as we made mention sails. of, that arch may be as high as a man.

32. There is considerable* in the motion of 24. But in the triangular sail of the mizenmast winds in ships, both the impulsion and direction there must of necessity be a lesser swelling than of them. For that direction, which is made by in the quadrangular; as well because that figure the helm, doth not belong to the present inquisi. is less capable, as, also, because that in the quad- tion, but only as it hath a connexion with the rangular three sides are slack and loose, but in motion of the winds in the sails. the triangular only two, so that the wind is more Connexion. As the motion of impulsion or sparingly received.

driving forward is in force at the beak, so is the 25. The motion of the wind in sails, the nearer motion of Jirection in the poop; therefore, for it comes to the beak of the ship, the stronger it is, that the lower mizenmast sail is of greatest conand sets the ship more forward, partly because it cernment, for it is, as it were, an assistant to is in a place where, because of the sharpness of the helm. the beak-head, the waves are easilier cut in sun- 33. Seeing the compass is divided into two-andder; but, chiefly, because the motion at the beak thirty points, so that the semicircles of it are draws on the ship; the motion from the stern sixteen points, there may be a progressive sailing, and back part of the ship doth but drive it. (without any casting aboard, which is used when

26. The motion of the winds in the sails of the the wind is clean contrary,) though of the sixteen upper tier advances more than that in the lower parts there be but six favourable, and the other tier, because a violent motion is most violent ten contrary. But that kind of sailing depends when it is farthest removed from resistance, as in much upon the lower sail of the mizeninast. For the wings and sails of windmills; but there is whilst the adverse parts of the wind, being more danger of drowning or overturning the ship: powerful and not to be opposed by the helm wherefore those sails are made narrower at the alone, would turn the other sails, and the ship top, that they should not take in too much wind, itself, against its intended course, that sail being and are chiefly made use of when there is not stiffly stretched, favouring the helm, and strengthmuch wind.

ening its motion, turns the beak into the way of 27. Sails being placed in a direct line, one its course. behind the other, of necessity those sails which 34. All manner of wind in the sails doth some. stand behind sust steal the wind from the fore- what burden and depress the ship, and so much most when the wind blows foreright; wherefore, the more when it blows most from above. So if they be all spread out at once, the force of the that in the greatest storms, first they lower their wind hath scarce any power but in the mainmast yards and take away the upper sails, and if need sails, with little help of the lower sails of the be, all the rest, cut down the masts, cast their boarsprit.

goods into the sea, and their ordnance, &c., to 28. The best and most convenient ordering of lighten the ship and make it swiin and give sails, in a direct wind, is to have the two lower way to the waves. sails of the foremast hoisted up, for there (as we 35. By this motion of the winds in the sails of said before) the motion is most effectual ; let also ships, (if it be a merry and prosperous gale,) the topsail of the mainmast be hoisted up, for merchant's ship may sail sixscore Italian miles there will be so much room left under it, that in four-and-twenty hours; for there are certain there may be wind sufficient for the foresails, packet boats which are built a purpose for swiftwithout any notable stealing of the wind from ness, (that are called caravels,) which will go them.

further. But when the wind is clean contrary, 29. By reason of the hinder sails stealing of they fly to this last refuge, and a very weak one, the wind away from the foresails, we sail swifter to go on their course, namely, to proceed side with a side wind than with a fore wind. For way, as the wind will suffer them, out of their with a side wind all the sails may be made use course, then turn their way again towards their of, for they turn their sides to one another, and so course, and so proceed in an angular way. By hinder nor rob not one another.

which progression (which is less than creeping, 30. Likewise, when a side wind blows, the for serpents creep on by crooked turnings, but sails are stiiflier stretched out against the wind, they make angles) they may, in four-and-iu enty which somewhat restrains the wind, and sends it lours, go fifteen miles journey. that way as it should blow, whereby it gains some strength. But that wind is most advantageous

Greater Observations. which blows cornerly between a fore wind and a 1. This motion of winds in sails of ships hath si le wind



* i. e. to be considered.

three chief heads and fountains of its impulsion, sail as much as they can which is opposite against or driving forward, from whence it flows and the wind : and by that means they set in the wind derives; whence also precepts may be taken to into that part where it should blow. And this increase and strengthen it.

they do and intend. But, in the mean season, 2. The first spring comes from the quantity of this follows, (which, peradventure, they do not the wind which is received; for questionless perceive,) that the wind is more contracted, and more wind helps more than less; wherefore the strikes more sharply. quantity of wind must be carefully procured, 9. What may be added to human industry in which will be done if, like wise householders, we this, I cannot perceive, unless the figure of the be good husbands, and take care nothing be stolen sails be changed, and some sails be made which from us.

Wherefore we must be very careful shall not swell round, but, like a spur or a triant! at no wind may be lost.

gle, with a mast or piece of timber in that corner 3. The wind blows either above the ships or of the top, that they may contract the wind more below them, to the very superficies and surface sharply, and cut the outward air more powerfully. of the sea; and as provident men use to look And that angle (as we suppose) must not be allomost after the least things, (for the greater no man gether sharp, but like a short obtuse triangle, can choose but look after,) so we will first look that it may have some breadth. Neither do we after these lower winds, which questionless cannot know what good it would do, if there were, as it perform so much as the higher.

were, a sail made in a sail; if, in the middle of 4. As concerning the winds which blow chiefly a greater sail, there were a kind of a purse, not about the sides of the ships, and under their sails, | altogether loose, of canvass, but with ribs of it is the office of the main boarsprit-sail, which wood, which should take up the wind in the lies low and sloping, to gather them into it, that middle of the sail, and bring it into a sharpness. there may be no waste nor loss of wind; and this 10. The third fountain or original of impalof itself does good, and hinders not the wind sion, is in the place where the wind hits, and which fills the other sails. And about this I do that is twofold; for, from the fore side of the ship not see what can be done more by the industry the impulsion is easier and stronger than on the of man, unless they should perchance fix such hinder part; and from the upper part of the mast low sails out of the middle of the ship, like and sail than from the lower part. wings or feathers, two on each side when the 11. Neither seems the industry of man to have wind blows right.

been ignorant of this, when, in a fore-wind, their 5. But, concerning the bewaring of being rob- greatest hopes have been in their foremasts, and bed, which happens when the hinder sails (in a in calms they have have not been careless in fore-right wind) steal the wind away from the hoisting up of their topsails. Neither, for the foresails, (for in a side wind all the sails are set present, do we find what may be added to human a-work,) I know not what can be added to the industry in this point, unless concerning the first care man hath already taken to prevent it, urdess we should set up two or three foremasts, (the when there is a fore wind, there may be made a first upright and the rest sloping,) whose sails kind of stairs, or scale of sails, that the hinder- shall hang downward; and, as for the second, inost sails of the mizzenmast may be the lowest, that the foresails should be enlarged at the top, the middle ones at the mainmast a little higher, and made less sharp than they usually are: but, the foremast, at the foremast, highest of all, that in both, we must take heed of the inconvenience one sail may not hinder but rather help the other, of danger, in sinking the ship too much. delivering and passing over the wind from one to another. And let so much be observed of the The Motion of Winds in other Engines of Man's first fountain of impulsion.

Invention. 6. The second fountain of impulsion consists 1. The motion of windmills hath no subtilly in the manner of striking the sail with the wind, at all in it; and yet, usually, it is not well exwhich, if through the contraction of the wind it plained nor demonstrated. The sails are set be acute and swift, will move more; if obtuse right and direct opposite against the wind which and languishing, less.

bloweth. One side of the sail lies to the wind, 7. As concerning this, it is of great moment, the other side by little and little bends itself, and and much to the purpose, to let the sails have a gets itself away from the wind. But the turning reasonable extension and swelling; for if they be and continuance of the motion is always caused stretched out stiff, they will, like a wall, beat by the lower part, namely, that which is farthest back the wind; if they be too loose, there will from the wind. But the wind, overcasting itself be a weak impulsion.

against the engine, is contracted and restrained 8. Touching this, human industry hath behaved by the four sails, and is constrained to take its itself well in some things, though it was more way in four spaces. The wind doth not well hy chance than out of any good judgment. For, endure that compression; wherefore, of necessity in a side wind, they gather up that part of the it must, as it were, with its elbow hit the sides VOL. III.-58



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