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break forth, especially being dilatated and set into of the cloud; but that darting and occultation of motion by heat in subterraneal places.
the lesser stars is in fair and clear weather. 15. It hath been noted, that both before and 22. When the wind comes out of a cloud ready after earthquakes there hath blown certain noxious formed, either the cloud is totally dispersed, and and foreign winds; as there are certain little turned into wind, or it is torn and rent in sunder, smothers usually before and after great firings and the winds break out, as in a storm. and burnings.
23. There are many indirect experiments in Monition. The air shut up in the earth is forced the world concerning the repercussion by cold. to break out for several causes : sometimes a mass So that, it being certain that there are niost ex. of earth, ill joined together, falls into a hollow treme colds in the middle region of the air, it is place of the earth; sometimes waters do ingulf likewise plain that vapours, for the most part, themselves; sometimes the air is extended by cannot break through that place without being subterraneal heats, and seeks for more room : joined and gathered together, or darted, according sometimes the earth, which before was solid and to the opinion of the ancients, which in this parvaulted, being by fires turned into ashes, no longer ticular is true and sound. able to bear itself up, falls. And many such like The third local beginning of winds is of those
which are engendered here in the lower part of And so these inquisitions have been made con- the air, which we also call swellings or overburcerning the first local beginning of winds. Now denings of the air; a thing very familiar and followeth the second origin, or beginning from frequent, yet passed over with silence. above, namely, from that which they call the A Commentation. The generation of those winds middle region of the air.
which are made up in this lower part of the air, Munition. But let no man understand what is a thing no more obscure than this : namely, hath been spoken so far amiss, as if we should that the air newly composed and made up of deny the rest of the winds also are brought forth water, and attenuated and dissolved vapours, joinof the earth by vapours. But this first kind was ed with the first air, cannot be contained within of winds which come forth of the earth, being the same bounds as it was before, but groweth already perfectly framed winds.
out and is turned, and takes up further room. 16. It hath been observed, that there is a mur- Yet there are in this two things to be granted : muring of woods before we do plainly perceive First, that one drop of water turned into air, the winds, whereby it is conjectured that the wind (whatsoever they fabulously speak of the tenth descends from a higher place, which is likewise proportion of the elements,) requires at least a observed in hills, (as we said before,) but the hundred times more room than it had before. cause is more ambiguous, by reason of the con- Secondly, that a little new air, and moved, added cavity and holiowness of the hills.
to the old air, shaketh the whole, and sets it into 17. Wind follows darted, or (as we call them) motion; as we may perceive by a little wind that shooting stars, and it comes that way as the star comes forth of a pair of bellows, or in at a little hath shot; whereby it appears that the air hath crevice of a window or wall, that will set all the been moved above, before the motion comes to us. air which is in a room in motion, as appears by
18. The opening of the firmament and disper- the blazing of the lights which are in the same sion of clouds, are prognostics of wind before room. they blow here on earth, which also shows that 24. As the dews and mists are engendered the winds begin above.
here in the lower air, never coming to be clouds, 19. Small stars are not seen before the rising nor penetrating to the middle region of the air: of winds, though the night be clear and fair; be in the like manner are also many winds. cause (it should seem) the air grows thick, and 25. A continual gale blows about the sea, and is less transparent, by reason of that matter which other waters, which is nothing but a small wind afterward is turned into wind.
newly made up. 20. There appear circles about the body of the 26. The rainbow, which is, as it were, the moon, the sun looks sometimes blood-red at its lowest of meteors, and nearest to us, when it setting, the moon rises red at her fourth rising: doth not appear whole, but curtailed, and, as it and there are many more prognostics of winds on were, only some pieces of the horns of it, is dishigh, (whereof we will speak in its proper place,) solved into winds, as often, or rather oftener than which shows that the matter of the winds is into rain. there begun and prepared.
27. It hath been observed, that there are some 21. In these experiments you must note that winds in countries which are divided and separated difference we speak of, namely, of the twofold by hills, which ordinarily blow on the one side generation of winds on high; that is to say, be- of the hills, and do not reach to the other, whereby fore the gathering together of vapours into a cloud, it manifestly appears that they are engendered and after. For the prognostics of circles about, below the height of the said hills. and colours of the sun and moon, have something 28. There are an infinite sort of winds that
To the tenth article. Connexion.
To the ninth article.
blow in fair and clear days, and also in countries of wind, from the walls and banks, so that one where it never rains, which are engendered where would imagine the wind to come the contrary they blow, and never were clouds, nor did ever way from that whence it really comes. ascend in the middle region of the air.
6. If hills enclose a country on the one side,
and the wind blows for some space of time from Indirect experiments.
the plain against the hill, by the very repercusWhosoever shall know how easily a vapour is sion of the hill, either the wind is turned into rain, dissolved into air, and how great a quantity of it be a moist wind, or into a contrary wind, vapours there are, and how much room a drop of which will last but a little while. water turned into air takes up more than it did 7. In the turnings of a promontory, mariners do before, (as we said already,) and how little the often find changes and alterations of winds. air will endure to be thrust up together, will, questionless, affirm, that of necessity winds must Extraordinary Winds and sudden Blasts. he everywhere engendered, from the very superficies of the earth, even to the highest parts of the
Some men discourse of extraordinary winds, air. For it cannot be, that a great abundance of and derive the causes of them; of clouds breakvapours, when they begin to be dilatated and ex- ing, or storms, vortice, typhone, prestere; or, in panded, can be lifted up to the middle region of English, whirlwinds. But they do not relate the the air, without an overburdening of the air, and thing itself, which must be taken out of chronimaking a noise by the way.
cles and several histories.
1. Sudden blasts never come in clear weather, Accidental Generations of Winds.
but always when the sky is cloudy and the wea
ther rainy. That it may justly be thought thai We call those accidental generations of winds there is a certain eruption made; the blasts driven which do not make or beget the impulsive mo- out and the waters shaken. tion of winds, but with compression do sharpen 2. Storms which come with a mist and a fog, it, by repercussion turn it, by sinuation or wind- and are called Belluæ, and bear up themselves ing do agitate and tumble it, which is done by like a column, are very vehement and dreadful to extrinsical causes, and the posture of the adjoin- those who are at sea. ing bodies.
3. The greater typhones, who will take up at 1. In places where there are hills which are some large distance, and sup them, as it were, not very high, bordering upon valleys, and beyond upward, do happen but seldom, but small whirlthem again higher hills, there is a greater agita- winds come often. tion of the air, and sense of winds, than there is 4. All storns and typhones, and great whirlin mountainous or plain places.
winds, have a manifest precipitous motion or dart2. In cities, if there be any place somewhat ing downwards, more than other winds, so as they broader than ordinary and narrow goings out, as seem to fall like torrents, and run, as it were, in portals or porches, and cross streets, winds and channels, and be afterwards reverberated by the fresh gales are there to be perceived.
earth. 3. In houses cool rooms are made by winds, or 5. In meadows, haycocks are sometimes carried happen to be so where the air bloweth through, on high and spread abroad there like canopies ; and comes in on the one side and goeth out at the likewise in fields, cocks of pease, reaped wheat, other. But much more if the air comes in several and clothes laid out to drying, are carried up by ways and meets in the corners, and hath one whirlwinds as high as tops of trees and houses, common passage from thence: the vaulting like. and these things are done without any extraordi. wise and roundness doth contribute much to cool nary force or great vehemency of wind. ness, because the air, being moved, is beaten back 6. Also, sometimes there are very small whirlin every line. Also, the winding of porches is winds, and within a narrow compass, which happen better than if they were built straight out. For a also in fair, clear weather; so that one that rides direct blast, though it be not shut up, but hath a may see the dust or straws taken up and turned free egress, doth not make the air so unequal and close by him, yet he himself not feel the wind voluminous, and waving, as the meeting at angles much, which things are done questionless near and hollow places, and windings round, and the unto us, by contrary blasts driving one another like.
back, and causing a circulation of the air by con4. Aster great tempests at sea an accidental cussion. wind continues for a time, after the original is 7. It is certain, that some winds do leave manie laid, which wind is made by the collision and fest signs of burning and scorching in plants; bur percussion of the air, through the curling of the presterem, which is a kind of dark lightning, and
hot air without any flame, we will put off to the 5. In gardens commonly there is a repercussion inquisition of lightning. VOL. III.-57
2 p 2
llelps to TVinds; namely, to Original Winds; for
5. It hath been observed by men, that about the of uccidental ones we have inquired before.
conjunctions of planets greater winds do blow.
6. At the rising of Orion there rise commonly 'To the eleventh, twelfth, thirteenth, fourteenth, and fifteenth divers winds and storms. But we must advise
whether this be not because Orion rises in such Those things which have been spoken by the a season of the year as is most effectual for the ancients, concerning winds and their causes, are generation of winds; so that it is rather a conmerely confused and uncertain, and for the most comitant than causing thing. Which may also part untrue; and it is no marvel, if they see not very well be questioned concerning rain at the clear that look not near. They speak as if wind rising of the Hyades and the Pleiades, and conwere somewhat else, or a thing several from cerning storms at the rising of Arcturus. And moved air; and as if exhalations did generate and so much concerning the moon and stars. make up the whole body of the winds; and as if 7. The sun is, questionless, the primary effiihe matter of winds were only a dry and hot cient of many winds, working by its heat on a exhalation; and as if the beginning of the motion twofold matter, namely, the body of the air, and of winds were but only a casting down and per- likewise vapours and exhalations. cussion by the cold of the middle region, all fan- 3. When the sun is most powerful, it dilatates tastical and arbitrary opinions; yet out of such and extends the air, though it be pure and withthreads they weave long pieces, namely, cobwebs. out any commixion, one-third part, which is no But all impulsion of the air is wind; and exhala- small matter; so that, by mere dilatation, there tions mixed with the air contribute more to the must needs arise some small wind in the sun's motion than to the matter; and moist vapours, by ways; and that rather two or three hours after its a proportionate heat, are easier dissolved into rising, than at his first rise. wind than dry exhalations, and many winds are 9. In Europe the nights are hottes, in Peru, engendered in the lowest region of the air, and three hours in the morning, and all for one cause, breathe out of the earth, besides those which are namely, by reason of winds and gales ceasing thrown down and beaten back.
and lying still at those hours. 1. The natural wheeling of the air, (as we 10. In a vitro calendari, dilatated or extended said in the article of general winds,) without any air beats down the water, as it were, with a other external cause, bringing forth winds per- breath; but, in a vitro pileato, which is filled ceptible within the tropics, where the conversion only with air, the dilatated air swells the bladder, is in greater circles.
as a manifest and apparent wind. 2. Next to the natural motion of the air, be- 11. We have made trial of such a kind of fore we inquire of the sun, (who is the chief wind in a round tower, every way closed up. begetter of winds,) let us see whether any thing For we have placed a hearth or fireplace in the ought to be attributed to the moon, and other midst of it, laying a fire of charcoal thoroughly asters, by clear experience.
kindled upon it, that there might be the less 3. There arise many great and strong winds smoke, and on the side of the hearth, at a small some hours before the eclipse of the moon; so distance, hath been a thread hung up with a cross that, if the moon be eclipsed in the middle of of feathers, to the end that it might easily be the night, the winds blow the precedent evening; moved. So, after a little stay, the heat increasing, if the moon be eclipsed towards the morning, and the air dilatating, the thread, and the feather then the winds blow in the middle of the prece- cross which hung upon it, waved up and down dent night.
in a various motion; and, having made a hole in 4. In Peru, which is a very windy country, the window of the tower, there came out a hot Acosta observes, that winds blow most when the breath, which was not continual, but with intermoon is at the full.
mission and waving. Injunction. It were certainly a thing worthy 12. Also, the reception of air by cold, after to be observed, what power the ages and motions dilatation, begets such a wind, but weaker, by of the moon have upon the winds, seeing they reason of the lesser force of cold. So that, in have some power over the waters. As, for ex- Peru, under every little shadow, we find not only ample, whether the winds be not in a greater more coolness than here with us, (by antipericommotion in full and new moons, than in her stasis,) but a manifest kind of gale through the first and last quarters, as we find it to be in the reception of air when it comes into the shade. llowings of waters. For, though some do conve- And so much concerning wind occasioned by niently feign the command of the moon to be mere dilatation or reception of air. over the waters, as the sun and planets over the 13. Winds proceeding from the mere motion air, yet it is certain, that the water and the air of the air, without any commision of vapours, are very homogeneal bodies, and that the moon, are but gentle and soft. Let us see what may next to the sun, hath most power over all things be said concerning vapoury winds, (we mean here below.
such as are engendered by vapours,) which may
be so much more vehement than the other, as a rising of the dogstar, are held to come from the dilatation of a drop of water turned into air ex-frozen ocean, and those parts about the arctic circeeds any dilatation of air already made : which cle, where the dissolutions of snow and ice como it doth by many degrees, as we showed before. late when the summer is far spent.
14. The efficient cause of vapoury winds (which 25. Those masses or mountains of ice which are they that commonly blow) is the sun, and its are carried towards Canada and Greenland do proportionate heat; the matter is vapours and rather breed cold gales than movable winds. exhalations which are turned and resolved into 26. Winds which arise from chalky and sandy air. I say air, (and not any thing but air,) yet grounds, are few and dry, and in hotter countries at the first not very pure.
they are sultry, smoky, and scorching. 15. A small heat of the sun doth not raise 27. Winds made of sea vapours do easilier vapours, and consequently causes no wind. turn back into rain, the water redemanding and
16. A mean and middle heat of the sun raiseth claiming its rights; and if this be not granted and excites vapours, but doth not presently dissi- them, they presently mix with air, and so are pate them. Therefore, if there be any great store quiet. But terrestrial, smoky, and unctuous vaof them, they gather together into rain, either pours are both hardlier dissolved and ascend simply of itself, or joined with wind: if there be higher, and are more provoked in their motion, but small store of them, they turn only to wind. and oftentimes penetrate the middle region of
17. The sun's heat in its increase, inclines the air, and some of them are matter of fiery more to the generation of winds, in its decrease ineteors. to rains.
28. It is reported here in England, that in 18. The great and continued heat of the sun those days that Gascoine was under our jurisdicattenuates and disperses vapours and sublimes tion, there was a petition offered to the king by them, and withal equally mixes and incorporates his subjects of Bordeaux, and the confines therethem with the air, whereby the air becomes calm of, desiring him to forbid the burning of heath in and serene.
the counties of Sussex and Southampton, which 19. The more equal and continuate heat of the bred a wind towards the end of April which sun is less apt for the generation of winds; that killed their vines. which is more unequal and intermitted is more 29. The meeting of winds, if they be strong, apt. Wherefore in sailing into Russia they are bring forth vehement and whirling winds; if less troubled with winds than in the British sea, they be soft and moist, they produce rain, and lay because of the length of the days; but in Peru the wind. under the equinoctial are frequent winds, by reason 30. Winds are allayed and restrained five ways. of the great inequality of heat, taking turns night When the air, overburdened and troubled, is and day.
freed by the vapours contracting themselves into 20. In vapours is to be considered both the rain; or when vapours are dispersed and subtilquantity and quality. A small quantity engen- ized, whereby they are mixed with the air, and ders weak winds, a mean or middle store stronger; agree fairly with it, and they live quietly; or great store engenders rain, either calm or accom- when vapours or fogs are exalted and carried panied with wind.
up on high, so that they cause no disturbance until 21. Vapours out of the sea and rivers, and they be thrown down from the middle region of overflown marshes, engender far greater quantity the air, or do penetrate it; or when vapours, of winds than the exhalations of the earth. But gathered into clouds, are carried away into other those winds which are engendered on the land countries, by other winds blowing on high, so and dry places, are more obstinate, and last longer, that for them there is peace in those countries and are, for the most part, such as are cast down which they fly beyond ; or, lastly, when the winds, from above. So that the opinion of the ancients blowing from their nurseries, languish through a in this, is not altogether unprofitable; but only long voyage, finding no new matter to feed on, that it pleased them, as in a manner dividing the and so their vehemency forsakes them, and they inheritance, to assign rain to vapours, and to do as it were expire and die. winds exhalations only, which things sound 31. Rain, for the most part, allayeth winds, handsomely, but are vain in effect and substance. especially those which are stormy; as winds,
22. Winds brought forth out of the resolutions contrari wise, oftentimes keep off rain. of snow lying upon hills, are of a mean condi- 32. Winds do contract themselves into rain, tion between water and land winds; but they (which is the first of the five, and the chiefest incline more to water, yet they are more sharp means of allaying them,) either being burdened and movable.
by the burden itself, when the vapours are copi23. The dissolution of snow on snowy hills (as ous, or by the contrary motions of winds, so they we observed before) always brings constant winds be calm and mild; or by the opposition of mounfrom that part.
tains and promontories, which stop the violencu 24. Also, yearly northern winds about the l of the winds, and, by little and little, turn them
against themselves; or by extreme colds, where part of the water, (which may be easily perceived by they are condensed and thickened.
by the crisping of it,) when there is a calin, as 33. Smaller and lighter winds do commonly smooth as glass, everywhere else. rise in the morning, and go down with the sun, 9. Small whirlwinds (as we said before) will the condensation of the night air being sufficient sometimes play before men as they are riding, to receive them; for air will endure some kind almost like wind out of a pair of bellows. So of compression without stirring or tumult. much of the latitude; now we must see cor.cern
34. It is thought that the sound of bells will ing the lastingness. disperse lightning and thunder: in winds it hath 10. The vehement winds will last longer at not been observed.
sea, by reason of the sufficient quantity of vapours; Monilion. Take advice from the place in prog- at land they will hardly last above a day and nostics of winds; for there is some connexion of a half. causes and signs.
11. Very soft winds will not blow constant35. Pliny relates, that the vehemence of a ly, neither at sea, nor upon the land, above whirlwind may be allayed by sprinkling of vine- three days. gar in the encounter of it.
12. The south wind is not only more lasting
than the west, (which we set down in another The Bounds of Winds.
place,) but likewise what wind soever it be that To the sixteenth, seventeenth, and eighteenth articles. begins to blow in the morning, useth to be more
1. It is reported of Mount Athos, and likewise durable and lasting than that which begins to of Olympus, that the priests would write in the blow at night. ashes of the sacrifices which lay upon the altars, 13. It is certain that winds do rise, and inbuilt on the tops of those hills, and when they crease by degrees, (unless they be mere storms) returned the year following, (for the offerings but they allay sooner, sometimes as it were in an were annual,) they found the same letters undis- instant. turbed and uncancelled, though those altars stood not in any temple, but in the open air. Whereby
Succession of Winds. it was manifest, that in such a height there had To the nineteenth, twentieth, and twenty-first articles. neither fallen rain nor wind blown.
1. If the wind doth change according to the 2. They say that on the top of the Peak of motion of the sun, that is, from east to south, Teneriffe, and on the Andes, betwixt Peru and from south to west, from west to north, from the Chili, snow lieth upon the borders and sides of north to the east, it doth not return often, or if it the hills, but that on the tops of them there is doth, it doth it but for a short time.
But if it go nothing but a quiet and still air, hardly breathe contrary to the motion of the sun, that is, from able by reason of its tenuity, which, also, with a the east to the north, from the north to the west, kind of acrimony, pricks the eyes and orifice of from the west to the south, and from the south to the stomach, begetting in some a desire to vomit, the east, for the most part it is restored to its first and in others a flushing and redness.
quarter, at least before it hath gone round its 3. Vapoury winds seem not in any great height, whole compass and circuit. though it be probable that some of them ascend 2. If rain begins first, and the wind begins to higher than most clouds. Hitherto of the height; blow afterwards, that wind will outlast the rain; now we must consider of the latitude.
but if the wind blow first, and then is allayed by 4. It is certain that those spaces which winds the rain, the wind for the most part will not rise take up are very various, sometimes they are very again ; and if it does, there ensues a new rain. large, sometimes little and narrow: winds have 3. If winds do blow variously for a few hours, been known to have taken up a hundred miles' and as it were to make a trial, and afterward begin space with a few hours' difference.
to blow constantly, that wind shall continue for 5. Spacious winds (if they be of the free kind) many days. are, for the most part, vehement, and not soft, and 4. If the south wind begin to blow two or thret more lasting; for they will last almost four-and-days, sometimes the north wind will blow pre. twenty hours. They are likewise not so much in- sently after it. But if the north wind blows as clined to rain. Strait or narrow winds, contrari- many days, the south wind will not blow, until wise, are either soft or stormy, and always short. the wind have blown a little from the east.
6. Fixed and stayed winds are itinerary or 5. When the year is declining and winter begins travelling, and take up very large spaces. after autumn is past, if the south wind blows in
7. Stormy winds do not extend themselves into the beginning of winter, and after it comes thu any large spaces, though they always go beyond north wind, it will be a frosty winter; but if the the bounds of the storm itself.
north wind blow in the beginning of winter, and 8. Sea winds always blow within narrower the south wind come after, it will be a mild and spaces than earth winds, as may sometimes be warm winter. Eron at sea, namely, a pretty fresh gale in some 6. Pliny quotes Eudoxus, to show that the order