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break forth, especially being dilatated and set into of the cloud; but that darting and occultation of motion by heat in subterraneal places. the lesser stars is in fair and clear weather.
15. It hath been noted, that both before and after earthquakes there hath blown certain noxious and foreign winds; as there are certain little smothers usually before and after great firings and burnings.
Monition. The air shut up in the earth is forced to break out for several causes: sometimes a mass of earth, ill joined together, falls into a hollow place of the earth; sometimes waters do ingulf themselves; sometimes the air is extended by subterraneal heats, and seeks for more room: sometimes the earth, which before was solid and vaulted, being by fires turned into ashes, no longer able to bear itself up, falls. And many such like
And so these inquisitions have been made concerning the first local beginning of winds. Now followeth the second origin, or beginning from above, namely, from that which they call the middle region of the air.
22. When the wind comes out of a cloud ready formed, either the cloud is totally dispersed, and turned into wind, or it is torn and rent in sunder, and the winds break out, as in a storm.
23. There are many indirect experiments in the world concerning the repercussion by cold. So that, it being certain that there are most extreme colds in the middle region of the air, it is likewise plain that vapours, for the most part, cannot break through that place without being joined and gathered together, or darted, according to the opinion of the ancients, which in this particular is true and sound.
The third local beginning of winds is of those which are engendered here in the lower part of the air, which we also call swellings or overburdenings of the air; a thing very familiar and frequent, yet passed over with silence.
A Commentation. The generation of those winds which are made up in this lower part of the air, Monition. But let no man understand what is a thing no more obscure than this: namely, hath been spoken so far amiss, as if we should that the air newly composed and made up of deny the rest of the winds also are brought forth water, and attenuated and dissolved vapours, joinof the earth by vapours. But this first kind wased with the first air, cannot be contained within of winds which come forth of the earth, being the same bounds as it was before, but groweth already perfectly framed winds. out and is turned, and takes up further room.
16. It hath been observed, that there is a mur-Yet there are in this two things to be granted: muring of woods before we do plainly perceive the winds, whereby it is conjectured that the wind descends from a higher place, which is likewise observed in hills, (as we said before,) but the cause is more ambiguous, by reason of the concavity and hollowness of the hills.
17. Wind follows darted, or (as we call them) shooting stars, and it comes that way as the star hath shot; whereby it appears that the air hath been moved above, before the motion comes to us. 18. The opening of the firmament and dispersion of clouds, are prognostics of wind before they blow here on earth, which also shows that the winds begin above.
19. Small stars are not seen before the rising of winds, though the night be clear and fair; because (it should seem) the air grows thick, and is less transparent, by reason of that matter which afterward is turned into wind.
20. There appear circles about the body of the moon, the sun looks sometimes blood-red at its setting, the moon rises red at her fourth rising: and there are many more prognostics of winds on high, (whereof we will speak in its proper place,) which shows that the matter of the winds is there begun and prepared.
21. In these experiments you must note that difference we speak of, namely, of the twofold generation of winds on high; that is to say, before the gathering together of vapours into a cloud, and after. For the prognostics of circles about, and colours of the sun and moon, have something
First, that one drop of water turned into air, (whatsoever they fabulously speak of the tenth proportion of the elements,) requires at least a hundred times more room than it had before. Secondly, that a little new air, and moved, added to the old air, shaketh the whole, and sets it into motion; as we may perceive by a little wind that comes forth of a pair of bellows, or in at a little crevice of a window or wall, that will set all the air which is in a room in motion, as appears by the blazing of the lights which are in the same room.
24. As the dews and mists are engendered here in the lower air, never coming to be clouds, nor penetrating to the middle region of the air: in the like manner are also many winds.
25. A continual gale blows about the sea, and other waters, which is nothing but a small wind newly made up.
26. The rainbow, which is, as it were, the lowest of meteors, and nearest to us, when it doth not appear whole, but curtailed, and, as it were, only some pieces of the horns of it, is dissolved into winds, as often, or rather oftener than into rain.
27. It hath been observed, that there are some winds in countries which are divided and separated by hills, which ordinarily blow on the one side of the hills, and do not reach to the other, whereby it manifestly appears that they are engendered below the height of the said hills.
28. There are an infinite sort of winds that
blow in fair and clear days, and also in countries where it never rains, which are engendered where they blow, and never were clouds, nor did ever ascend in the middle region of the air.
of wind, from the walls and banks, so that one would imagine the wind to come the contrary way from that whence it really comes.
6. If hills enclose a country on the one side, and the wind blows for some space of time from the plain against the hill, by the very repercussion of the hill, either the wind is turned into rain, if it be a moist wind, or into a contrary wind, which will last but a little while.
7. In the turnings of a promontory, mariners do often find changes and alterations of winds.
Extraordinary Winds and sudden Blasts.
Whosoever shall know how easily a vapour is dissolved into air, and how great a quantity of vapours there are, and how much room a drop of water turned into air takes up more than it did before, (as we said already,) and how little the air will endure to be thrust up together, will, questionless, affirm, that of necessity winds must be everywhere engendered, from the very superficies of the earth, even to the highest parts of the air. For it cannot be, that a great abundance of vapours, when they begin to be dilatated and ex-ing, or storms, vortice, typhone, prestere; or, in panded, can be lifted up to the middle region of English, whirlwinds. But they do not relate the the air, without an overburdening of the air, and thing itself, which must be taken out of chronimaking a noise by the way.
We call those accidental generations of winds which do not make or beget the impulsive motion of winds, but with compression do sharpen it, by repercussion turn it, by sinuation or winding do agitate and tumble it, which is done by extrinsical causes, and the posture of the adjoining bodies.
1. In places where there are hills which are not very high, bordering upon valleys, and beyond them again higher hills, there is a greater agitation of the air, and sense of winds, than there is in mountainous or plain places.
2. In cities, if there be any place somewhat broader than ordinary and narrow goings out, as portals or porches, and cross streets, winds and fresh gales are there to be perceived.
To the tenth article. Connexion.
Some men discourse of extraordinary winds, and derive the causes of them; of clouds break
cles and several histories.
1. Sudden blasts never come in clear weather, but always when the sky is cloudy and the weather rainy. That it may justly be thought tha there is a certain eruption made; the blasts driven out and the waters shaken.
2. Storms which come with a mist and a fog, and are called Belluæ, and bear up themselves like a column, are very vehement and dreadful to those who are at sea.
3. The greater typhones, who will take up at some large distance, and sup them, as it were, upward, do happen but seldom, but small whirlwinds come often.
4. All storms and typhones, and great whirlwinds, have a manifest precipitous motion or darting downwards, more than other winds, so as they seem to fall like torrents, and run, as it were, in channels, and be afterwards reverberated by the
5. In meadows, haycocks are sometimes carried on high and spread abroad there like canopies; likewise in fields, cocks of pease, reaped wheat, and clothes laid out to drying, are carried up by whirlwinds as high as tops of trees and houses, and these things are done without any extraordi
3. In houses cool rooms are made by winds, or happen to be so where the air bloweth through, and comes in on the one side and goeth out at the other. But much more if the air comes in several ways and meets in the corners, and hath one common passage from thence: the vaulting like. wise and roundness doth contribute much to cool-nary force or great vehemency of wind. ness, because the air, being moved, is beaten back 6. Also, sometimes there are very small whirlin every line. Also, the winding of porches is winds, and within a narrow compass, which happen better than if they were built straight out. For a also in fair, clear weather; so that one that rides direct blast, though it be not shut up, but hath a may see the dust or straws taken up and turned free egress, doth not make the air so unequal and close by him, yet he himself not feel the wind voluminous, and waving, as the meeting at angles much, which things are done questionless near and hollow places, and windings round, and the unto us, by contrary blasts driving one another like. back, and causing a circulation of the air by concussion.
4. After great tempests at sea an accidental wind continues for a time, after the original is laid, which wind is made by the collision and percussion of the air, through the curling of the
5. In gardens commonly there is a repercussion VOL. III.-57
7. It is certain, that some winds do leave manifest signs of burning and scorching in plants; bu presterem, which is a kind of dark lightning, and hot air without any flame, we will put off to the inquisition of lightning.
2 P 2
Helps to Winds; namely, to Original Winds; for of accidental ones we have inquired before.
To the eleventh, twelfth, thirteenth, fourteenth, and fifteenth articles. Connexion.
Those things which have been spoken by the ancients, concerning winds and their causes, are merely confused and uncertain, and for the most part untrue; and it is no marvel, if they see not They speak as if wind clear that look not near. were somewhat else, or a thing several from moved air; and as if exhalations did generate and make up the whole body of the winds; and as if the matter of winds were only a dry and hot exhalation; and as if the beginning of the motion of winds were but only a casting down and percussion by the cold of the middle region, all fantastical and arbitrary opinions; yet out of such threads they weave long pieces, namely, cobwebs. But all impulsion of the air is wind; and exhalations mixed with the air contribute more to the motion than to the matter; and moist vapours, by a proportionate heat, are easier dissolved into wind than dry exhalations, and many winds are engendered in the lowest region of the air, and breathe out of the earth, besides those which are thrown down and beaten back.
1. The natural wheeling of the air, (as we said in the article of general winds,) without any other external cause, bringing forth winds perceptible within the tropics, where the conversion is in greater circles.
2. Next to the natural motion of the air, before we inquire of the sun, (who is the chief begetter of winds,) let us see whether any thing ought to be attributed to the moon, and other asters, by clear experience.
3. There arise many great and strong winds some hours before the eclipse of the moon; so that, if the moon be eclipsed in the middle of the night, the winds blow the precedent evening; if the moon be eclipsed towards the morning, then the winds blow in the middle of the precedent night.
4. In Peru, which is a very windy country, Acosta observes, that winds blow most when the moon is at the full.
Injunction. It were certainly a thing worthy to be observed, what power the ages and motions of the moon have upon the winds, seeing they have some power over the waters. As, for example, whether the winds be not in a greater commotion in full and new moons, than in her first and last quarters, as we find it to be in the flowings of waters. For, though some do conveniently feign the command of the moon to be over the waters, as the sun and planets over the air, yet it is certain, that the water and the air are very homogeneal bodies, and that the moon, next to the sun, hath most power over all things here below.
5. It hath been observed by men, that about the
6. At the rising of Orion there rise commonly
7. The sun is, questionless, the primary effi-
3. When the sun is most powerful, it dilatates and extends the air, though it be pure and without any commixion, one-third part, which is no small matter; so that, by mere dilatation, there must needs arise some small wind in the sun's ways; and that rather two or three hours after its rising, than at his first rise.
9. In Europe the nights are hotter, in Peru, three hours in the morning, and all for one cause, namely, by reason of winds and gales ceasing and lying still at those hours.
10. In a vitro calendari, dilatated or extended air beats down the water, as it were, with a breath; but, in a vitro pileato, which is filled only with air, the dilatated air swells the bladder, as a manifest and apparent wind.
11. We have made trial of such a kind of wind in a round tower, every way closed up. For we have placed a hearth or fireplace in the midst of it, laying a fire of charcoal thoroughly kindled upon it, that there might be the less smoke, and on the side of the hearth, at a small distance, hath been a thread hung up with a cross of feathers, to the end that it might easily be moved. So, after a little stay, the heat increasing, and the air dilatating, the thread, and the feather cross which hung upon it, waved up and down in a various motion; and, having made a hole in the window of the tower, there came out a hot breath, which was not continual, but with intermission and waving.
12. Also, the reception of air by cold, after dilatation, begets such a wind, but weaker, by reason of the lesser force of cold. So that, in Peru, under every little shadow, we find not only more coolness than here with us, (by antiperistasis,) but a manifest kind of gale through the reception of air when it comes into the shade. And so much concerning wind occasioned by mere dilatation or reception of air.
13. Winds proceeding from the mere motion of the air, without any commixion of vapours, are but gentle and soft. Let us see what may be said concerning vapoury winds, (we mean such as are engendered by vapours,) which may
be so much more vehement than the other, as a rising of the dogstar, are held to come from the dilatation of a drop of water turned into air ex-frozen ocean, and those parts about the arctic circeeds any dilatation of air already made: which it doth by many degrees, as we showed before.
14. The efficient cause of vapoury winds (which are they that commonly blow) is the sun, and its proportionate heat; the matter is vapours and exhalations which are turned and resolved into air. I say air, (and not any thing but air,) yet at the first not very pure.
15. A small heat of the sun doth not raise vapours, and consequently causes no wind.
16. A mean and middle heat of the sun raiseth and excites vapours, but doth not presently dissipate them. Therefore, if there be any great store of them, they gather together into rain, either simply of itself, or joined with wind: if there be but small store of them, they turn only to wind.
17. The sun's heat in its increase, inclines more to the generation of winds, in its decrease to rains.
18. The great and continued heat of the sun attenuates and disperses vapours and sublimes them, and withal equally mixes and incorporates them with the air, whereby the air becomes calm and serene.
cle, where the dissolutions of snow and ice come late when the summer is far spent.
25. Those masses or mountains of ice which are carried towards Canada and Greenland do rather breed cold gales than movable winds.
26. Winds which arise from chalky and sandy grounds, are few and dry, and in hotter countries they are sultry, smoky, and scorching.
27. Winds made of sea vapours do easilier turn back into rain, the water redemanding and claiming its rights; and if this be not granted them, they presently mix with air, and so are quiet. But terrestrial, smoky, and unctuous vapours are both hardlier dissolved and ascend higher, and are more provoked in their motion, and oftentimes penetrate the middle region of the air, and some of them are matter of fiery meteors.
28. It is reported here in England, that in those days that Gascoine was under our jurisdiction, there was a petition offered to the king by his subjects of Bordeaux, and the confines thereof, desiring him to forbid the burning of heath in the counties of Sussex and Southampton, which bred a wind towards the end of April which killed their vines.
29. The meeting of winds, if they be strong, bring forth vehement and whirling winds; if they be soft and moist, they produce rain, and lay the wind.
19. The more equal and continuate heat of the sun is less apt for the generation of winds; that which is more unequal and intermitted is more apt. Wherefore in sailing into Russia they are less troubled with winds than in the British sea, because of the length of the days; but in Peru under the equinoctial are frequent winds, by reason 30. Winds are allayed and restrained five ways. of the great inequality of heat, taking turns night When the air, overburdened and troubled, is and day. freed by the vapours contracting themselves into 20. In vapours is to be considered both the rain; or when vapours are dispersed and subtilquantity and quality. A small quantity engen-ized, whereby they are mixed with the air, and ders weak winds, a mean or middle store stronger; great store engenders rain, either calm or accompanied with wind.
21. Vapours out of the sea and rivers, and overflown marshes, engender far greater quantity of winds than the exhalations of the earth. But those winds which are engendered on the land and dry places, are more obstinate, and last longer, and are, for the most part, such as are cast down from above. So that the opinion of the ancients in this, is not altogether unprofitable; but only that it pleased them, as in a manner dividing the inheritance, to assign rain to vapours, and to winds exhalations only, which things sound handsomely, but are vain in effect and substance. 22. Winds brought forth out of the resolutions of snow lying upon hills, are of a mean condition between water and land winds; but they incline more to water, yet they are more sharp and movable.
23. The dissolution of snow on snowy hills (as we observed before) always brings constant winds from that part.
24. Also, yearly northern winds about the
agree fairly with it, and they live quietly; or when vapours or fogs are exalted and carried up on high, so that they cause no disturbance until they be thrown down from the middle region of the air, or do penetrate it; or when vapours, gathered into clouds, are carried away into other countries, by other winds blowing on high, so that for them there is peace in those countries which they fly beyond; or, lastly, when the winds, blowing from their nurseries, languish through a long voyage, finding no new matter to feed on, and so their vehemency forsakes them, and they do as it were expire and die.
31. Rain, for the most part, allayeth winds, especially those which are stormy; as winds, contrariwise, oftentimes keep off rain.
32. Winds do contract themselves into rain, (which is the first of the five, and the chiefest means of allaying them,) either being burdened by the burden itself, when the vapours are copious, or by the contrary motions of winds, so they be calm and mild; or by the opposition of moun tains and promontories, which stop the violence of the winds, and, by little and little, turn them
against themselves; or by extreme colds, whereby they are condensed and thickened.
33. Smaller and lighter winds do commonly rise in the morning, and go down with the sun, the condensation of the night air being sufficient to receive them; for air will endure some kind of compression without stirring or tumult.
34. It is thought that the sound of bells will disperse lightning and thunder: in winds it hath not been observed.
Monition. Take advice from the place in prognostics of winds; for there is some connexion of causes and signs.
35. Pliny relates, that the vehemence of a whirlwind may be allayed by sprinkling of vinegar in the encounter of it.
The Bounds of Winds.
To the sixteenth, seventeenth, and eighteenth articles. 1. It is reported of Mount Athos, and likewise of Olympus, that the priests would write in the ashes of the sacrifices which lay upon the altars, built on the tops of those hills, and when they returned the year following, (for the offerings were annual,) they found the same letters undisturbed and uncancelled, though those altars stood not in any temple, but in the open air. Whereby it was manifest, that in such a height there had neither fallen rain nor wind blown.
2. They say that on the top of the Peak of Teneriffe, and on the Andes, betwixt Peru and Chili, snow lieth upon the borders and sides of the hills, but that on the tops of them there is nothing but a quiet and still air, hardly breatheable by reason of its tenuity, which, also, with a kind of acrimony, pricks the eyes and orifice of the stomach, begetting in some a desire to vomit, and in others a flushing and redness.
3. Vapoury winds seem not in any great height, though it be probable that some of them ascend higher than most clouds. Hitherto of the height; now we must consider of the latitude.
4. It is certain that those spaces which winds take up are very various, sometimes they are very large, sometimes little and narrow: winds have been known to have taken up a hundred miles' space with a few hours' difference.
part of the water, (which may be easily perceived by the crisping of it,) when there is a calm, as smooth as glass, everywhere else.
9. Small whirlwinds (as we said before) will sometimes play before men as they are riding, almost like wind out of a pair of bellows. So much of the latitude; now we must see concerning the lastingness.
10. The vehement winds will last longer at sea, by reason of the sufficient quantity of vapours; at land they will hardly last above a day and a half.
11. Very soft winds will not blow constantly, neither at sea, nor upon the land, above three days.
12. The south wind is not only more lasting than the west, (which we set down in another place,) but likewise what wind soever it be that begins to blow in the morning, useth to be more durable and lasting than that which begins to blow at night.
13. It is certain that winds do rise, and increase by degrees, (unless they be mere storms,) but they allay sooner, sometimes as it were in an instant.
Succession of Winds.
To the nineteenth, twentieth, and twenty-first articles. 1. If the wind doth change according to the motion of the sun, that is, from east to south, from south to west, from west to north, from the north to the east, it doth not return often, or if it doth, it doth it but for a short time. But if it go contrary to the motion of the sun, that is, from the east to the north, from the north to the west, from the west to the south, and from the south to the east, for the most part it is restored to its first quarter, at least before it hath gone round its whole compass and circuit.
2. If rain begins first, and the wind begins to blow afterwards, that wind will outlast the rain; but if the wind blow first, and then is allayed by the rain, the wind for the most part will not rise again; and if it does, there ensues a new rain.
3. If winds do blow variously for a few hours, and as it were to make a trial, and afterward begin to blow constantly, that wind shall continue for many days.
5. Spacious winds (if they be of the free kind) are, for the most part, vehement, and not soft, and 4. If the south wind begin to blow two or three more lasting; for they will last almost four-and-days, sometimes the north wind will blow pretwenty hours. They are likewise not so much inclined to rain. Strait or narrow winds, contrariwise, are either soft or stormy, and always short. 6. Fixed and stayed winds are itinerary or travelling, and take up very large spaces.
7. Stormy winds do not extend themselves into any large spaces, though they always go beyond the bounds of the storm itself.
8. Sea winds always blow within narrower spaces than earth winds, as may sometimes be Econ at sea, namely, a pretty fresh gale in some
sently after it. But if the north wind blows as many days, the south wind will not blow, until the wind have blown a little from the east.
5. When the year is declining and winter begins after autumn is past, if the south wind blows in the beginning of winter, and after it comes the north wind, it will be a frosty winter; but if the north wind blow in the beginning of winter, and the south wind come after, it will be a mild and warm winter.
6. Pliny quotes Eudoxus, to show that the order