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tbrown by the free winds. Wherefore in the Injunction. Human diligence hath almost winter they are hardly taken notice of, when the ceased and stood still in the observation of attend. free winds wander most: but are more observa- ing winds in particular places, which, notwithble in the summer, when those wandering winds standing, should not have been, that observation grow weak.
being profitable for many things. I remember, 12. In Europe these are the chief stayed winds, I asked a certain merchant, (a wise and discreet north winds from the solstice, and they are both man,) who had made a plantation in Greenland, forerunners and followers of the dogstar. West and had wintered there, why that country was so winds from the equinoctial in autumn, east winds extreme cold, seeing it stood in a reasonable tem. from the spring equinoctial; as for the winter perate climate. He said, it was not so great as it solstice, there is little heed to be taken of it, by was reported; but that the cause was twofold: reason of the varieties.
One was, that the masses and heaps of ice which 13. The winds called ornithii, or bird winds, came out of the Scythian sea were carried thither. had that name given them because they bring The other (which he also thought to be the better birds out of cold regions beyond the sea, into reason) was because the west wind there blows warm climates; and they belong not to stayed many parts of the year, more than the east wind; winds, because they for the most part keep no as also (said he) it doth with us; but there it punctual time: and the birds, they for the con- blows from the continent, and cold, but with us venience of them, whether they come sooner or from the sea, and warmish. And (said he) if the later : and many times when they have begun to east wind should blow here in England so often blow a little, and turn, the birds being forsaken and constantly as the west wind does there, we by it, are drowned in the sea, and sometimes fall should have far colder weather, even equal to that into ships.
as is there. 14. The returns of these certain or stayed winds 6. The west winds are attendants of the pomeare not so precise at a day or an hour, as the flow-ridian or afternoon hours : for, towards the de. ing of the sea is. Some authors do set down a clining of the sun, the winds blow oftener from day, but it is rather by conjecture than any con- the east than from the west. stant observation.
7. The south wind is attendant on the night;
for it rises and blows more strongly in the night, Customary or Attending Winds.
and the north wind in the daytime.
8. But there are many and great differences The word of attending wind is ours, and we between winds which are attendant on the sea, thought good to give it, that the observation con- and those which are attendant upon the land. cerning them be not lost, nor confounded. The That is one of the chief which gave Columbus meaning is this, divide the year if you please (in occasion to find out the new world ; namely, that what country soever you be) into three, four, or sea winds are not stayed, but land winds are : for five parts, and if any one certain wind blow, then the sea abounding in vapours, which are indiffertwo, three, or four of those parts, and a contrary ently everywhere, winds are also engendered inwind but one; we call that wind which blows differently everywhere, and with great inconstancy most frequently the customary, or attending wind are carried here and there, having no certain beginof that country, and likewise of the times. nings nor sources. But the earth is much unlike
1. The south and north winds are attendants for the begetting of winds: some places are more of the world, for they, with those which are within efficacious to engender and increase winds, some their sections or divisions, blow oftener over all the less: wherefore they stand most from that part world, than either the east or the west.
where they have their nourishment, and take their 2. All the free winds (not the customary) are rise from thence. more attendant in the winter than in the summer; 9. Acosta is unconstant in his own position. but most of all in the autumn and spring. He saith that at Peru, and the sea coasts of the
3. All free winds are attendants rather in the south sea, south winds do blow almost the whole countries without the tropics, and about the polar year: and he saith in another place, that upon circles, than within: for in frozen and in torrid those coasts sea winds do blow chiefliest. But the countries, for the most part they blow more spar- south wind to them is a land wind, as likewise ingly, in the middle regions they are more fre- the north and east wind also, and the west wind quent.
is their only sea wind. We must take that which 4. Also all free winds, especially the strongest he sets down more certainly; namely, that the and most forcible of them, do blow oftener and south wind is an attending and familiar wind of more strongly, morning and evening, than at noon those countries : unless, peradventure, in the name and night.
of the south sea he hath corrupted his meaning, or 5. Free winds blow frequently in hollow places, his speech, meaning the west by the south, which and where there be caves, than in solid and firm blows from the south sea. But the sea which ground.
they call the south sea is not properly the souti
of the fourth and inth articles. Connexion.
sea; but as a second western ocean, being stretched | 1. With us the south wind is rainy, and the out in the like situation as the Atlantic sea is. northern wind clear and fair, the one gathers to
10. Sea winds are questionless more moist than gether and nourishes the clouds; the other scatland winds, but yet they are more pure, and will ters and casts them off. Wherefore the poets, easilier, and with more equality be incorporated when they speak of the deluge, feign the northern with the pure air. For terrestrial winds are ill wind at that time to be shut up in prison, and the composed, and smoky. Neither let any one ob- south wind to be sent out with very large comject, that they ought to be grosser by reason of the mission. saltness of the sea. For the nature of terrestrial 2. The west wind hath with us been held to be salt doth not rise in vapours.
the wind which blew in the golden age, the com11. Sea winds are lukewarm or cold, by reason panion of a perpetual spring, and a cherisher of of the two foresaid qualities, humidity and pure- flowers.
For by humidity they mitigate the colds, 3. Paracelsus his scholars, when they songht (for dryness increaseth both heat and cold,) and for a place for their three principles in Juno's with their pureness they cool. Therefore without temple also, which is the air, placed three, but the tropics they are lukewarm, within the tropics found no place for the east wind. they are cold.
They Mercury ascribe to the south winds, 12. I believe that sea winds are everywhere To the rich western blasts the sulphur mines, attendant upon particular countries, especially
And rugged Boreas' blasts the sad salt finds. such as stand upon the sea-coasts: that is to say, 4. But with us in England the east wind is winds blow more frequently from that side where thought to be mischievous, so that it goes for a the sea is, by reason of the greater plenty of mat- proverb, “ that when the wind is in the east, it is ter which winds have in the sea, than in the land ; neither good for man nor beast.” unless there be some firm wind blowing from the 5. The south wind blows from the presence of iand, for some peculiar reason. But let no man the sun, the north from the absence in our hemisconfound firm or stayed winds with attendant phere. The east wind in order to the motion of winds: the attendants being always more fre- the air, the west wind from the sea, the east wind quent; but the stayed ones for the most part from the continent, most commonly in Europe blowing more seldom. But that is common to and the western parts of Asia. These are the them both, namely, to blow from that place from most radical and essential differences of winds; which they receive their nourishment.
from which truly and 'really depend most of the 13. Sea winds are commonly more vehement qualities and powers of the winds. than land winds : yet when they cease, the sea is 6. The south wind is not so anniversary or calmer from the shores than near unto them; inso-yearly, nor so stayed as the northern wind is, but much that mariners, to avoid calms, will some- more wandering and free; and when it is stayed, times coast along the shore, rather than launch it is so soft and mild that it can scarcely be perinto the deep.
ceived. 14. Winds which are called tropei, that is to 7. The south wind is lower, and more lateral, say, retorted, namely, such as, when they have and blowing of one side ; the northern wind is blown a little way, suddenly turn again, such higher and blows from above; we do not mean winds I say blow from the sea towards the shore: the polar elevation and depression of which we but retorted winds and whirlwinds are most com- have spoken formerly ; but because the north monly in gulfs of seas.
wind for the most part hath its beginnings higher, 15. Some small gales blow for the most part and the south wind for the most part nearer to us. about all great waters, and they are most felt in a 8. The south wind to us is rain, (as we said morning; but more about rivers than at sea, be-before,) but in Africa it canses clear weather, but cause of the difference which is between a land bringing great heat along with it, and not cold, as gale and a water gale.
some have affirmed. In Africa it is pretty health16. In places which are near the sea, trees bow ful, but to us, if the south wind last long with and bend, as shunning the sea air: but that comes fair weather and without rain, it is very pestilent. not through any averseness to them; but sea 9. The south winds and west winds do not winds, by reason of their humidity and thickness, engender vapours, but they blow from those are as it were more heavy and ponderous. coasts where there is great store of them, by
reason of the increase of the sun's heat, which The Qualities and Powers of Winds.
draws forth the vapours, and therefore they are To the seventh, twenty-eighth, twenty-ninıb, thirtieth, and rainy. But if they blow from dry places, which thirty-first articles. Connexion.
have no vapours in them, they are fair. But, Concerning the qualities and powers of winds, notwithstanding, sometimes they are pure and men have made careless and various observations : sometimes turbulent. we will coll out the most certain, and the rest, as 10. The south and west winds here with us, too light, we will leave to the winds themselves. seem to be confederate, and are warm and moist,
and on the other side the north and east winds blow together, whereby they are broken and dishave some affinity between them, being cold and turbed. dry.
21. Beware of a northern wind when you sow 11. The north and south winds (whereof we seed, neither would I wish any one to inoculate have also spoken before) do blow oftener than or graft in a southern wind. the east and west winds, because there is a great 22. Leaves fall from trees soonest on the south inequality of vapours in those parts, by reason side, but vine sprouts or stalks bud forth, and of the absence and presence of the sun, but to grow most that way. the east and to the west the sun is, as it were, 23. In large pasture, shepherds must take care indifferent.
(as Pliny saith) to bring their flocks to the north 12. The south wind is very healthful when it side, that they may feed against the south. For, coines from the sea, but when it blows from the if they feed towards the north, they grow lame continent it is more unhealthful; and so, contra- and blear-eyed, and distempered in their bellies. riwise, the north wind is suspicious blowing The northern wind, also, doth so weaken their from the sea, from the continent it is healthful. coupling, that if they couple looking that way, Likewise, the south sea wind is very agreeable they will for the most part bring forth ewe-lambs. with plants and fruits, killing their cankers, or But Pliny doth not stand very stify to this rusts, and other hurtful annoyances.
opinion, having, as it were, taken it up upon 13. A gentle south wind doth assemble and trust and borrowed it. gather together clouds much, especially if it con- 24. Winds are hurtful to wheat and all manner tinue but a short while; but if it blow too bois- of grain at three times, namely, at the opening terously, or long, it clouds the sky and brings in and at the falling of the flower, and when the rain. But especially when it ceases or grows grain itself is ripe, for then they blow the corn remiss, more than in its beginning, and when it out of the ear, and, at the other two times, is in its chiefest vigour.
either they blast the flower or blow it off. 14. When the south wind either begins to blow 25. While the south wind blows, men's breath or ceases, for the most part there are changes of grows ranker, all creatures' appetites decay, pesweather, from fair to cloudy, and from hot to cold, tilent diseases reign, men wax more slow and and contrariwise. The north wind many times dull. But when the wind is north wardly, men rises and ceases, the former weather remaining are more lively, healthful, and greedy after food. and continuing.
Yet the northern wind is hurtful for them that are 15. After hoary frosts and long continued troubled with the phthisick, cough, gout, or any snow, there scarcely blows any other wind than other sharp defluxions. a south wind, there being, as it were, a concoc- 26. An east wind is dry, piercing, and mor. tion or digestion made of cold, which then at last tifying. The west wind moist, meek, and noudissolves; neither doth rain also follow; but this rishing. likewise happens in changes or intervals of fair 27. If the east wind blow when the spring is weather.
any thing forward, it is hurtful to fruits, bringing 16. The south wind rises oftener and blows in of worms and caterpillars, so that the leaves stronger in the night than in the day, especially are hardly spared : neither is it very good to in winter nights. But the north wind, if it rise grain. Contrariwise, the west wind is very proin the night, (which is contrary to its custom,) it pitious and friendly to herbs, flowers, and all doth usually last above three days.
manner of vegetables. And so is the east wind 17. When the south wind blows, the waves too about the autumnal equinox. swell higher than when the north wind blows, 28. Western winds are more vehement than though it blows with an equal or lesser force. eastern winds, and bow and bend trees more.
18. The south wind blowing, the sea becomes 29. Rainy weather, which begins when the blue and more bright than when the north wind east wind blows, doth last longer than that which blows, which causes it to look darker and blacker. begins when a west wind blows, and may perad
19. When the air becomes warmer on a sud- venture hold out for a whole day. den, it sometimes betokens rain; and, again, at 30. The east and north wind, when they orce other times, when on a sudden it grows colder, it begin to blow, blow more constantly; the south likewise betokens rain. But this happens ac- and west wind are more mutable. cording to the nature of the winds; for if the air 31. In an eastern wind all visible things do apgrow warm whilst the south or east wind blows, pear bigger; but in a western wind all audible there is rain at hand, and likewise when it grows things are heard further, as sounds of bells anil cold during the northern or western blasts. the like.
20. The south wind blows for the most part 32. 'The east-north-east wind draws clouds to entire and alone. But the north wind blowing, it. It is a proverb amongst the Greeks to com. especially the east-north-east, or the north-west, pare it to usurers, who by laying out money do oftentimes contrary and various, or divers winds swallow it up. It is a vehement and large wind. which cannot remove clouds so fast, as they will govern the temperatures of the countries, and the turn back and press upon it. Which is likewise disposition of the air, as much or more than the seen in great fires, which grow stronger against sun itself. Insomuch that Peru (which, by the wind.
reason of the nearness of the ocean, the vastness 33. Cardinal or semicardinal winds are not of rivers, and exceeding great and high hills, so stormy as the median.
hath abundance of winds and blasts blowing 34. Median winds from north to north-east are there) may contend with Europe for a temperate more fair, from north-east to east more stormy. and sweet air. Likewise from east to south-east more fair, from
42. It is no wonder if the force and power of south-east to south more stormy. Likewise from winds be so great, as it is found to be ; vehement south to south-west more fair, from south-west to winds being as inundations, torrents, and flow. west more stormy. Likewise from west to north- ing of the spacious air, neither (if we attentively west more fair; from north-west to north more heed it) is their power any great matter. They stormy. So that, proceeding according to the can throw down trees, which, with their tops, order of the heavens, the median winds of the like unto spread sails, give them advantage to do first halfward are always disposed to fair weather, it, and are a burden to themselves. Likewise those of the latter halfward to storms and tem- they can blow down weak buildings; strong and pests.
firm ones they cannot, without earthquakes join 35. Thunders and lightnings, and storms, with with them. Sometimes they will blow all the falling of broken clouds are, when such cold snow off the tops of hills, burying the valley winds as participate of the north do blow, as the that is below them with it; as it befel Solomon north-west, north-north-west, north-north-east, in the Sultanian fields. They will also, some north-east, and east north-east. Wherefore those times, drive in waters, and cause great inundathunders likely are accompanied with hail.
tions. 36. Likewise snowy winds come from the
43. Sometimes winds will dry up rivers, and north, but it is from those median winds which leave the channels bare. For if, after a great are not stormy, as the north-west, and north-east, drought, a strong wind blows with the current and by north.
for many days, so that it, as it were, swepps away 37. Winds gain their natures and properties the water of the river into the sea, and keeps the five ways only: either by the absence or presence sea water from coming in, the river will dry up of the sun; or by agreeing or disagreeing with in many places where it doth not use to be so. the natural motion of the air; or by the diversity
Monition. Turn the poles, and, withal, turn of the matter which feedeth them, by which they the observations as concerning the north and are engendered; as sea, snow, marishes, or the south. For, the presence and absence of the sun like; or by the tincture of the countries through being the cause, it must vary according to the which they pass; or by their original local begin- poles. But this may be a constant thing, that nings : on high, under ground, in the middle; all there is more sea towards the south, and more which things the ensuing articles will better de- land towards the north, which doth not a little clare and explain.
help the winds. 38. All winds have a power to dry, yea, more
Monition. Winds are made or engendered a than the sun itself, because the sun draws out the thousand ways, as by the subsequent inquisition vapours; but if it be not very fervent, it doth not it will appear; so, to fix that observation in a thing disperse them; but the wind both draws them so various, is not very easy. Yet, those things out, and carries them away. But the south wind which we have set down are, for the most part, doth this least of any; and both timber and stones
most certain. sweat more when the south wind blows a little, than when it is calm and lies still.
Local Beginnings of Winds. 39. March winds are far more drying than sum
To the eighth article. Connexion. mer winds; insomuch that such as make musical To know the local beginnings of winds, is a instruments will stay for March winds to dry their thing which requires a deep search and inquisistuff they make their instruments of, to make it tion, seeing that the whence and whither of more porous, and better sounding.
winds are things noted even in the Scripture, to 40. All manner of winds purge the air, and be abstruse and hidden. Neither do we cleanse it from all putrefaction, so that such years speak of the fountains or beginnings of particuas are most windy, are most healthful.
lar winds, (of which more shall be said hereafter,) 41. The sun is like to princes, who sometimes but of the matrixes of winds in general. Some having appointed deputies in some remote coun- fetch them from above, some search for them in tries, the subjects there are more obsequious to the deep : but, in the middle, (where they are foi those deputies, and yield them more respect than the most part engendered,) nobody hardly looks to the prince himself. And so the winds which for them : such is the custom of men to inquire have their power and origin from the sun, do l after things which are obscure, and omit those
things which lie, as it were, in their way. earthquakes come but seldom, risings and swellThis is certain, that winds are either inbred or ings of waters are more frequent. strangers; for winds are, as it were, merchants of 7. Likewise it is everywhere taken notice of vapours, which being by them gathered into that waters do somewhat swell and rise before clouds, they carry out and bring in again into tempests. countries, from whence winds are again returned, 8. The weak subterraneal spirit which is as it were, by exchange. But let us now inquire breathed out scatteringly is not perceived upon concerning native winds, for those which, coming the earth until it be gathered into wind, by reason from another place, are strangers, are in another the earth is full of pores; but when it issues from place natives. There are three local beginnings under the water, it is presently perceived (by of them : they either breathe, or spring out of the reason of the water's continuity) by some manner ground, or are cast down from above, or are here of swelling. made up in the body of the air. Those which are 9. We resolved before that in cavernous and cast down from above, are of a double generation; denny places there were attendant winds; insofor they are either cast down before they be form- much that those winds seem to have their local ed into clouds, or afterwards composed of rarefied beginnings out of the earth. and dispersed clouds. Let us now see what is 10. In great and rocky hills winds are found the history of these things.
to breathe sooner, (namely, before they be per1. The poets feigned Eolus his kingdom to be ceived in the valleys,) and more frequently, placed under ground in dens and caves, where (namely, when it is calm weather in the valleys.) the winds' prison was, out of which they were at but all mountains and rocks are cavernous and times let forth.
hollow. 2. Some philosophical divines, moved by those 11. In Wales, in the county of Denbigh, a words of Scripture, “He brings forth the winds mountainous and rocky country, out of certain out of his treasures,” think that the winds come caves (as Gilbertus relateth) are such vehement out of some treasuries; namely, places under eruptions of wind, that clothes or linen laid out ground, amongst the mines of minerals. But there upon any occasion, are blown up, and carried this is nothing; for the Scripture speaketh like a great way up into the air. wise of the treasures of snow and hail, which, 12. In Aber Barry, near Severn in Wales, in doubtless, are engendered above.
a rocky cliff, are certain holes, to which if you 3. Questionless, in subterraneal places there lay your ear, you shall hear divers sounds and is great store of air, which it is very likely some- murmurs of winds under ground. times breathes out by little and little, and some
An indirect experiment. times, again, upon urgent causes, must needs come rushing forth together.
Acosta hath observed that the towns of Plata
and Potosi, in Peru, are not far distant one from An indirect experiment.
the other, and both situated upon a high and hilly In great droughts, and in the middle of sum- ground, so that they differ not in that; and yet mer, when the ground is cleft and chopped, there Potosi hath a cold and winter-like air, and Plata breaks out water many times in dry and sandy hath a mild and spring-like temperature, which places; which, if waters (being a gross body) difference it seems may be attributed to the silver do, though it be but seldom, it is probable that mines which are near Potosi ; which showeth the air (which is a subtile and tenuous body) may that there are breathing-places of the earth, as in often do it.
relation to hot and cold. 4. If the air breathes out of the earth by little 13. If the earth be the first cold thing, accordand little, and scatteringly, it is little perceived ing to Parmenides, (whose opinion is not conat the first; but when many of those small ema- temptible, seeing cold and density are knit togenations, or comings out, are come together, there ther by a strict knot,) it is no less probable that is a wind produced, as a river out of several there are hotter breaths sent out from the central springs. And this seems to be so, because it hath cold of the earth than are cast down from the cold been observed by the ancients, that many winds, of the higher air. in those places where they begin, do at first blow 14. There are certain wells in Dalmatia, and but softly, which afterward grow stronger and the country of Cyrene, (as some of the ancients increase in their progress like unto rivers. record,) into which if you cast a stone, there will
5. There are some places in the sea, and some presently arise tempests, as if the stone had lakes also, which swell extremely when there is broken some covering of a place, in which the no wind stirring, which apparently proceeds from force of the winds was enclosed. some subterraneal wind. 6. There is great quantity of subterraneal spi
An indirect experiment. rit required to shake or cleave the earth ; less will Ætna and divers other mountains cast out serve turn for the raising of water. Wherefore fire; therefore it is likely that air may likewise