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ARTICLES OF INQUISITION CONCERNING THE WINDS.
The names of winds.
and peradventure stormy; some disperse the clouds, Describe or set down the winds according to and are clear. the seaman's industry; and give them names either new or old, so that you keep yourself con
Divers qualities of winds. stant to them.
7. Inquire, and give account, which are the Winds are either general or precise, either pe- winds of all the forenamed sorts or kinds, and culiar or free. I call them general which always how they vary, according to the regions and places. blow; precise, those which blow at certain times; There are three local beginnings of winds: attendants or peculiar, those which blow most either they are thrown and cast down from above, commonly; free winds, those which blow indif- or they spring out of the earth, or they are made ferently or at any time.
up of the very body of the air. General winds.
Local beginnings of winds. 2. Whether there be any general winds, which 8. According to these three beginnings inquire are the very self-motion of the air ; and if there be concerning winds; namely, which are thrown any such, in order to what motion, and in what down, out of that which they call the middle replaces they blow?
gion of the air; which breathe out of the conPrecise or fixed winds.
cavities of the earth, whether they break out 3. What winds are anniversary or yearly winds, together; or whether they breathe out of the earth returning by turns; and in what countries? Whe? imperceivably, and scattering, and afterwards ther there be any wind so precisely fixed, that it gather together, like rivulets into a river. Finally, returns regularly at certain days and hours, like which are scatteringly engendered from the swellunto the flowing of the sea ?
ings and dilatations of the neighbouring air ?
Neither are the generations of the winds oriAttending or peculiar winds.
ginal only, for some there are also accidental, 4. What winds are peculiar and ordinary in namely, by the compression or restraints of the countries, which observe a certain time in the air, and by the percussions and repercussions of it. same countries; which are spring winds, and which are summer winds; which autumnal, which
Accidental generations and productions of winds. brumal, which equinoctial, which solstitial ; 9. Inquire concerning these accidental generawhich are belonging to the morning, which to tions of winds; they are not properly generations noon, which to the evening, and which to the of winds; for they rather increase and strengthen night.
winds, than produce and excite them. 5. What winds are sea winds, and what winds Hitherto of the community of winds. There blow from the continent ? and mark and set down are also certain rare and prodigious winds, such the differences of the sea and land winds carefully, as are called tempests, whirlwinds, and storms. as well of those which blow at land and sea, as These are above ground. There are likewise of those which blow from land and sea.
some that are subterraneal and under ground, whereof some are vaporous and mercurial, they are
perceivable in mines; some are sulphurous, they 6. Whether winds do not blow from all parts are sent out, getting an issue by earthquakes, or of heaven?
do flame out of fiery mountains. Winds do not vary much more in the parts of heaven from which they blow, than in their own
Extraordinary winds and sudden blasts. qualities. Some are vehement, some mild, some 10. Inquire concerning such rare and prodiconstant, some mutable; some hot, some cold, gious winds, and of all miraculous and wonderful some moistening and dissolving; some drying and things done by winds. astringent; some gather clouds and are rainy,l From the several sorts of winds, let the inqui
Successions of winds.
sition pass to those things which contribute south wind blew in such a place, whether it be towards the winds, (for we will so express it, known certainly, that at the same time the north because the word efficient signifies more, and the wind blew ten miles off? And, contrariwise, word concomitant, less than we mean,) and to into how narrow and straight bounds the winds those things which seem to raise, or to appease may be reduced, so that winds may pass, as it the winds.
were, through channels, which seems to be done
in some whirlwinds. Things contributing or making for the winds, and raising and 18. Inquire for how long a time, very much, appeasing them.
ordinary, or little time, winds use to continue, 11. Inquire sparingly concerning astrological and then slack, and, as it were, expire and die. considerations of winds, neither care thou for the Likewise, how the rising and beginning of winds over-curious schemes of the heaven, only do not useth to be; what their languishing or cessation neglect the more manifest observations of winds is, whether suddenly, or by degrees, or how ? rising, about the rising of some stars, or about From the bounds of the winds let your inquithe eclipses of the luminaries, or conjunctions of sition pass over to the succession of winds, either planets ; nor much less on those which depend amongst themselves, or in respect of rain and on the courses of the sun and moon.
showers; for when they lead their rings, it were 12. What meteors of several sorts do contri- | pretty to know the order of their dancing. bute or make for winds, what the earthquakes, what rain, what the skirmishing of winds, one with another? for these things are linked together, 19. Whether there be any more certain rule or and one draws on the other.
observation concerning the successions of winds 13. What the diversity of vapours and exhala- one to another, or whether it have any relation tions contributes towards the winds ? and which to the motion of the sun, or otherwise; if it have of them do most engender winds ? and how far any, what manner of one it is? the nature of winds doth follow these its mate- 20. Inquire concerning the succession and the rials?
alteration, or taking turns of the winds and rain, 11. What those things which are here upon the seeing it is ordinarily and often seen, that rain earth, or are there done do contribute towards the lays the wind, and the wind doth disperse the winds; what the hills and the dissolutions of rain. snow upon them; what those masses of ice 21. Whether, after a certain term and period which swim upon the sea, and are carried to some of years, the succession of winds begin anew; place; what the differences of soil and land ; (so and if it be so, what that period is, and how it be of some large extent ;) what ponds, sands, long? woods, and champion ground; what those things From the succession of the winds, let the inwhich we men do here, as burning of heath, and quisition pass to their motions; and the motions the like, doth contribute to the manuring of land, of the winds are comprehended in seven inquithe firing of towns in time of war, the drying up sitions; whereof three are contained in the former of ponds and lakes; the continual shooting off | articles, four remain as yet untouched. For, we of guns, the ringing of many bells together in have inquired of the motion of winds divided great cities, and the like? These things and acts into the several regions of the heaven; also, of of ours are but as small straws, yet something the motion upon three lines, upward, downward, they may do.
and laterally. Likewise, of the accidental mo15. Inquire concerning all manner of raisings, tion of compressions or restraints. There remain or allaying of winds, but be sparing in fabulous the fourth, of progressions or going forward ; the and superstitious causes.
fifth, of undulation, or waving; the sixth, of From those things which make for the winds, conflict or skirmish ; the seventh, in human let the inquisition proceed to inquire of the instruments and engines. bounds of the winds, of their height, extension, and continuance.
22. Seeing progression is always from some
certain place or bound, inquire diligently, or as well 16. Inquire carefully of the height or elevation as thou canst, concerning the place of the first of winds, and whether there be any tops of moun- beginning, and, as it were, the spring of any wind. tains to which the winds do not reach ; or whether For winds seem to be like unto fame, for, though clouds may be seen sometimes to stand still, they make a noise and run up and down, yet they and not move, when the winds at the same time hide their heads amongst the clouds; so is their blow strongly upon the earth.
progress; as, for example, if the vehement north17. Inquire diligently of the spaces or rooms ern wind which blew at York such a day, de which the winds take up at once, and within what blow at London two days after. bounds they blew. As, for example, if the 23. Omit not the inquisition of undulation of
Divers motions of the winds.
The bounds or winds.
winds. We call undulation of winds that motion! 30. What they effect concerning purging or by which the wind, in or for a little space of clearing, and infecting of the air, in plagues, sicktime, rises and abates, as the waves of the water; ness, and diseases of beasts. which turns may easily be apprehended by the 31. What they effect concerning the conveying hearing of them in houses; and you must so to us things (which we call) spiritual, as sounds, much the rather mark the differences of undula- rays, and the like. tion, or of furrowing between the water and the From the powers of winds let the inquisition air, because in the air and winds there wants the pass to the prognostics of winds, not only for the motion of gravity or weight, which is a great part use of predictions, but because they lead us on of the cause of the waves rising in the water. to the causes : for prognostics do either show us
24. Inquire carefully concerning the conflict the preparations of things, before they be brought and meeting of winds, which blow at one and into action; or the beginnings before they appear the same time: first, whether at the same time to the sense. there blow several original winds, (for we do not speak of reverberated winds.) which, if it comes
Prognostics of winds. to pass, what windings they engender and bring forth in their motion, and also what condensa
32. Let all manner of good prognostics of winds tions, and alterations they produce in the body be carefully gathered together, (besides astrologiof the air ?
cal ones, of which we set down formerly how far 25. Whether one wind blow above at the same
they are to be inquired aster,) and let them either time as another blows here below with us ? For be taken out of meteors, or waters, or instincts of it hath been observed by some, that sometimes
beasts, or any other way. the clouds are carried one way, when the weather
Lastly, close up the inquisition, with inquiring cock upon a steeple stands another. Also, that after the imitations of winds, either in natural or the clouds have been driven by a strong gale,
artificial things. when we, here below, have had a great calm.
26. Make an exact particular description of the motion of the winds in driving on ships with their sails.
33. Inquire of the imitations of winds in na. 27. Let there be a description made of the tural things; such as breaths enclosed within the motion of the winds in the sails of ships, and bodies of living creatures, and breaths within the the sails of windmills, in the flight of hawks receptacles of distilling vessels. and birds; also, in things that are ordinary, and
Inquire concerning made gales, and artificial for sport, as of displayed colours, flying dragons, winds, as bellows, refrigeratories, or coolers in
, duels with winds, &c.
parlours, or dining-rooms, &c. From the motions of winds, let the inquisition
Let the heads or articles be such. Neither is pass to the force and power of them.
it unknown to me that it will be impossible to
answer to some of these according to the small of the power of winds.
quantity of experience that we have. But, as in 28. What winds do or can do concerning cur- civil causes, a good lawyer knows what interrorents or tides of waters, in their keeping back, gatories the cause requires to have witnesses exaputting forth, or inlets or overflowings.
mined upon; but what the witnesses can answer 29. What they do concerning plants and in- he knows not. The same thing is incident to us sects, bringing in of locusts, blastings and mil- in natural history. Let those who came after us dews.
endeavour for the rest.
Imitations of winds.
To the first article.
The Names of Winds.
| because of the assenting voices or opinions of old authors; of which having taken (though with
somewhat a doubtful judgment) many things, We give names to winds rather as they are they will hardly be known, but under such names numbered in their order and degrees than by their as themselves have used. Let the general divi own antiquity; this we do for memory's and per- sion be this: let cardinal winds be those which spicuity's sake. But we add the old words also, I blow from corners or angles of the world; semi.
cardinal, those which blow in the half-wards of within the tropics) we may find places condemned those; and inedian winds, those which blow be- among the ancients. tween these half-wards: likewise of those which It is certain, that to those who sail between blow betwixt these half-wards; let those be called the tropics in a free and open sea, there blows a major medians which blow in a quadrant or fourth constant and settled wind (which the seamen call part of these divisions: the lesser medians are a breeze) from east to vist. This wind is not oj all the rest. Now the particular division is that so little force, but that, partly by its own blowvhich follows:
ing, and partly by its guiding the current of the
sea, it hindereth seamen froin coming back again North,
the same way they went to Peru. North and by east.
2. In our seas in Europe, when it is fair dry Mcd. Maj. North-north-east, or aquilo. North-east, and by north, or meses.
weather, and no particular winds stirring, there Semicard. North-east.
blows a soft kind of gale from the east, whichi North-east and hy east.
followeth the sun. Med. Maj. East-north-east, or cæcias. East and by north.
3. Our common observations do admit that the Cardinal. East, or subsolanus.
higher clouds are for the most part carried from East by south.
east to west; and that it is so likewise when Med. Maj. East-south-east,or vulturnus. South-east and by east.
here below upon the earth, either there is a great Semicard. South-east.
calm, or a contrary wind; and if they do not South-east and by south. Med. Vaj. South-south-east, or phænicias.
so always, it is because sometimes particular South and by east.
winds blow aloft which overwhelm this general Cardinal. South.
wind. South and by west.
A Caution. If there be any such general wind, Med. Maj. South-south-west, or libonotus. South-west and by south.
in order to the motion of the heaven, it is not so Semicard. South-west, or libs.
firm nor strong but that it gives way to particular South-west and by west.
winds. But it appears most plainly amongst the Med. Maj. West-south-west, or africus. West and by south.
tropics, by reason of the larger circles which it Cardinal. West, or favonius.
makes. And, likewise, it is so when it blows on West and hy north.
high, for the same cause, and by reason of its free Med. Maj. West-north-west, or corus. North-west and by west.
course, Wherefore, if you will take it without Semicard. North-west.
the tropics, and near the earth, (where it blows North-west and by north, or thrascías.
most gently and slowly,) make trial of it in an Med. Maj. North-north-west, or circius. North and by west.
open and free air, in an extreme calm, and in
high places, and in a body which is very movable, There are also other names of winds. Apeliotes, and in the afternoon, for at that time the particuthe east wind, argestes, the south-west, olympias, lar eastern wind blows more sparingly. the north-west, scyron, the south-east, hellespon- Injunction. Observe diligently the vanes and tius, the east-north-east, for these we care not. weathercocks upon the tops and towers of churchLet it suffice that we have given constant and es, whether, in extreme calms, they stand confixed names of winds, according to the order and tinually towards the west or not. disposition of the regions of the heavens : we do not set much by the comments of authors, since
An indirect experiment. the authors themselves have little in them.
4. It is certain, that here with us in Europe the eastern wind is drying and sharp; the west wind,
contrariwise, moist and nourishing. May not Free Winds.
this be by reason that it being granted that the To the sixth article.
air moves from east to west) it must of necessity 1. There is not a region of the heaven from be that the east wind, whose blast goeth the same whence the winds doth not blow. Yea, if you way, must needs disperse and attenuate the air, divide the heaven into as many regions as there whereby the air is made biting and dry; but the be degrees in the horizon, you shall find winds western wind, which blows the contrary way, sometimes blowing from every one of them. turns the airs back upon itself, and thickens it,
2. There are some whole countries where it whereby it becomes more dull, and, at length, never rains, or, at least, very seldom; but there moist. is no country where the wind doth not blow, and
An indirect experiment. that frequently.
5. Consider the inquisition of the motion ana
flowing of waters, whether they move from east General Winds.
to west; for, if the two extremes, heaven and To the second article.
waters, delight in this motion, the air which is 1. Concerning general winds, experiments are in the midst will go near to participate of the plain; and it is no inarvel, seeing that (especially same.
Caution. We call the two last experiments in- 1. That there are stayed winds in some places, Jirect, because they do directly show the thing the very name that is given them doth declare it, which we aim at but by consequence, which we as the other name of etesiaes means anniversary also gladly admit of when we want direct experi- or yearly winds. ments.
2. The ancients attributed the cause of the Injunction. That the breeze blows plentifully overflowing of Nilus to the blowing of the etesian between the tropics, is most certain ; the cause (that is to say, northern) winds at that time of the is very ambiguous. The cause may be, because year, which did hinder the river's running into the the air moves according to the heaven; but with sea, and turned the stream of it back. out the tropics almost imperceivably, by reason 3. There are currents in the sea which can of the smaller circles which it makes; within the neither be attributed to the natural motion of the tropics manifestly, because it makes bigger cir- ocean, nor to the running down from higher cles. Another cause may be, because all kind of places, nor the straitness of the opposite shores, heat dilates and extends the air, and doth not suf- nor to promontories running out into the sea, but fer it to be contained in its former place; and by are merely guided and governed by these stayed the dilatation of the air, there must needs be an winds. impulsion of the contiguous air which produceth 4. Those who will not have Columbus to have this breeze as the sun goes forward ; and that is conceived such a strong opinion concerning the more evident within the tropics, where the sun is West Indies by the relation of a Spanish pilot, more scorching; without it, is hardly perceived. and much less believe that he might gather it out And this seems to be an instance of the cross, or of some obscure footsteps of the ancients, have a decisory instance. To clear this doubt you this refuge; that he might conjecture there was may inquire, whether the breeze blow in the some continent in the west by the certain and night or no: for the wheeling of the air continues stayed winds which blew from them towards the also in the night, but the heat of the sun does not. shores of Lusitania or Portugal. A doubtful, and
6. But it is most certain that the breeze doth not very probable thing, seeing that the voyage not blow in the night, but in the morning, and of winds will hardly reach so large a distance. when the morning is pretty well spent; yet that In the mean time there is great honour due to this instance doth not determine the question, whether inquisition, if the finding of this new world be the nightly condensation of the air (especially in due to one of those axioms or observations, those countries where the days and nights are not whereof it comprehends many. more equal in their length than they are differing 5. Wheresoever are high and snowy mountains, in their heat and cold) may dull and confound from thence blow stayed winds, until that time as that natural motion of the air, which is but weak. the snow be melted away.
If the air participates of the motion of the 6. I believe also that from great pools which heaven, it does not only follow that the east wind are full of water in the winter, there blow stayed concurs with the motion of the air, and the west winds in those seasons, when as they begin to wind strives against it; but also that the north dry up with the heat of the sun. But of this I wind blows, as it were, from above, and the south have no certainty. wind as from below here in our hemisphere, 7. Wheresoever vapours are engendered in where the antarctic pole is under ground, and the abundance, and that at certain times, be sure arctic pole is elevated! which hath likewise been that stayed winds will blow there at the same observed by the ancients, though staggeringly times. and obscurely: but it agrees very well with our 8. If stayed and certain winds blow anywhere, modern experience, because the breeze (which and the cause cannot be found near at hand, may be a motion of the air) is not a full east, but assure yourself that those certain winds are a north-east wind.
strangers, and come from far.
9. It hath been observed, that stayed winds do Slayed or Certain Winds.
not blow in the night-time, but do rise about three hours after sunrising. Surely such winds
are tired, as it were, with a long journey, that As, in the inquisition of general winds, men they can scarcely break through the thickness of have suffered and been in darkness, so they have the night air, but being stirred up again by the been troubled with a vertigo or giddiness con- rising of the sun, they go forward by little cerning stayed and certain winds. Of the former, and little. they say nothing; of the latter, they talk up and 10. All stayed winds (unless they blow from down at random. This is the more pardonable, some neighbouring places) are weak, and yield the thing being various; for these stayed winds unto sudden winds. do change and alter according to the places where 11. There are many stayed winds which are they be: the same do not blow in Egypt, Greece, not perceivable, and which we do not observe, by
reason of their weakness, whereby they are over
To the third article. Connexion.