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78. A History of the Intellectual Faculties; the Co-111. A History of Wax.
gitative Faculty, Fancy, Reason, Memory, &c. 112. A History of Osiers. 79. A History of Natural Divination.
13. A History of Carpeting, and Manufactures 80. A History of Discernments; or, Discrimina- of Straw, Rushes, and the like. tions of Occult Qualities.
114. A History of Washing, Brushing, &c. 81. A History of Cookery, and the Arts subser- 115. A History of Farming, Pasturage, the Ma
vient to it; of the Shambles, of Aviaries, &c. naging of Wood, &c. 82. A History of Baking, and the Preparation of 116. A History of Gardens.
Bread, and the subservient Arts, as grinding 117. A History of Fishing. meal.
118. A History of Hunting and Fowling. 83. A History of Wines.
119. A History of the Art of War, and the Arts 81. A History of the Cellar, and different kinds subservient to it, as the manufacture of arms, of Drinks.
bows, arrows, muskets, projectile engines, ba85. A History of Sweetmeats and Confections. listæ, machines, &c. 86. A History of Honey.
120. A History of the Nautical Art, and the Trades 87. A History of Sugar.
and Arts subservient to it. 88. A History of Milkmeats.
121. A History of Gymnastics, and of all kinds 89. A History of the Bath of Unguents.
of Exercise used by Man. 90. A Miscellaneous History of the Care of the 122. A History of Riding. Person; Shaving, Perfuming, &c.
123. A History of Games of all kinds. 91. A History of working in Gold, and the Arts 124. A History of Conjurors and Sleight of Hand subservient to it.
Men. 92. A History of the Preparation of Wool, and 125. A Miscellaneous History of different Artifithe Arts subservient to it.
cial Substances, as smalt, porcelain, various 93. A History of Manufactures of Silk and Satin, cements, &c. and the Arts subservient to them.
126. A History of Salts. 94. A History of Manufactures of Linen, Canvass, 127. A Miscellaneous History of different Ma
Cotton, Hair, and other thready Substances, chines and Motions. and of the Arts subservient to them.
128. A Miscellaneous History of Common Expe. 95. A History of the Preparation of Feathers. riments, which have not yet united into an Art. 96. A History of Weaving, and the Arts subservient to it.
Histories also of pure Mathematics ought to be 97. A History of Dyeing.
written, although they be rather Observations 98. A History of Leather and Tanning, and the than Experiments.
Arts subservient to it. 99. A History of Mattrasses and Feather Beds. 129. A History of the Natures and Powers of 100. A History of Working in Iron.
Numbers. 101. A History of the Lapidary Art; or of Stone- 130. A History of the Natures and Powers of cutting.
Figures. 102. A History of Bricks and Tiles. 103. A History of Pottery.
It may not be useless to suggest that, as many 104. A History of Cements and Incrustations. of the experiments fall under two or more heads, 105. A History of working in Wood.
(thus the History of Plants and of the Art of 106. A History of Lead.
Gardening contains many things common to both,) 107. A History of Glass and all Vitreous Sub- it will be more convenient to regulate the inquisi.
stances, and of the Manufacture of Glass. tion by the arts, the arrangement by the bodies. 108. A History of Architecture in general. For we pay no great attention to the mechanical 109. A History of Wagons, Cars, Litters, &c. arts as such, but only to those of them which con. 110. A Typographical History of Books, Writ- tribute to furnish forth philosophy. But these
ings, Seals, Ink, Pens, Paper, Parchment, &c. I matters will be best disposed of as the cases arise.
OF THE INSTAURATIO.
NATURAL AND EXPERIMENTAL HISTORY,
TO SERVE AS A FOUNDATION FOR PHILOSOPHY:
PHENOMENA OF THE UNIVERSE;
BEING THE THIRD PART OF THE INSTAURATIO MAGNA.
THE MOST ILLUSTRIOUS AND EXCELLENT PRINCE
SON AND HEIR TO THE HIGH AND MIGHTY KING JAMES.
I HUMBLY present unto your highness the first-fruits of our Natural History; a thing exceeding little in quantity, like a grain of mustard seed, but yet a pledge of those things which, God willing, shall ensue.
For we have bound ourselves, as by a vow, every month that God shall of his goodness please (whose glory it sets forth, as it were in a new canticle or song) to prolong our life, to set out one or more parts of it, according as their length and difficulty shall prove more or less. Others may peradventure (moved by our example) be moved to the like industry; especially when they shall clearly perceive what is in hand. For in a natural history which is good and well set out, are the keys both of sciences and works. God preserve your highness long in safety. Your highness's humble and devoted servant,
Fran. Sr. ALBAN.
THE TITLES OF THE HISTORIES AND INQUISITIONS DESTINED FOR THE
FIRST SIX MONTHS. The History Of Winds.
The History Of The SYMPATHY AND ANTIPAThe History of Density AND Rarity, as THY of Things.
LIKEWISE OF COITION AND EXPANSION OF The HISTORY OF SULPHUR, MERCURY, AND MATTER BY Spaces.
Salt. THE HISTORY OF HEAVY AND Light.
THE HISTORY OF LIFE AND DEATH.
NATURAL AND EXPERIMENTAL HISTORY,
FOR THE MAKING UP OF PHILOSOPHY:
EXPERIMENTS OF THE UNIVERSE:
• WHICH IS THE THIRD PART OF THE INSTAURATIO MAGNA.
Men are to be entreated, advised, and adjured, the star Lyra or Harpe riseth by an edict, and even by their fortunes, to submit their minds and authority is taken for truth, not truth for authority; seek for knowledge in the greater world; and which kind of order and discipline is very conlikewise to cast away so much as the thought of venient for our present use, but banisheth those philosophy, or at least to hope but for slender which are better. For we both suffer for and and small fruits thereof, until a diligent and emulate our first parents' sin; they desired to be approved natural and experimental history be like unto God, and their posterity much more ; acquired and made up. For what would these for we create new worlds, go before nature and shallow brains of men, and these potent trifles command it. We must have all things to be so have? There were among the ancients nume- as may agree with our folly, not to divine wisrous opinions of philosophers, as of Pythagoras, dom, nor as they are found to be in themselves; Philolaus, Xenophanes, Heraclitus, Empedocles, neither can I say which we rest most, our wits or Parmenides, Anaxagoras, Leucippus, Democri- the things themselves: but certainly we set the tus, Plato, Aristotle, Theophrastus, Zeno, and stamps and seals of our own images upon God's others. All these made up arguments of worlds, creatures and works, and never carefully look as of fables, according to their own fancies, and upon and acknowledge the Creator's stamps. recited and published those fables; whereof some Therefore, we do not, without cause, again strive indeed were more handsome and probable, and for the domination over the creatures. For, some again most harsh. But in our ages, by whereas, even after the fall of man, he had some means of colleges and schools' disciplines, wits kind of domination left him over reluctant creaare somewhat more restrained; yet have they not tures, that he might tame and subdue them by quite ceased : Patricius, Telesius, Brunus, Seve- true and solid arts; we have, for the most part, rine, the Dane, Gilbertus, an Englishman, and lost that, also, through our own insolence, beCampaneila, did set foot upon the stage, and cause we will be like unto God, and follow the acted new fables, neither much applauded, nor of dictates of our own reason. Wherefore, if there any elegant argument or subject. But do we be any humility towards the Creator, any revewonder at these things, as though such sects and rence and magnifying of his works, any charity in opinions might not in an infinite number arise in men, or care to release them out of their necessiall ages ? For neither is there, nor ever will be ties and miseries, if there be any love of truth in any end or limit for these things. One snatches natural things, hatred of darkness, and a desire of at one thing, another is pleased with another; purifying the understanding, men are to be again there is no dry nor clear sight of any thing; every and again desired that, casting off, or, at least, one plays the philosopher out of the small trea- laying aside for a while the flying and prepossures of his own fancy, as it were out of Plato's terous philosophies, which have set the theses cave; the more sublime wits more acutely, before the hypotheses, or suppositions before solid and with better success; the duller with less grounds, have captivated experience, and trisuccess, but equal obstinacy: and not long since, umphed over the works of God, they would humby the discipline of some learned (and, as things bly, and with a certain reverence, draw near and go now, excellent) men, sciences are bounded turn over the great volume of the creatures, stop within the limits of some certain authors which and meditate upon it; and, being cleansed, and they have set down, imposing them upon old free from opinions, handle them choicely and enmen, and instilling them into young. So that tirely. This is the speech and language that now (as Tully cavilled upon Cæsar's consulship) | went out into all the ends of the world, and suf
fered not in the confusion of Babel. Let men ments of arts, he is gravelled, or sticks in the learn this, and becoming children again, and in- mire; it is not his intention, he hath no time, nor fants, not scorn to take A B C thereof in hand, will not be at the charge; yet we must not desire and in finding and searching out the interpreta- to have men cast off old things before they have tion of it, let them spare no labour, but let them gotten new. But after a copious and faithful hispersist and go on, and even die in the quest of it. tory of nature and arts is gathered and digested, Seeing, therefore, that in our Instauration we have and, as it were, set and laid open before men's placed the Natural History (such as it is, in order eyes, there is no small hope that such great wits to our ends) in the third part of the work, we as we have before spoken of, (such as have been have thought fit to prevent this thing, and fall in ancient philosophers, and are at this day freupon it immediately. For, although in our Or- quent enough,) having been heretofore of such ganon there are many things of especial conse- efficacy, that they could, out of cork, or a little quence to be finished, yet we think it fitting rather shell, (namely, by thin and frivolous experience,) to promote or set forward the general work of in- build certain little boats for philosophy, gallant stauration in many things, than to perfect it in a enough for art and structure, how much more galfew; always desiring, with extreme fervency, lant and solid structures will they make when (such as we are confident God puts in the minds they have found a whole wood, and stuff enough; of men,) to have that which was never yet at- and that, though they had rather go on in the old tempted, not to be now attempted in vain. Like- way, than make use of our Organon's way, which wise, there came this thought into my mind, (in our opinion) is either the only, or the best namely, that there are questionless in Europe way. So that the case stands thus: our Orgamany capable, free, sublimed, subtile, solid, con- non (though perfect) could not profit much withstant wits; and what if any one endued with out the Natural History; but our Natural Hissuch a wit do betake himself to the use and man- tory, without the Organon, might much advance ner of our Organon, and approve of it? yet hath instauration, or renewing of sciences. Wherehe nothing to do, nor knows not how to address fore, we have thought it best and most advisedly himself to, or fit himself for philosophy. If it to fall upon this before any thing else. God, the were a thing which might be effected by reading maker, preserver, and renewer of the universe, of philosophy books, disputation, or meditation, guide and protect this work, both in its ascent to that man (whosoever it be) might sufficiently his own glory, and in its descent to the good of and abundantly perform it; but if we remit him, man, through his good will towards man, by his as indeed we do, to natural history, and experi- I only begotion Son, God with us!
THE RULE OF THIS PRESENT HISTORY.
Though we have set down, towards the end of which either for use was most of weight, or for that part of our Organon which is come forth, abundance of experiments most convenient, or precepts concerning the Natural and Experiment for the obscurity of the thing most difficult and al History, yet we have thought good to set noble, or, by reason of the discrepancy of titles down more exactly and briefly the forn and rule among themselves, most open to examples. In of this history which we now take in hand. To each title, after a kind of an entrance or preface, the titles comprehended in the catalogue, which we presently propound certain particular topics belong to the concretes, we have added the titles or articles of inquisition, as well to give light to of the abstract natures; of which, as of a re- the present inquisition, as to encourage a future, served history, we made mention in the same For we are master of questions, but not of things; place. These are the various figurations of the yet we do not, in the history, precisely observe matter, or forms of the first class; simple mo- the order of questions, lest that which is for an tions, sums of motions, measures of motions, aid and assistance should prove a hindrance. and some other things: of these we have made The histories and experiments always hold a new alphabet, and placed it at the end of this the first place; and if they set forth any enumevolume. We have taken titles, (being no way ration and series of particular things, they are able to take them all,) not according to order, but made up in tables, or if otherwise, they are taken by choice; those, namely, the inquisition of up severally.
Seeing that histories and experiments do of ones, and, as it were, inchoated axioms which tentimes fail us, especially those which give offer themselves unto us as we inquire, not as we light, and instances of the cross, by which the decisorily pronounce, for they are profitable, understanding may be informed of the true though not altogether true. causes of things, we give precepts of new expe- Never forgetting the profit of mankind, though riments, as far as we can see them fitting in our the light be more worthy than those things which mind, for that as is to be inquired; and these be shown by it,) we offer to man's attention and precepts are designed like histories. For what practice certain essays of practice, knowing that other means is left to us, who are the first that men's stupidity is such, and so unhappy, that come into this way? We unfold and make plain sometimes they see not and pass over things the manner of some experiments that are more which lie just in their way, quaint and subtile, that there may be no error, We set down works and things impossible, or and that we may stir up others to find out better at least which are not yet found out, as they fall and more exact ways. We interweave monitions under each title; and withal those which are aland cautions of the fallacies of things, and of such ready found out, and are in men's power; and errors and scruples as may be found in the inquiry, we add to those impossible, and not yet found out that all fancies, and, as it were, apparitions, may things, such as are next to them, and have most be frighted away, as by an exorcism or spell. affinity with them, that we may stir up and withal
We join thereunto our observations upon his- encourage human industry. tory and experiments, that the interpretation of It appears by the aforesaid things that this prethe nature may be the readier.
sent history doth not only supply the place of the We interpose some comments, or, as it were, third part of the instauration, but also is not a derudiments of the interpretations of causes, spar- spicable preparation to the fourth, by reason of the ingly, and rather supposing what may be, than titles out of the alphabet and topics, and to the positively defining what is.
sixth, by reason of the larger observations, comWe prescribe and set down rules, but movable mentations, and rules.
ENTRY INTO THE HISTORY OF WINDS.
The winds gave wings to men; for by their great and vehement motions, and like hirelings, assistance men are carried up through the air and serve both to sail and grind, and would be useful fly; not through the air, indeed, but upon the sea ; for many other things, if human care were not and a wide door is laid open to commerce, and the wanting. Their natures are reckoned amongst world is made pervious. They are the besoms secret and hidden things. Neither is that to be which sweep and make clean the earth, which is wondered at, seeing the nature and power of the the seat and habitation of mankind, and they air is unknown, whom the winds do serve and cleanse both it and the air; but they make the sea flatter, as Eolus doth Juno in the Poets. They hurtful, which otherwise is harmless, neither are are not primary creatures, nor any of the six days' they some other ways also free from doing hurt. works, no more than the rest of the meteors actuThey are, without help of man, able to stir up) ally, but afterborn, by the order of the creation.
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