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respond in their conformation; others, on the since these latter are more apparent, they may contrary, correspond in the former and differ in throw great light, when well observed and dilithe latter. Thus the chymists have well observed, gently examined, upon those which are more that in their trial of first principles, sulphur and latent. mercury, as it were, pervade the universe; their reasoning about salt, however, is absurd, and merely introduced to comprise earthy, dry, fixed bodies. In the other two, indeed, one of the most universal species of natural harmony manifests itself. Thus there is a correspondence between sulphur, oil, greasy exhalations, flame, and, perhaps, the substance of the stars. On the other hand, there is a like correspondence between mercury, water, aqueous vapour, air, and, perhaps, pure intersidereal ether. Yet do these two quaternions, or great natural tribes (each within its own limits) differ immensely in quantity and density of substance, whilst they generally agree in conformation, as is manifest in many instances. On the other hand, the metals agree in such quantity and density, (especially when compared with vegetables, &c.,) but differ in many respects in conformation. Animals and vegetables, in like manner, vary in their almost infinite modes of conformation, but range within very limited degrees of quantity and density of substance.
The more eternal harmony and aversion, or friendship and enmity, (for superstition and folly have rendered the terms of sympathy and antipathy almost disgusting,) have been either falsely assigned, or mixed with fable, or most rarely discovered from neglect. For if one were to allege that there is an enmity between the vine and the cabbage, because they will not come up well when sown together, there is a sufficient reason for it in the succulent and absorbent nature of each plant, so that the one defrauds the other. Again, if one were to say that there is a harmony and friendship between the corn and the cornflower, or the wild poppy, because the latter seldom grow anywhere but in cultivated soils, he ought rather to say there is an enmity between them, for the poppy and the corn-flower are produced and created by those juices which the corn has left and rejected, so that the sowing of the corn prepares the ground for their production. And there are a vast number of similar false assertions. As for fables, they must be totally exThe next most general correspondence is that terminated. There remains then but a scanty between individual bodies and those which sup- supply of such species of harmony as has borne ply them by way of menstruum or support. In- the test of experiment, such as that between the quiry, therefore, must be made as to the climate, magnet and iron, gold and quicksilver, and the soil, and depth at which each metal is generated, like. In chymical experiments on metals, howand the same of gems, whether produced in ever, there are some others worthy of notice, but rocks or mines; also as to the soil in which par- the greatest abundance (where the whole are so ticular trees, shrubs, and herbs mostly grow and, few in numbers) is discovered in certain medias it were, delight; and as to the best species of cines, which, from their occult and specific qualimanure, whether dung, chalk, sea-sand, or ashes, ties, (as they are termed,) affect particular limbs, &c., and their different propriety and advantage humours, diseases, or constitutions. Nor should according to the variety of soils. So also the we omit the harmony between the motion and grafting and setting of trees and plants (as re- phenomena of the moon, and their effects on gards the readiness of grafting one particular lower bodies, which may be brought together by species on another) depends very much upon an accurate and honest selection from the experiharmony, and it would be amusing to try an ex-ments of agriculture, navigation, and medicine, periment I have lately heard of, in grafting forest trees, (garden trees alone having hitherto been adopted,) by which means the leaves and fruit are enlarged, and the trees produce more shade. The specific food of animals again should be observed, as well as that which cannot be used. Thus the carnivorous cannot be fed on herbs, for which reason the order of Feuilletans, the experiment having been made, has nearly vanished; human nature being incapable of supporting their regimen, although the human will has more power over the bodily frame than that of other animals. The different kinds of putrefaction from which animals are generated should be noted.
The harmony of principal bodies with those subordinate to them (such indeed may be deemed those we have alluded to above) are sufficiently manifest, to which may be added those that exist between different bodies and their objects, and,
or of other sciences. By as much as these general instances, however, of more latent harmony are rare, with so much the more diligence are they to be inquired after, through tradition and faithful and honest reports, but without rashness and credulity, with an anxious and, as it were, hesitating degree of reliance. There remains one species of harmony which, though simple in its mode of action, is yet most valuable in its use, and must by no means be omitted, but rather diligently investigated. It is the ready or difficult coition er union of bodies in composition or simple juxta position. For some bodies readily and willingly mix and are incorporated, others tardily and perversely; thus powders mix best with water, chalk and ashes with oils, and the like. Nor are these instances of readiness and aversion to mixture to be alone collected, but others also of the collocation, distribution, and digestion of the parts when
mingled, and the predominance after the mixture is complete.
and the determinate laws of their substance, (so that this science of ours springs from the nature of things, as well as from that of the mind ;) it is not to be wondered at, if it have been continually interspersed and illustrated with natural observations and experiments, as instances of our method The prerogative instances are, as appears from what has preceded, twenty-seven in number, and are termed, solitary instances, migrating instances. conspicuous instances, clandestine instances, constitutive instances, similar instances, singular instances, deviating instances, bordering instances,
VII. Lastly, there remains the seventh and last of the seven modes of action; namely, that by the alteration and interchange of the other six; but of this it will not be the right time to offer any examples until some deeper investigation shall have taken place of each of the others. The series, or chain of this alternation, in its mode of application to separate effects, is no less powerful in its operation than difficult to be traced. But men are possessed with the most extreme impatience, both of such inquiries and their prac-instances of power, accompanying and hostile tical application, although it be the clue of the labyrinth in all greater works. Thus far of the generally useful instances.
instances, subjunctive instances, instances of alliance, instances of the cross, instances of divorce, instances of the gate, citing instances, instances 51. The twenty-seventh and last place we of the road, supplementary instances, lancing will assign to the magical instances, a term which instances, instances of the rod, instances of the we apply to those where the matter, or efficient course, doses of nature, wrestling instances, sugagent, is scanty or small, in comparison with the gesting instances, generally useful instances, and grandeur of the work or effect produced; so that, magical instances. The advantage, by which even when common, they appear miraculous, these instances excel the more ordinary, regards some at first sight, others even upon more atten- specifically either theory or practice, or both. tive observation. Nature, however, of herself, With regard to theory, they assist either the supplies these but sparingly. What she will do senses or the understanding; the senses, as in when her whole store is thrown open, and after the five instances of the lamp; the understandthe discovery of forms, processes, and conforma-ing, either by expediting the exclusive mode of tion, will appear hereafter. As far as we can yet arriving at the form, as in solitary instances, or conjecture, these magic effects are produced in by confining and more immediately indicating the three ways, either by self-multiplication, as in affirmative, as in the migrating, conspicuous, acfire, and the poisons termed specific, and the mo- companying, and subjunctive instances; or, by tions transferred and multiplied from wheel to elevating the understanding, and leading it to wheel; or by the excitement, or, as it were, invi- general and common natures, and that either imtation of another substance, as in the magnet, mediately, as in the clandestine and singular which excites innumerable needles without losing instances, and those of alliance; or, very nearly or diminishing its power, and, again, in leaven, so, as in the constitutive; or, still less so, as in and the like; or, by the excess of rapidity of one the similar instances; or, by correcting the underspecies of motion over another, as has been ob- standing of its habits, as in the deviating inserved in the case of gunpowder, cannon, and stances; or, by leading to the grand form or mines. The two former require an investigation fabric of the universe, as in the bordering inof harmonies, the latter of a measure of motion. stances; or, by guarding it from false forms and Whether there be any mode of changing bodies causes, as in those of the cross and of divorce. per minima, (as it is termed,) and transferring With regard to practice, they either point it out, the delicate conformations of matter, which is of or measure, or elevate it. They point it out, importance in all transformations of bodies, so as either by showing where we must commence, in ⚫ to enable art to effect, in a short time, that which order not to repeat the labours of others, as in the nature works out by divers expedients, is a point instances of power; or, by inducing us to aspire of which we have as yet no indication. But, as to that which may be possible, as in the suggestwe aspire to the extremest and highest results in ing instances: the four mathematical instances that which is solid and true, so do we ever detest, measure it. The generally useful and the magicand, as far as in us lies, expel all that is empty | al elevate it. and vain.
52. Let this suffice as to the respective dignity or prerogatives of instances. But it must be noted, that, ir this our organ, we treat of logic, and not of philosophy. Seeing, however, that our logic instructs and informs the understanding, in order that it may not, with the small hooks, as it were, of the mind, catch at and grasp mere abstractions, but rather actually penetrate nature, and discover the properties and effects of bodies,
Again, out of these twenty-seven instances, some must be collected immediately, without waiting for a particular investigation of properties. Such are the similar, singular, deviating, and bordering instances, those of power, and of the gate, and suggesting, generally useful, and magical instances. For these either assist and cure the understanding and senses, or furnish our general practice. The remainder are to be collected when we finish our synoptical tables for the work
of the interpreter, upon any particular nature. | kind, upon the emancipation and majority of their For these instances, honoured and gifted with understanding; from which must necessarily folsuch prerogatives, are like the soul amid the vul- low an improvement of their estate, and an ingar crowd of instances, and (as we from the first crease of their power over nature. For, man, by observed) a few of them are worth a multitude the fall, lost at once his state of innocence and of the others. When, therefore, we are forming his empire over creation, both of which can be our tables, they must be searched out with the partially recovered, even in this life, the first by greatest zeal, and placed in the table. And, religion and faith, the second by the arts and since mention must be made of them in what fol- sciences. For creation did not become entirely and lows, a treatise upon their nature has necessarily utterly rebellious by the curse; but in consequence been prefixed. We must next, however, proceed of the divine decree, "In the sweat of thy brow to the supports and corrections of induction, and shalt thou eat bread," she is compelled by our thence to concretes, the latent process, and latent labours, (not assuredly by our disputes or magicconformations, and the other matters, which we al ceremonies,) at length, to afford mankind, in have enumerated in their order in the twenty-first some degree, his bread, that is to say, to supply aphorism, in order that, like good and faithful man's daily wants. guardians, we may yield up their fortune to man
END OF NOVUM ORGANUM.
NATURAL AND EXPERIMENTAL HISTORY.
SUCH A NATURAL AND EXPERIMENTAL HISTORY AS SHALL BE SUFFICIENT AND
OUR motive for publishing our Instauration in parts, was that we might make sure of something. A similar reason induces us to subjoin, even now, another small portion of the work, and to publish it with that which has been completed above. It is a description and delineation of such a natural and experimental history as should be arranged for the completing our philosophy, and should comprehend genuine and copious materials, properly adapted to the work of the interpreter who is next to make his appearance. The proper place for this would have been that where we treat of preparations in the regular course of our inquiry. Yet does it appear better to anticipate, rather than wait for this proper place, since the history which we design, and will presently describe, is a matter of great magnitude, and not to be effected without vast labour and expense, requiring the combined assistance of many, and being, (to use our former expression,) as it were, a royal work. It occurred, therefore, that it might be worth while to see if any others would undertake it, so that whilst we orderly pursue our design, this complicated and laborious portion of it may, by the joint application of others, be set in order and prepared even in our lifetime, should it so please God; especially, since our own unassisted strength appears scarcely adequate to so great a sphere. For we may, perhaps, by our own power, overcome all that is the actual work of the understanding, but the materials on which it is to work, are so scattered, that they should be sought after and imported from all quarters by factors and merchants. We consider it, moreover, as scarcely worthy of our undertaking ourselves to waste time in that which is open to the industry of almost all. We will, however, perform the principal part, that of laying down, with diligence and accuracy, a model and sketch of such a history as will satisfy our intention, lest, for want of caution, others should waste
their time, and direct their efforts by the example of such natural histories as are now in use, thus wandering far from our proposal. In the mean time, that which we have often said must here be specially repeated, namely, that if all the talents of every age had concurred, or shall hereafter concur, if the whole human race had applied, or shall apply itself to philosophy, and the whole globe had consisted, or shall consist of academies, and colleges, and schools of the learned, yet, without such a natural and experimental history as we shall now recommend, it were impossible that any progress worthy of mankind should have been, or should hereafter be made in philosophy and the sciences. But, on the other hand, when it has once been prepared and drawn up, with the addition of such auxiliary and instructive experiments as will occur or be searched out, in the course of interpretation, the investigation of nature and of all the sciences will be a work many years. This, therefore, must be done, or the whole work must be abandoned, for by this method only can the foundation be laid of a genu ine and active philosophy; and men will at once perceive, as if roused from a profound sleep, what a difference exists between the dogmatism and fictions of man's wit, and a genuine and active philosophy, and what it is to consult nature herself about nature.
In the first place, then, we will give generai precepts as to completing such a history, and will then set a particular species of it before men's eyes, alluding occasionally to the end to which the inquiry must be adapted and referred, as well as to the subject-matter of investigation itself; in order that, the intention being well understood and known beforehand, it may suggest other points that may have escaped us. To this history we are wont to give the name of First, or Mother History.
ON THE FORMATION OF THE FIRST HISTORY.
I. NATURE is placed in three situations, and subject to a threefold government. For she is either free, and left to unfold herself in a regular course, or she is driven from her position by the obstinacy and resistance of matter, and the violence of obstacles, or she is constrained and moulded by human art and labour. The first state applies to the specific nature of bodies; the second to monsters; the third to artificial productions, in which she submits to the yoke imposed on her by man, for without the hand of man they would not have been produced. But from the labour and contrivance of man an entirely new appearance of bodies takes its rise, forming, as it were, another universe or theatre. Natural history, then, is threefold, and treats either of the liberty, the wanderings, or the fetters of nature; so that we may aptly divide it into the histories of generation, pretergeneration, and arts; the latter of which divisions we are also wont to call mechanic or experimental. Yet would we not direct these three to be carried on separately, for why should not the history of monstrosities in every species be combined with that of the species itself? So, also, artificial subjects may sometimes properly enough be treated of together with certain natural species, though, at other times, it is better to separate them. Circumstances, therefore, must guide us, for too rigid a method admits of repetitions and prolixity as much as no method.
time, be derived from their narrative, but that they must collect and prepare such and so varied a supply of things, as may be sufficient for the forming of genuine axioms. If they thus reflect, they will themselves lay down their own method for such a history, for the end governs the means.
III. But by as much as this is a matter requiring great pains and labour, by so much the less should it be unnecessarily burdened. There are three points, then, upon which men should be warned to employ but scanty labour, inasmuch as they infinitely increase the bulk of the work, and add but little or nothing to its value.
First, then, let them dismiss antiquity and quotations, or the suffrages of authors, all disputes, controversies, and discordant opinions, and, lastly, all philological disquisitions. Let no author be quoted except on doubtful points, nor controver sies entered into except on matter of great importance; and as for the ornaments of language, and comparisons, and the whole treasury of eloquence, and the like puerilities, let them be wholly renounced. Nay, let all which is admitted be propounded briefly and concisely, so as to be nothing less than words. For no one, who is preparing and laying by materials, for building houses or ships, or the like, takes the trouble, as they would in shops, of arranging them elegantly and showing them off to advantage, but rather attends only to their being strong and good, and to their taking up as little room as possible in his warehouse. Let the like be done here.
Secondly, There is not much real use in the lavish abundance of descriptions, painted repre
rieties with which natural history is adorned. These trifling varieties are the mere sport and wantonness of nature, and approximate to merely individual characteristics, affording a pleasant digression, but a mean and superfluous sort of information as regards science.
II. Natural history being, as we have observed, threefold relative to its subject, is twofold in its application. For it is employed either as a means of arriving at the knowledge of the matters them-sentations of species, and collections of their vaselves which are consigned to it, or as the elementary material for philosophy, and as the stock or forest, as it were, from which to furnish forth genuine induction. The latter is its present application; its present one, I observe, for it was never before so applied. For neither Aristotle, nor Theophrastus, nor Dioscorides, nor Pliny, nor much less the moderns, ever proposed this as the object of natural history. And the principal point to be attended to is this, that those who shall henceforth take charge of natural history, do perpetually reflect, and impress upon their minds, that they ought not to be subservient to the pleasure or even benefit which may, at this present
Thirdly, We must reject all superstitious narratives, (I do not say prodigious, where faithful and probable accounts can be obtained, but superstitious,) together with the experiments of natural magic. For we would not accustom philosophy in her infancy, whose very nurse is natural history, to old wives' tales. A time may come (after a deeper investigation of nature) when such