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respond in their conformation; others, on the since these latter are more apparent, they may contrary, correspond in the former and differ in throw great light, when well observed and dili. the latter. Thus the chymists have well observed, gently examined, upon those which are more that in their trial of first principles, sulphur and latent. mercury, as it were, pervade the universe; their The more eternal harmony and aversion, or reasoning about salt, however, is absurd, and friendship and enmity, (for superstition and folly merely introduced to comprise earthy, dry, fixed have rendered the terms of sympathy and antibodies. In the other two, indeed, one of the pathy almost disgusting,) have been either falsely most universal species of natural harmony mani- assigned, or mixed with fable, or most rarely fests itself. Thus there is a correspondence be- discovered from neglect. For if one were to tween sulphur, oil, greasy exhalations, flame, allege that there is an enmity between the vine and, perhaps, the substance of the stars. On the and the cabbage, because they will not come up other hand, there is a like correspondence between well when sown together, there is a sufficient mercury, water, aqueous vapour, air, and, per- reason for it in the succulent and absorbent nature haps, pure intersidereal ether. Yet do these two of each plant, so that the one defrauds the other. quaternions, or great natural tribes (each within Again, if one were to say that there is a harmony its own limits) differ immensely in quantity and and friendship between the corn and the corndensity of substance, whilst they generally agree flower, or the wild poppy, because the latter in conformation, as is manifest in many instances. seldom grow anywhere but in cultivated soils, On the other hand, the metals agree in such he ought rather to say there is an enmity between quantity and density, (especially when compared them, for the poppy and the corn-flower are prowith vegetables, &c.,) but differ in many respects duced and created by those juices which the corn in conformation. Animals and vegetables, in has left and rejected, so that the sowing of the like manner, vary in their almost infinite modes corn prepares the ground for their production. of conformation, but range within very limited And there are a vast number of similar false asdegrees of quantity and density of substance. sertions. As for fables, they must be totally es
The next most general correspondence is that terminated. There remains then but a scanty between individual bodies and those which sup-supply of such species of harmony as has borne ply them by way of menstruum or support. In- the test of experiment, such as that between the quiry, therefore, must be made as to the climate, magnet and iron, gold and quicksilver, and the soil, and depth at which each metal is generated, like. In chymical experiments on metals, how'. and the same of gems, whether produced in ever, there are some others worthy of notice, but rocks or mines; also as to the soil in which par- the greatest abundance (where the whole are so ticular trees, shrubs, and herbs mostly grow and, few in numbers) is discovered in certain medi. as it were, delight; and as to the best species of cines, which, from their occult and specific qualimanure, whether dung, chalk, sea-sand, or ashes, ties, (as they are termed,) affect particular limbs, &c., and their different propriety and advantage humours, diseases, or constitutions. Nor should according to the variety of soils. So also the we omit the harmony between the motion and grafting and setting of trees and plants (as re- phenomena of the moon, and their effects on gards the readiness of grafting one pariicular lower bodies, which may be brought together by species on another) depends very much upon an accurate and honest selection from the experiharmony, and it would be amusing to try an ex- ments of agriculture, navigation, and medicine, periment I have lately heard of, in grafting forest or of other sciences. By as much as these general trees, (garden trees alone having hitherto been instances, however, of more latent harmony are adopted,) by which means the leaves and fruit rare, with so much the more diligence are they to are enlarged, and the trees produce more shade. be inquired after, through tradition and faithful The specific food of animals again should be and honest reports, but without rashness and creobserved, as well as that which cannot be used. dulity, with an anxious and, as it were, hesitating Thus the carnivorous cannot be fed on herbs, for degree of reliance. There remains one species which reason the order of Feuilletans, the experi- of harmony which, though simple in its mode of ment having been made, has nearly vanished; action, is yet most valuable in its use, and must human nature being incapable of supporting their by no means be omitted, but rather diligently inregimen, although the human will has more power vestigated. It is the ready or difficult coition or over the bodily frame than that of other animals. union of bodies in composition or simple juxta The different kinds of putrefaction from which position. For some bodies readily and willingly animals are generated should be noted.
mix and are incorporated, others tardily and perThe harmony of principal bodies with those versely; thus powders mix best with water, chalk subordinate to them (such indeed may be deemed and ashes with oils, and the like. Nor are these those we have alluded to above) are sufficiently instances of readiness and aversion to mixture w manifest, to which may be added those that exist be alone collected, but others also of the collocabetween different bodies and their objects, and, tion, distribution, and digestion of the parts when mingled, and the predominance after the mixture | and the determinate laws of their substance, (so is complete.
that this science of ours springs from the nature VII. Lastly, there remains the seventh and of things, as well as from that of the mind ;) it is last of the seven modes of action; namely, that not to be wondered at, if it have been continually by the alteration and interchange of the other six; interspersed and illustrated with natural observa. out of this it will not be the right time to offer tions and experiments, as instances of our method any examples until some deeper investigation The prerogative instances are, as appears from shall have taken place of each of the others. what has preceded, twenty-seven in number, and The series, or chain of this alternation, in its are termed, solitary instances, migrating instances. mode of application to separate effects, is no less conspicuous instances, clandestine instances, conpowerful in its operation than difficult to be traced. stitutive instances, similar instances, singular inBut men are possessed with the most extreme stances, deviating instances, bordering instances, impatience, both of such inquiries and their prac- instances of power, accompanying and hostile tical application, although it be the clue of the instances, subjunctive instances, instances of allilabyrinth in all greater works. Thus far of the ance, instances of the cross, instances of divorce, generally useful instances.
instances of the gate, citing instances, instances 51. The twenty-seventh and last place we of the road, supplementary instances, lancing will assign to the magical instances, a term which instances, instances of the rod, instances of the we apply to those where the matter, or efficient course, doses of nature, wrestling instances, sug. agent, is scanty or small, in comparison with the gesting instances, generally useful instances, and grandeur of the work or effect produced; so that, magical instances. The advantage, by which even when common, they appear miraculous, these instances excel the more ordinary, regards some at first sight, others even upon more atten- specifically either theory or practice, or both. tive observation. Nature, however, of herself, With regard to theory, they assist either the supplies these but sparingly. What she will do senses or the understanding; the senses, as in when her whole store is thrown open, and after the five instances of the lamp; the understandthe discovery of forms, processes, and conforma- ing, either by expediting the exclusive mode of tion, will appear hereafter. As far as we can yet arriving at the form, as in solitary instances, or conjecture, these magic effects are produced in by confining and more immediately indicating the three ways, either by self-multiplication, as in affirmative, as in the migrating, conspicuous, acfire, and the poisons termed specific, and the mo- companying, and subjunctive instances; or, by tions transferred and multiplied from wheel to elevating the understanding, and leading it to wheel; or by the excitement, or, as it were, invi- general and common natures, and that either imtation of another substance, as in the magnet, mediately, as in the clandestine and singular which excites innumerable needles without losing instances, and those of alliance; or, very nearly or diminishing its power, and, again, in leaven, so, as in the constitutive; or, still less so, as in and the like; or, by the excess of rapidity of one the similar instances; or, by correcting the underspecies of motion over another, as has been ob- standing of its habits, as in the deviating inserved in the case of gunpowder, cannon, and stances; or, by leading to the grand form or mines. The two former require an investigation fabric of the universe, as in the bordering in. of harmonies, the latter of a measure of motion. stances; or, by guarding it from false forms and Whether there be any mode of changing bodies causes, as in those of the cross and of divorce. per minima, (as it is termed,) and transferring With regard to practice, they either point it out, the delicate conformations of matter, which is of or measure, or elevate it. They point it oul, importance in all transformations of bodies, so as either by showing where we must commence, in * to enable art to effect, in a short time, that which order not to repeat the labours of others, as in the
nature works out by divers expedients, is a point instances of power; or, by inducing us to aspire of which we have as yet no indication. But, as to that which may be possible, as in the suggestwe aspire to the extremest and highest results in ing instances; the four mathematical instances that which is solid and true, so do we ever detest, measure it. The generally useful and the magicand, as far as in us lies, expel all that is empty al elevate it. and vain.
Again, out of these twenty-seven instances, 52. Let this suffice as to the respective dignity some must be collected immediately, without or prerogatives of instances. But it must be waiting for a particular investigation of properties. noted, that, ir this our organ, we treat of logic, Such are the similar, singular, deviating, and and not of philosophy. Seeing, however, that bordering instances, those of power, and of the our logic instructs and informs the understanding, gate, and suggesting, generally useful, and magicin order that it may not, with the small hooks, as al instances. For these either assist and cure it were, of the mind, catch at and grasp mere ab- the understanding and senses, or furnish our genekractions, but rather actually penetrate nature, ral practice. The remainder are to be collected and discover the properties and effects of bodies, when we finish our synoptical tables for the work of the interpreter, upon any particular nature. | kind, upon the emancipation and majority of their for these instances, honoured and gifted with understanding; from which must necessarily folsuch prerogatives, are like the soul amid the vul- low an improvement of their estate, and an ingar crowd of instances, and (as we from the first crease of their power over nature. For, man, by observed) a few of them are worth a multitude the fall, lost at once his state of innocence and of the others. When, therefore, we are forming his empire over creation, both of which can be our tables, they must be searched out with the partially recovered, even in this life, the first by greatest zeal, and placed in the table. And, religion and faith, the second by the arts and since mention must be made of them in what fol- sciences. For creation did not become entirely and lows, a treatise upon their nature has necessarily utterly rebellious by the curse; but in consequence been prefixed. We must next, however, proceed of the divine decree, “In the sweat of thy brow in the supports and corrections of induction, and shalt thou eat bread," she is compelled by our ther.ce to concretes, the latent process, and latent labours, (not assuredly by our disputes or magicconformations, and the other matters, which we al ceremonies,) at length, to afford mankind, in have enumerated in their order in the twenty-first some degree, his bread, that is to say, to supply aphorism, in order that, like good and faithful man's daily wants. guardians, we may yield up their fortune to man
NATURAL AND EXPERIMENTAL HISTORY.
SUCH A NATURAL AND EXPERIMENTAL HISTORY AS SHALL BE SUFFICIENT AND SUITABLY ARRANGED FOR FORMING THE BASIS AND FOUNDATION
OF A TRUE PHILOSOPHY.
Our motive for publishing our Instauration in their time, and direct their efforts by the example parts, was that we might make sure of something. of such natural histories as are now in use, thus A similar reason induces us to subjoin, even now, wandering far from our proposal. In the mean another small portion of the work, and to publish time, that which we have often said must here be it with that which has been completed above. It specially repeated, namely, that if all the talents is a description and delineation of such a natural of every age had concurred, or shall hereafter and experimental history as should be arranged concur, if the whole human race had applied, or for the completing our phiiosophy, and should shall apply itself to philosophy, and the whole comprehend genuine and copious materials, pro- globe had consisted, or shall consist of acadeperly adapted to the work of the interpreter who mies, and colleges, and schools of the learned, is next to make his appearance. The proper yet, without such a natural and experimental hisplace for this would have been that where we tory as we shall now recommend, it were impostreat of preparations in the regular course of our sible that any progress worthy of mankind should inquiry. Yet does it appear better to anticipate, have been, or should hereafter be made in philorather than wait for this proper place, since the sophy and the sciences. But, on the other hand, history which we design, and will presently when it has once been prepared and drawn up, describe, is a matter of great magnitude, and not with the addition of such auxiliary and instructe to be effected without vast labour and expense, ive experiments as will occur or be searched out, requiring the combined assistance of many, and in the course of interpretation, the investigation being, (to use our former expression,) as it were, of nature and of all the sciences will be a work a royal work. It occurred, therefore, that it many years. This, therefore, must be done, or might be worth while to see if any cthers would the whole work must be abandoned, for by this undertake it, so that whilst we orderly pursue method only can the foundation be laid of a genuour design, this complicated and laborious por- ine and active philosophy; and men will at once tion of it may, by the joint application of others, perceive, as if roused from a profound sleep, what be set in order and prepared even in our lifetime, a difference exists between the dogipalism and should it so please God; especially, since our fictions of man's wit, and a genuine and active own unassisted strength appears scarcely ade- philosophy, and what it is to consult nature herquate to so great a sphere. For we may, per- self about nature. haps, by our own power, overcome all that is the In the first place, then, we will give generai actual work of the understanding, but the mate- precepts as to completing such a history, and rials on which it is to work, are so scattered, that will then set a particular species of it before they should be sought after and inported from all men's eyes, alluding occasionally to the end to quarters by factors and merchants. We consider which the inquiry must be adapted and referred, it, moreover, as scarcely worthy of our undertak- as well as to the subject-matter of investigation ing ourselves to waste time in that which is open itself; in order that, the intention being well unto the industry of almost all. We will, however, derstood and known beforehand, it may suggest perform the principal part, that of laying down, other points that may have escaped us. To this with diligence and accuracy, a model and sketch history we are wont to give the name of First, oi of such a history as will satisfy our intention, Mother History. lest, for want of caution, others should waste
ON THE FORMATION OF THE FIRST HISTORY.
time, be derived from their narrative, but that 1. Nature is placed in three situations, and they must collect and prepare such and so varied subject to a threefold government. For she is a supply of things, as may be sufficient for the either free, and left to unfold herself in a regular forming of genuine axioms. If they thus reflect, course, or she is driven from her position by the they will themselves lay down their own method obstinacy and resistance of matter, and the vio- for such a history, for the end governs the means. lence of obstacles, or she is constrained and III. But by as much as this is a matter remoulded by human art and labour. The first state quiring great pains and labour, by so much the applies to the specific nature of bodies; the second less should it be unnecessarily burdened. There to monsters; the third to artificial productions, in are three points, then, upon which men should be which she submits to the yoke imposed on her by warned to employ but scanty labour, inasmuch as man, for without the hand of man they would not they infinitely increase the bulk of the work, and have been produced. But from the labour and add but little or nothing to its value. contrivance of man an entirely new appearance First, then, let them dismiss antiquity and quoof bodies takes its rise, forming, as it were, an- tations, or the suffrages of authors, all disputes, other universe or theatre. Natural history, then, controversies, and discordant opinions, and, lastly, is threefold, and treats either of the liberty, the all philological disquisitions. Let no author be wanderings, or the fetters of nature; so that we quoted except on doubtful points, nor controvermay aptly divide it into the histories of generation, sies entered into except on matter of great impretergeneration, and arts; the latter of which portance; and as for the ornaments of language, divisions we are also wont to call mechanic or and comparisons, and the whole treasury of eloexperimental. Yet would we not direct these quence, and the like puerilities, let them be wholly three to be carried on separately, for why should renounced. Nay, let all which is admitted be not the history of monstrosities in every species propounded briefly and concisely, so as to be be combined with that of the species itself? So, nothing less than words. For no one, who is also, artificial subjects may sometimes properly preparing and laying by materials, for building enough he treated of together with certain natural houses or ships, or the like, takes the trouble, as species, though, at other times, it is better to they would in shops, of arranging them elegantly separate them. Circumstances, therefore, must and showing them off to advantage, but rather guide us, for too rigid a method admits of repeti- attends only to their being strong and good, and tions and prolixity as much as no method. to their taking up as little room as possible in his
Il. Natural history being, as we have observed, warehouse. Let the like be done here. threefold relative to its subject, is twofold in its Secondly, There is not much real use in the application. For it is employed either as a means lavish abundance of descriptions, painted repreof arriving at the knowledge of the matters them- sentations of species, and collections of their vaselves which are consigned to it, or as the ele- rieties with which natural history is adorned. mentary material for philosophy, and as the stock These trifling varieties are the mere sport and or forest, as it were, from which to furnish forth | wantonness of nature, and approximate to merely genuine induction. The latter is its present ap- individual characteristics, affording a pleasant plication; its present one, I observe, for it was digression, but a mean and superfluous sort of never before so applied. For neither Aristotle, information as regards science, nor Theophrastus, nor Dioscorides, nor Pliny, nor Thirdly, We must reject all superstitious narra. much less the moderns, ever proposed this as the tives, (I do not say prodigioas, where faithful object of natural history. And the principal point and probable accounts can be obtained, but superto be attended to is this, that those who shall stitious,) together with the experiments of natural henceforth take charge of natural history, do per- magic. For we would not accustom philosophy petually reflect, and impress upon their minds, in her infancy, whose very nurse is natural histhat they ought not to be subservient to the plea- tory, to old wives' tales. A time may come sure or even benefit which may, at this present (after a deeper investigation of nature) when such