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disgrace. And so, in this persuasion to your lordship-wards, to frame and accommodate your actions and mind to that end; I fear, I say, that this untimely despair may in time bring forth a just despair, by causing your lordship to slacken and break off your wise, loyal, and seasonable endeavour and industry for redintegration to her majesty's favour, in comparison whereof, all other circumstances are but as atomi, or rather as a vacuum, without any substance at all.

suitor to her majesty, that this benefit also may be and inscrutable centre of the court, which is her affixed unto the other; which is, that if there majesty's mind, do not only toll the bell, but even appear in me no such towardness of service, as it ring out peals, as if your fortune were dead and may be her majesty doth benignly value and assess buried, and as if there were no possibility of reme at by reason of my sundry wants, and the covering her majesty's favour; and as if the best disadvantage of my nature, being unapt to lay of your condition were to live a private and retired forth the simple store of those inferior gifts which | life, out of want, out of peril, and out of manifest God hath allotted unto me, most to view: yet that it would please her excellent majesty, not to account my thankfulness the less, for that my disability is great to show it; but to sustain me in her majesty's gracious opinion, whereupon I only rest, and not upon any expectation of desert to proceed from myself towards the contentment thereof. But if it shall please God to send forth an occasion whereby my faithful affection may be tried, I trust it shall save me labour for ever making more protestation of it hereafter. In the Against this opinion, it may please your lordmean time, howsoever it be not made known to ship to consider of these reasons, which I have her majesty, yet God knoweth it, through the collected; and to make judgment of them, neither daily solicitations wherewith I address myself out of the melancholy of your present fortune unto him, in unfeigned prayer, for the multiplying nor out of the infusion of that which cometh to of her majesty's prosperities. To your lordship, you by others' relation, which is subject to much also, whose recommendation, I know right well, tincture, but "ex rebus ab ipsis," out of the nature hath been material to advance her majesty's good of the persons and actions themselves, as the opinion of me, I can be but a bounden servant. So truest and less deceiving ground of opinion. For, much may I safely promise, and purpose to be, see-though I am so unfortunate as to be a stranger to ing public and private bonds vary not, but that my service to her majesty and your lordship draw in line. I wish, therefore, to show it with as good proof, as I can say it in good faith, etc.

Your lordship's, etc.




This standing at a stay doth make me, in my love towards your lordship, jealous, lest you do somewhat, or omit somewhat, that amounteth to a new error; for I suppose, that of all former matters there is a full expiation; wherein, for any thing which your lordship doth, I, for my part, (who am remote,) cannot cast or devise wherein my error should be, except in one point, which I dare not censure nor dissuade; which is, that as the prophet saith, in this affliction you look up "ad manum percutientem," and so make your peace with God. And yet I have heard it noted, that my Lord of Leicester, who could never get to be taken for a saint, yet in the queen's disfavour waxed seeming religious. Which may be thought by some, and used by others, as a case resembling yours, if men do not see, or will not see, the difference between your two dispositions. But, to be plain with your lordship, my fear rather is, because I hear how some of your good and wise friends, not unpractised in the court, and supposing themselves not to be unseen in that deep

her majesty's eye, much more to her nature and
manners, yet by that which is extant I do mani-
festly discern, that she hath that character of the
divine nature and goodness, as "
quos amavit,
amavit usque ad finem;" and where she hath a
creature, she doth not deface nor defeat it: inso-
much as, if I observe rightly, in those persons
whom heretofore she hath honoured with her spe-
cial favour, she hath covered and remitted, not
only defections and ingratitudes in affection, but
errors in state and service.

2. If I can, scholar-like, spell and put together the parts of her majesty's proceedings now towards your lordship, I cannot but make this construction: that her majesty, in her royal intention, never purposed to call your doings into public question, but only to have used a cloud without a shower, and censuring them by some restraint of liberty, and debarring from her presence. For both the handling the cause in the Star Chamber was enforced by the violence of libelling and rumours, wherein the queen thought to have satisfied the world, and yet spared your appearance. And then after, when that means, which was intended for the quenching of malicious bruits, turned to kindle them, because it was said your lordship was condemned unheard, and your lordship's sister wrote that private letter, then her majesty saw plainly, that these winds of rumours could not be commanded down, without a handling of the cause, by making you party, and admitting your defence. And to this purpose, I do assure your lordship, that my brother, Francis Bacon, who is too wise to be abused, though he be both reserved

in all particulars more than is needful, yet in generality he hath ever constantly, and with asseveration, affirmed to me, that both those days, that of the Star Chamber, and that at my lord keeper's, were won of the queen, merely upon necessity and point of honour, against her own inclination.

3. In the last proceeding, I note three points, which are directly significant, that her majesty did expressly forbear any point which was irrecuperable, or might make your lordship in any degree incapable of the return of her favour, or might fix any character indelible of disgrace upon you for she spared the public places, which spared ignominy; she limited the charge precisely, not to touch disloyalty, and no record remaineth to memory, of the charge or sentence.

trust (next to God) in her majesty's grace, and not be wanting to yourself. I know your lordship may justly interpret, that this which I persuade may have some reference to my particular, because I may truly say, "tu stante non virebo," for I am withered in myself; but manebo, or tenebo, I should in some sort be or hold out. But though your lordship's years and health may expect return of grace and fortune, yet your eclipse for a time is an "ultimum vale" to my fortune: And were it not that I desired and hope to see my brother established by her majesty's favour, as I think him well worthy for that he hath done and suffered, it were time I did take that course from which I dissuade your lordship. Now, in the mean time, I cannot choose but perform those honest duties unto you, to whom I have been so deeply bound, etc.

4. The very distinction which was made in the sentence of sequestration, from the places of service in state, and leaving to your lordship the place of master of the horse, doth, in my understanding, point at this, that her majesty meant to THE EARL OF ESSEX'S ANSWER TO MR. ANTHONY use your lordship's attendance in court, while the exercises of other places stood suspended.

5. I have heard, and your lordship knoweth better, that now since you were in your own custody, her majesty, "in verbo regio,' ," and by his mouth to whom she committeth her royal grants and decrees, hath assured your lordship, she will forbid and not suffer your ruin.

6. As I have heard her majesty to be a prince of that magnanimity, that she will spare the service of the ablest subject or peer, where she shall be thought not to stand in need of it; so she is of that policy, as she will not blaze the service of a meaner than your lordship, where it shall depend merely upon her choice and will.

7. I held it for a principle, that those diseases are hardest to cure, whereof the cause is obscure; and those easiest, whereof the cause is manifest. Whereupon I conclude, that since it hath been your errors in your lowness towards her majesty which have prejudiced you, that your reforming and conformity will restore you, so as you may be "faber fortunæ propriæ."

Lastly, considering your lordship is removed from dealing in causes of state, and left only to a place of attendance, methinks the ambition of any which can endure no partners in state-matters may be so quenched, as they should not laboriously oppose themselves to your being in court. So as, upon the whole matter, I cannot find, neither in her majesty's person, nor in your own person, nor in any third person, neither in former precedents, nor in your own case, any cause of peremptory despair. Neither do I speak this, but that if her majesty out of her resolution should design you to a private life, you should be as willing, upon the appointment, to go into the wilderness, as into the land of promise; only I wish that your lordship will not despair, but put



I thank you for your kind and careful letter, it persuadeth that which I wish for strongly, and hope for weakly, that is, possibility of restitution to her majesty's favour; your arguments that would cherish hope, turn into despair: you say the queen never meant to call me to public censure, which showeth her goodness; but you see I passed it, which showeth others' power. I believe most steadfastly, her majesty never intended to bring my cause to a public censure: and I believe as verily, that since the sentence she meant to restore me to tend upon her person: but those which could use occasions, (which it was not ir me to let,) and amplify and practise occasions t represent to her majesty a necessity to bring me to the one, can and will do the like to stop me from the other. You say, my errors were my prejudice, and therefore I can mend myself. It is true; but they that know that I can mend myself, and that if I ever recover the queen, that I will never loose her again, will never suffer me to obtain interest in her favour: and you say, the queen never forsook utterly where she hath inwardly favoured; but know not whether the hourglass of time hath altered her; but sure I am, the false glass of others' informations must alter her, when I want access to plead mine own cause. I know I ought doubly, infinitely to be her majesty's, both "jure creationis," for I am her creature: and "jure redemptionis," for I know she hath saved me from overthrow. But for her first love, and for her last protection, and all her great benefits, I can but pray for her majesty; and my endea vour is now to make my prayers for her and myself better heard. For, thanks be to God, that they which can make her majesty believe I counterfeit with her, cannot make God believe that I

counterfeit with him; and they that can let me from coming near to her, cannot let me from drawing nearer to him, as I hope I do daily. For your brother, I hold him an honest gentleman, and wish him all good, much rather for your sake; yourself, I know, hath suffered more for me, and with me, than any friend that I have: but I can but lament freely, as you see I do, and advise you not to do that I do, which is, to despair. You know letters what hurt they have done me, and therefore make sure of this; and yet I could not, as having no other pledge of my love, but cominunicate openly with you for the ease of my heart and yours.

Your loving friend,


because, of all the accidents of state at this time, the labour resteth upon that most; and because the world will make a kind of comparison between those that set it out of frame, and those that shall bring it into frame: which kind of honour giveth the quickest kind of reflection. The transferring this honour upon yourself consisteth in two points: the one, if the principal persons employed come in by you, and depend upon you; the other if your lordship declare yourself to undertake a care of that matter. For the persons, it falleth out well that your lordship hath had no interest in the persons of imputation: For neither Sir William Fitz-Williams, nor Sir John Norris was yours: Sir William Russel was conceived yours, but was curbed: Sir Coniers Clifford, as I conceive it, dependeth upon you, who is said to do well; and if my Lord of Ormond in this interim

SIR FRANCIS BACON TO THE EARL OF SALISBURY, do accommodate well, I take it he hath always


MAY IT PLEASE Your Lordship,

I am not privy to myself of any such ill deserving towards your lordship, as that I should think it an imprudent thing to be a suitor for your favour in a reasonable matter, your lordship being to me as (with your good favour) you cannot cease to be: but rather it were a simple and arro

gant part in me to forbear it.


It is thought Mr. Attorney shall be chief justice of the Common-place; in case Mr. Solicitor rise, I would be glad now at last to be solicitor: chiefly because I think it will increase my practice, wherein God blessing me a few years, I may mend my (state, and so after fall to my studies and ease; whereof one is requisite for my body, and the other serveth for my mind; wherein if I shall find lordship's favour, I shall be more happy than I have been, which may make me also more wise. I have small store of means about the king, and to sue myself is not fit; and therefore I shall leave it to God, his majesty, and your lordship: for I must still be next the door. I thank God, in these transitory things I am well resolved. So, beseeching your lordship not to think this letter the less humble, because it is plain, I rest, etc.


had good understanding with your lordship. So as all things are not only whole and entire, but of favourable aspect towards your lordship, if you now choose well: wherein, in your wisdom, you will remember there is a great difference in choice of the persons, as you shall think the affairs to incline to composition, or to war. For your caretaking, popular conceit hath been, that Irish causes have been much neglected, whereby the very reputation of better care will be a strength : and I am sure, her majesty and my lords of the council do not think their care dissolved, when they have chosen whom to employ; but that they will proceed in a spirit of state, and not leave the main point to discretion. Then, if a resolution be taken; a consultation must proceed; and the consultation must be governed upon information to be had from such as know the place, and matters in fact; and in taking of information I have always noted there is a skill and a wisdom. For I cannot tell what account or inquiry hath been taken of Sir William Russel, of Sir Ralph Bingham, of the Earl of Thomond, of Mr. Wilbraham: but I am of opinion, much more would be had of them, if your lordship shall be pleased severally to confer, not obiter, but expressly, upon some caveat given them to think of it before, for, "bene docet qui prudenter interrogat." For the points of opposing them, I am too much a stranger to the business to deduce them: but in a topic methinks the

SIR FRANCIS BACON TO THE EARL OF ESSEX, pertinent interrogations must be either of the



I do write, because I have not yet had time fully to express my conceit, nor now, to attend you touching Irish matters, considering them as they may concern the state; that it is one of the aptest particulars that hath come, or can come upon the stage, for your lordship to purchase honour upon, I am moved to think for three reasons; because it is ingenerate in your house in respect of my lord your father's noble attempts;

possibility and means of accord, or of the nature of the war, or of the reformation of the particular abuses, or of the joining of practice with force in the disunion of the rebels. If your lordship doubt to put your sickle in other men's harvests, yet consider you have these advantages. First, time being fit to you in Mr. Secretary's absence: next, "vis unita fortior:" thirdly, the business being mixed with matters of war, it is fittest for you: lastly, I know your lordship will carry it with that modesty and respect towards aged dignity, and


that good correspondence towards my dear ally, weaken by division and disunion of the heads; and your good friend, now abroad, as no incon- the other, by recovering and winning the people venience may grow that way. Thus have I play-by justice, which of all other causes is the best. ed the ignorant statesman, which I do to nobody but your lordship, except I do it to the queen sometimes, when she trains me on. But your lordship will accept my duty and good meaning, and secure me touching the privateness of that I write.

Your lordship's to be commanded,



THOSE advertisements which your lordship imparted to me, and the like, I hold to be no more certain to make judginent upon than a patient's water to a physician: therefore for me upon one water to make a judgment, were indeed like a foolish bold mountebank, or Dr. Birket, yet, for willing duty's sake, I will set down to your lordship what opinion sprung in my mind upon that I read. The letter from the council there, leaning to distrust, I do not much rely upon, for three causes. First, because it is always both the grace and the safety from blame of such a council to err in caution whereunto add, that it may be they, or some of them, are not without envy towards the person who is used in treating the accord. Next, because the time of this treaty hath no show of dissimulation, for that Tyrone is now in no streights, but like a gamester that will give over because he is a winner, not because he hath no more money in his purse.

Lastly, I do not see but those articles whereon they ground their suspicion, may as well proceed out of fear as out of falsehood, for the retaining of the dependence of the protracting the admission of a sheriff, the refusing to give his son for hostage, the holding from present repair to Dublin, the refusing to go presently to accord, without including O'Donnell, and others his associates, may very well come of a guilty reservation, in case he should receive hard measure, and not out of treachery; so as if the great person be faithful, and that you have not here some present intelligence of present succours from Spain, for the expectation whereof Tyrone would win time, I see no deep cause of distrusting the cause if it be good. And for the question, her majesty seemeth to me a winner three ways: first, her purse shall have rest: next, it will divert the foreign designs unon that place: thirdly, though her majesty is like for a time to govern precario in the north, and be not in true command in better state there than before, yet, besides the two respects of ease of charge, and advantage of opinion abroad, before mentioned, she shali have a time to use her princely policy in two points: in the one, to

Now for the Athenian question, you discourse well, "Quid igitur agendum est ?" I will shoct my fool's bolt, since you will have it so. The Earl of Ormond to be encouraged and comforted above all things, the garrisons to be instantly previded for; for opportunity makes a thief: and if he should mean never so well now, yet such an advantage as the breaking of her majesty's garrisons, might tempt a true man. And because he may as well waver upon his own inconstancy, as upon occasion, and want of variableness is never restrained but with fear, I hold it necessary to be menaced with a strong war; not by words, but by musters and preparations of forces here, in case the accord proceed not; but none to be sent over, lest it disturb the treaty, and make him look to be overrun as soon as he hath laid down arms. And, but that your lordship is too easy to pass, in such cases, from dissimulation to verity, I think, if your lordship lent your reputation in this case, it is to pretend, that if not a defensive war, as in times past, but a full reconquest of those parts of the country be resolved on, you would accept the charge, I think it would help to settle him, and win you a great deal of honour gratis. And that which most properly concerneth this action, if it prove a peace, I think her majesty shall do well to cure the root of the disease, and to profess by a commission of peaceable men chiefly of respect and countenance, the reformation of abuses, extortions and injustices there, and to plant a stronger and surer government than heretofore, for the ease and protection of the subject; for the removing of the sword, or government in arms, from the Earl of Ormond, or the sending of a deputy, which will eclipse it, if peace follow, I think unseasonable. Lastly, I hold still my opinion, both for your better information, and your fuller declaration of your care, and evermore meriting service, that your lordship have a set conference with the persons I named in my former writing. I rest, At your lordship's service, FR. BACON.


MY SINGULAR good Lord,

Your note of my silence in your occasions hath made me set down these few wandering lines, as one that would say somewhat, and can say nothing touching your lordship's intended charge for Ireland; which my endeavour I know your lordship will accept graciously and well, whether your lordship take it by the handle of the occasion ministered from yourself, or of the affection from which it proceedeth. Your lordship is designed

defaults of so many former governors, and the clearing the glory of so many happy years' reign, only in this part excepted. Nay, farther, how far forth the peril of that state is interlaced with the

honour is to keep and defend the approaches of this kingdom, I hear many discourse; and indeed there is a great difference, whether the tortoise gather herself into her shell hurt or unhurt; and if any man be of opinion, that the nature of an enemy doth extenuate the honour of a service, being but a rebel and a savage, I differ from him; for I see the justest triumphs that the Romans in their greatest greatness did obtain, and that whereof the emperors in their styles took additions and denominations, were of such an enemy; that is, people barbarous, and not reduced to civility, magnifying a kind of lawless liberty, prodigal of life, hardened in body, fortified in woods and bogs, placing both justice and fecility in the sharpness of their swords. Such were the Germans and ancient Britons, and divers others. Upon which kind of people, whether the victory be a conquest, or a reconquest upon a rebellion or revolt, it made no difference that ever I could find,

to a service of great merit and great peril; and as the greatness of the peril must needs include no small consequence of peril, if it be not temperately governed; so all immoderate success extinguisheth merit, and stirreth up distaste and¦peril of England; and, therefore, how great the envy, the assured forerunner of whole changes of peril. But I am at the last point first, some good spirit leading my pen to presage your lordship's success; wherein it is true, I am not without my oracle and divinations, none of them superstitious, and yet not all natural: for, first, looking into the course of God's providence in things now depending, and calling into consideration how great things God hath done by her majesty, and for her collect he hath disposed of this great dissection in Ireland, whereby to give an urgent occasion to the reduction of that whole kingdom, as upon the rebellion of Desmond there ensued the reduction of that province. Next, your lordship goeth against three of the unluckiest vices of all other, disloyalty, ingratitude, and insolence; which three offences in all examples have seldom their doom adjourned to the world to come. Lastly, he that shall have had the honour to know your lordship inwardly, as I have had, shall find "bona exta," whereby he may better ground a divination in honour. And, therefore, it is not the enriching of good, than upon the dissection of a sacrifice. But that part I leave, for it is fit for others to be confident upon you, and you to be confident upon the cause, the goodness and justice whereof is such as can hardly be matched in any example, it being no ambitious war of foreigners, but a recovery of subjects, and that after lenity of conditions often tried; and a recovery of them not only to obedience, but to humanity and policy, from more than Indian barbarism. There is yet another kind of divination familiar in matters of state, being that which Demosthenes so often relieth upon in his time, where he saith, that which for the time past is worst of all, is for the time to come the best, which is, that things go ill not by accident but by error; wherein though your lordship hath been a waking censor, yet, you must look for no other now, but "medice, cura teipsum;" and although your lordship shall not Now, although it be true, that these things be the blessed physician that cometh to the de- which I have writ (being but representations clination of the disease, yet, you embrace that con- unto your lordship of the honour and appearance dition which many noble spirits have accepted for of success and enterprise) be not much to the advantage, which is, that you go upon the greater purpose of my direction, yet, it is that which is peril of your fortune, and the less of your reputa- best to me, being no man of war, and ignorant in tion; and so the honour countervaileth the adven- the particulars of state: for a man may by the ture; of which honour your lordship is in no eye set up the white right in the midst of the butt, small possession, when that her majesty, known though he be no archer. Therefore I will only to be one of the most judicious princes in discern- add this wish, according to the English phrase, ing of spirits that ever governed, hath made choice which termeth a well-wishing advice a wish, of you merely out of her royal judgment, (her that your lordship in this whole action, looking affection inclining rather to continue your attend-forward, set down this position; that merit is ance,) into whose hands and trust to put the com- worthier than fame; and looking back hither, mandment and conduct of so great forces, the gathering in the fruit of so great charge, the execution of so many councils, the redeeming of the

the predatory war that hath the pre-eminence in honour; else should it be more honour to bring in a carrack of rich burden, than one of the twelve Spanish apostles. But then this nature of people doth yield a higher point of honour (considering in truth and substance) than any war can yield which should be achieved against a civil enemy, if the end may be "pacique imponere morem," to replant and refound the policy of that nation, to which nothing is wanting but a just and civil government. Which design, as it doth descend to you from your noble father, (who lost his life in that action, though he paid tribute to nature, and not to fortune,) so I hope your lordship shall be as fatal a captain to this war, as Africanus was to the war of Carthage, after that both his uncle and his father had lost their lives in Spain in the same war.

would remember this text, that "obedience is better than sacrifice." For designing to fame and glory may make your lordship, in the adven

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