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suitor to her majesty, that this benefit also may be and inscrutable centre of the court, which is her affixed unto the other; which is, that if there majesty's mind, do not only toll the bell, but even appear in me no such towardness of service, as it ring out peals, as if your fortune were dead and may be her majesty doth benignly value and assess buried, and as if there were no possibility of reme at, by reason of my sundry wants, and the covering her majesty's favour; nd as if the best disadvantage of my nature, being unapt to lay of your condition were to live a private and retired forth the simple store of those inferior gifts which ise, out of want, out of peril, and out of manifest God hath allotted unto me, most to view: yet that disgrace. And so, in this persuasion to your lordit would please her excellent majesty, not to ac- ship-wards, to frame and accommodate your account my thankfulness the less, for that my disa- tions and mind to that end; I fear, I say, that this bility is great to show it; but to sustain me in her untimely despair may in time bring forth a just majesty's gracious opinion, whereupon I only despair, by causing your lordship to slacken and rest, and not upon any expectation of desert to break off your wise, loyal, and seasonable endeaproceed from myself towards the contentment vour and industry for redintegration to her mathereof. But if it shall please God to send forth jesty's favour, in comparison whereof, all other an occasion whereby my faithful affection may be circumstances are but as atomi, or rather as a tried, I trust it shall save me labour for ever vacuuin, without any substance at all. making more protestation of it hereafter. In the Against this opinion, it may please your lordmean time, howsoever it be not made known to ship to consider of these reasons, which I have her majesty, yet God knoweth it, through the collected; and to make judgment of them, neither daily solicitations wherewith I address myself out of the melancholy of your present fortune unto him, in unfeigned prayer, for the multiplying nor out of the infusion of that which cometh to of her majesty's prosperities. To your lordship, you by others' relation, which is subject to much also, whose recommendation, I know right well, tincture, but « ex rebus ab ipsis,” out of the nature hath been material to advance her majesty's good of the persons and actions themselves, as the opinion of me, I can be but a bounden servant. So truest and less deceiving ground of opinion. For, much may I safely promise, and purpose to be, see-though I am so unfortunate as to be a stranger to ing public and private bonds vary not, but that my her majesty's eye, much more to her nature and service to her majesty and your lordship draw in manners, yet by that which is extant I do maniline. I wish, therefore, to show it with as good festly discern, that she hath that character of the proof, as I can say it in good faith, etc.

divine nature and goodness, as “ quos amavit, Your lordship’s, etc. amavit usque ad finem;" and where she hath a

creature, she doth not deface nor defeat it: insomuch as, if I observe rightly, in those persons

whom heretofore she hath honoured with her speTWO LETTERS FRAMED, ONE AS FROM MR. AN- cial favour, she hath covered and remitted, not

THONY BACON TO THE EARL OF ESSEX, TIIE only defections and ingratitudes in affection, but OTHER, AS THE EARL'S ANSWER.

errors in state and service. NY SINGULAR GOOD LOBD,

2. If I can, scholar-like, spell and put together This standing at a stay doth make me, in my the parts of her majesty's proceedings now tolove towards your lordship, jealous, lest you do wards your lordship, I cannot but make this consomewhat, or omit somewhat, that amounteth to a struction: that her majesty, in her royal intention, new error; for I suppose, that of all former mat- never purposed to call your doings into public ters there is a full expiation; wherein, for any question, but only to have used a cloud without thing which your lordship doth, I, for my part, a shower, and censuring them by some restraint (who am remote,) cannot cast or devise wherein of liberty, and debarring from her presence. For my error should be, except in one point, which I both the handling the cause in the Star Chamber dare not censure nor dissuade; which is, that as was enforced by the violence of libelling and ruthe prophet saith, in this affliction you look up mours, wherein the queen thought to have satisfied “ ad manum percutientem,” and so make your the world, and yet spared your appearance. And peace with God. And yet I have heard it noted, then after, when that means, which was intended that my Lord of Leicester, who could never get for the quenching of malicious bruits, turned to to be taken for a saint, yet in the queen's disfa- kindle them, because it was said your lordship vour waxed seeming religious. Which may be was condemned unheard, and your lordship's sisthought by some, and used by others, as a case ter wrote that private letter, then her majesty saw resembling yours, if men do not see, or will not plainly, that these winds of rumours could not he see, the difference between your two dispositions. commanded down, without a handling of the But, to be plain with your lordship, my fear rather cause, by making you party, and admitting your is, because I hear how some of your good and defence. And to this purpose, I do assure your wise friends, not unpractised in the court, and sup-lordship, that my brother, Francis Bacon, who is posing themselves not to be unseen in that deep I too wise to be abused, though he he both reserved



in all particulars more than is needful, yet in trust (next to God) in her majesty's grace, and generality he hath ever constantly, and with asse- not be wanting to yourself. I know your lordveration, affirmed to me, that both those days, ship may justly interpret, that this which I perthat of the Star Chamber, and that at my lord suade may have some reference to my particular, keeper's, were won of the queen, merely upon because I may truly say, “ tu stante non virebo," necessity and point of honour, against her own for I am withered in myself; but manebo, or inclination.

tenebo, I should in some sort be or hold out. 3. In the last proceeding, I note three points, But though your lordship's years and health may which are directly significant, that her majesty expect return of grace and fortune, yet your did expressly forbear any point which was irrecu- eclipse for a time is an “ultimum vale” to my perable, or might make your lordship in any fortune : And were it not that I desired and hope degree incapable of the return of her favour, or to see my brother established by her majesty's might fix any character indelible of disgrace upon favour, as I think him well worthy for that he you: for she spared the public places, which hath done and suffered, it were time I did take spared ignominy; she limited the charge pre- that course from which I dissuade your lordship. cisely, not to touch disloyalty, and no record re- Now, in the mean time, I cannot choose but permaineth to memory, of the charge or sentence. form those honest duties unto you, to whom I

4. The very distinction which was made in have been so deeply bound, etc. the sentence of sequestration, from the places of service in state, and leaving to your lordship the place of master of the horse, doth, in my understanding, point at this, that her majesty meant to THE EARL OF ESSEX'S ANSWER TO MR. ANTHONY use your lordship's attendance in court, while the exercises of other places stood suspended. Mr. Bacon,

5. I have heard, and your lordship knoweth I thank you for your kind and careful letter, better, that now since you were in your own it persuadeth that which I wish for strongly, and custody, her majesty, “in verbo regio," and hy hope for weakly, that is, possibility of restitution his mouth to whom she committeth lier royal to her majesty's favour; your arguments that grants and decrees, hath assured your lordship, would cherish hope, turn into despair: you say she will forbid and not suffer your ruin.

the queen never meant to call me to public cen6. As I have heard her majesty to be a prince sure, which showeth her goodness; but you see of that magnanimity, that she will spare the I passed it, which showeth others' power. I beservice of the ablest subject or peer, where she lieve most steadfastly, her majesty never intended shall be thought not to stand in need of it; so she to bring my cause to a public censure: and I beis of that policy, as she will not blaze the service lieve as verily, that since the sentence she meant of a meaner than your lordship, where it shall to restore me to tend upon her person: but those depend merely upon her choice and will. which could use occasions, (which it was not ir

7. I held it for a principle, that those diseases me to let,) and amplify and practise occasions to are hardest to cure, whereof the cause is obscure; represent to her majesty a necessity to bring me and those easiest, whereof the cause is manifest. to the one, can and will do the like to stop me Whereupon I conclude, that since it hath been from the other. You say, my errors were my your errors in your lowness towards her majesty prejudice, and therefore I can mend myself. It which have prejudiced you, that your reforming is true; but they that know that I can mend myand conformity will restore you, so as you may self, and that if I ever recover the queen, that I be “ faber fortunæ propriæ."

will never loose her again, will never suffer me Lastly, considering your lordship is removed to obtain interest in her favour: and you say, the from dealing in causes of state, and left only to a queen never forsook utterly where she hath inplace of attendance, methinks the ambition of wardly favoured ; but know not whether the hourany which can endure no partners in state-mat- glass of time hath altered her; but sure I am, ters may be so quenched, as they should not the false glass of others' informations must alter laboriously oppose themselves to your being in her, when I want access to plead mine own cause. I court. So as, upon the whole matter, I cannot know Iought doubly, infinitely to be her majesty's, find, neither in her majesty's person, nor in your both jure creationis,” for I am her creature: and own person, nor in any third person, neither in " jure redemptionis,” for I know she hath saved former precedents, nor in your own case, any me from overthrow. But for her first love, and cause of peremptory despair. Neither do I speak for her lasi protection, and all her great benefits, this, but that if her majesty out of her resolution I can but pray for her majesty; and my endeashould design you to a private life, you should be vour is now to make my prayers for her and as willing, upon the appointment, to go into the myself better heard. For, thanks be to God, that wilderness, as into the land of promise; only I they which can make her majesty believe I counwish that your lordship will not despair, but put terfeit with her, cannot make God believe that I counterfeit with him; and they that can let me because, of all the accidents of state at this time, from coming near to her, cannot let me from the labour resteth upon that most; and because drawing nearer to him, as I hope I do daily. For the world will make a kind of comparison beyour brother, I hold him an honest gentleman, tween those that set it out of frame, and those that and wish him all good, much rather for your sake; shall bring it into frame : which kind of honour yourself, I know, hath suffered more for me, and giveth the quickest kind of reflection. The transwith me, than any friend that I have: but I can ferring this honour upon yourself consisteth in two but lament freely, as you see I do, and advise you points: the one, if the principal persons employed not to do that I do, which is, to despair. You come in by you, and depend upon you; the other know letters what hurt they have done me, and your lordship declare yourself 10 undertake a therefore make sure of this; and yet I could not, care of that matter. For the persons, it falleth as having no other pledge of my love, but com- out well that your lordship hath had no interest in municate openly with you for the ease of my the persons of imputation : For neither Sir Wilheart and yours.

liam Fitz-Williams, nor Sir John Norris was Your loving friend,

yours: Sir William Russel was conceived yours, R. Essex. but was curbed : Sir Coniers Clifford, as I con

ceive it, dependeth upon you, who is said to do

well; and if my Lord of Ormond in this interim SIR FRANCIS BACON TO THE EARL OF SALISBURY, do accommodate well, I take it he hath always

CONCERNING THE SOLICITOR'S PLACE, had good understanding with your lordship. So MAY IT PLEASE your LORDSHIP,

as all things are not only whole and entire, but of I am not privy to myself of any such ill de- favourable aspect towards your lordship, if you serving towards your lordship, as that I should now choose well: wherein, in your wisdom, you think it an imprudent thing to be a suitor for your will remember there is a great difference in choice favour in a reasonable matter, your lordship being of the persons, as you shall think the affairs to into me as (with your good favour) you cannot cline to composition, or to war.

For your carecease to be: but rather it were a simple and arro- taking, popular conceit hath been, that Irish gant part in me to forbear it.

causes have been much neglected, whereby the It is thought Mr. Attorney shall be chief justice very reputation of better care will be a strength : of the Common-place; in case Mr. Solicitor rise, and I am sure, her majesty and my lords of the I would be glad now at last to be solicitor: chiefly council do not think their care dissolved, when because I think it will increase my practice, where- they have chosen whom to employ; but that they in God blessing me a few years, I may mend my will proceed in a spirit of state, and not leave the Astate, and so after fall to my studies and ease; where- main point to discretion. Then, if a resolution be of one is requisite for my body, and the other taken; a consultation must proceed ; and the serveth for my mind; wherein if I shall find your consultation must be governed upon information to lordship’s favour, I shall be more happy than I be had from such as know the place, and matters have been, which may make me also more wise. in fact; and in taking of information I have always I have small store of means about the king, and noted there is a skill and a wisdom. For I can. to sue myself is not fit; and therefore I shall leave not tell what account or inquiry hath been taken it to God, his majesty, and your lordship: for 1 of Sir William Russel, of Sir Ralph Bingham, of must still be next the door. I thank God, in these the Earl of 'Thomond, of Mr. Wilbraham: but I transitory things I am well resolved. So, beseech- am of opinion, much more would be had of them, ing your lordship not to think this letter the less if your lordship shall be pleased severally to conhumble, because it is plain, I rest, etc.

fer, not obiter, but expressly, upon some caveat Fr. Bacon.

given them to think of it before, for, “ bene docet qui prudenter interrogat." For the points of opposing them, I am too much a stranger to the busi

ness to deduce them: but in a topic methinks the SIR FRANCIS BACON TO THE EARL OF ESSEX, pertinent interrogations must be either of the WHEN SIR ROBERT CECIL WAS IN FRANCE.

possibility and means of accord, or of the nature MY SINGULAR GOOD LORD,

of the war, or of the reformation of the particular I do write, because I have not yet had time abuses, or of the joining of practice with force in fully to express my conceit, nor now, to attend the disunion of the rebels. If your lordship doubt you touching Irish matters, considering them as to put your sickle in other men's harvests, yet they may concern the state; that it is one of the consider you have these advantages. First, timo aptest particulars that hath come, or can come being fit to you in Mr. Secretary's absence : next, upon the stage, for your lordship to purchase vis unita fortior :" thirdly, the business being honour upon, I am moved to think for three mixed with matters of war, it is fittest for you: reasons; because it is ingenerate in your house in lastly, I know your lordship will carry it with that respect of my lord your father's noble attempts ; modesty and respect towards aged dignity, and that good correspondence towards my dear ally, weaken by division and disunion of the heads; and your good friend, now abroad, as no incon- the other, by recovering and winning the people venience may grow


way. Thus have I play- by justice, which of all other causes is the besi. ed the ignorant statesman, which I do to nobody Now for the Athenian question, you discourse but your lordship, except I do it to the queen well, “ Quid igitur agendum est ?" I will shoc sometimes, when she trains me on. But your my fool's bolt, since you will have it so. The lordship will accept my duty and good meaning, Earl of Ormond to be encouraged and comforted and secure me touching the privateness of that I above all things, the garrisons to be instantly prowrite.

vided for; for opportunity makes a thief: and if Your lordship’s to be commanded, he should mean never so well now, ytt such an

Fr. Bacox. advantage as the breaking of her majesty's garri

sons, might tempt a true man. And because he may as well waver upon his own inconstancy, as

upon occasion, and want of variableness is never SIR FRANCIS BACON TO THE EARL OF ESSEX, restrained but with fear, I hold it necessary to be CONCERNING THE EARL OF TYRONE.

menaced with a strong war; not by words, but by Those advertisements which your lordship im- musters and preparations of forces here, in case parted to me, and the like, I hold to be no more the accord proceed not; but none to be sent over, certain to make judginent upon than a patient's lest it disturb the treaty, and make him look to be water to a physician: therefore for me upon one overrun as soon as he hath laid down arms. And, water to make a judgment, were indeed like a but that your lordship is too easy to pass, in such foolish bold mountebank, or Dr. Birket, yet, for cases, from dissimulation to verity, I think, if willing duty's sake, I will set down to your lord- your lordship lent your reputation in this case, it ship what opinion sprung in my mind upon that I is to pretend, that if not a defensive war, as in read. The letter from the council there, leaning times past, but a full reconquest of those parts of to distrust, I do not much rely upon, for three the country be resolved on, you would accept the causes. First, because it is always both the grace charge, I think it would help to settle him, and and the safety from blame of such a council to err win you a great deal of honour gratis. And that in caution : whereunto add, that it may be they, which most properly concerneth this action, if it or some of them, are not without envy towards prove a peace, I think her majesty shali do well the person who is used in treating the accord. to cure the root of the disease, and to profess by a Next, because the time of this treaty hath no show commission of peaceable men chiefly of respect of dissimulation, for that Tyrone is now in no and countenance, the reformation of abuses, extorstreights, but like a gamester that wili give over tions and injustices there, and to plant a stronger because he is a winner, not because he hath no and surer government than heretofore, for the ease more money in his purse.

and protection of the subject; for the removing of Lastly, I do not see but those articles whereon the sword, or government in arms, from the Earl they ground their suspicion, may as well proceed of Ormond, or the sending of a deputy, which out of fear as out of falsehood, for the retaining of will eclipse it, if peace follow, I think unseasona. the dependence of the protracting the admission ble. Lastly, I hold still my opinion, both for of a sheriff

, the refusing to give his son for hostage, your better information, and your fuller declara. the holding from present repair to Dublin, the re- tion of your care, and evermore meriting service, fusing to go presently to accord, without includ- that your lordship have a set conference with the ing O'Donnell, and others his associates, may persons I named in my former writing. I rest, very well come of a guilty reservation, in case he

At your lordship's service, should receive hard measure, and not out of

FR. Bacon. treachery; so as if the great person be faithful, and that you have not here some present intelligence of present succours from Spain, for the expectation whereof Tyrone would win time, I see ANOTHER TO THE EARL BEFORE HIS GOING TO no deep cause of distrusting the cause if it be good. And for the question, her inajesty seemeth My singular coop Lord, to me a winner three ways: first, her purse shall Your note of my silence in your occasions hath hiave rest: next, it will divert the foreign designs made me set down these few wandering lines, as unon that place: thirdly, though her majesty is one that would say somewhat, and can say nothing iike for a time to govern precario in the north, and touching your lordship’s intended charge for Irebe not in true command in better state there than land; which my endeavour I know your lordship

ore, yet, besides the two respects of ease of will accept graciously and well, whether your charge, and advantage of opinion abroad, before lordship take it by the handle of the cccasion mentioned, she shali have a time to use her ministered from yourself, or of the affection from princely policy in two points : in the one, to which it proceedeth. Your lordship is designed



to a service of great merit and great peril; and defaults of so many former governors, and the as the greatness of the peril must needs include clearing the glory of so many happy years' reign, no small consequence of peril, if it be not tem- only in this part excepted. Nay, farther, how far perately governed; so all immoderate success forth the peril of that state is interlaced with the extinguisheth merit, and stirreth up distaste and peril of England; and, therefore, how great the envy, the assured forerunner of whole changes of honour is to keep and defend the approaches of peril. But I am at the last point first, some good this kingdom, I hear many discourse; and indeed spirit leading my pen to presage your lordship’s there is a great difference, whether the tortoise success; wherein it is true, I am not without my gather herself into her shell hurt or unhurt; and cracle and divinations, none of them superstitious, if any man be of opinion, that the nature of an and yet n't all natural: for, first, looking into the enemy doth extenuate the honour of a service, course of God's providence in things now depend- being but a rebel and a savage, I differ from him; ing, and calling into consideration how great for I see the justest triumphs that the Romans in things God hath done by her majes:y, and for her their greatest greatness did obtain, and that collect he hath disposed of this great dissection whereof the emperors in their styles took addi. in Ireland, whereby to give an urgent occasion to tions and denominations, were of such an enemy; the reduction of that whole kingdom, as upon the that is, people barbarous, and not reduced 10 rebellion of Desmond there ensued the reduction civility, magnifying a kind of lawless liberty, of that province. Next, your lordship goeth prodigal of life, hardened in body, fortified in against three of the unluckiest vices of all other, woods and bogs, placing both justice and fecility disloyalty, ingratitude, and insolence; which in the sharpness of their swords. Such were the three offences in all examples have seldom their Germans and ancient Britons, and divers cthers. doom adjourned to the world to come. Lastly, he Upon which kind of people, whether the victory that shall have had the honour to know your lord- be a conquest, or a reconquest upon a rebellion or ship inwardly, as I have had, shall find • bona revolt, it made no difference that ever I could find, exta," whereby he may better ground a divination in honour. And, therefore, it is not the enriching of good, than upon the dissection of a sacrifice. the predatory war that hath the pre-eminence in But that part I leave, for it is fit for others to be honour; else should it be more honour to bring in confident upon you, and you to be confident upon a carrack of rich burden, than one of the twelve the cause, the goodness and justice whereof is Spanish apostles. But then this nature of people such as can hardly be matched in any example, doth yield a higher point of honour (considering it being no ambitious war of foreigners, but a in truth and substance) than any war can yield recovery of subjects, and that after lenity of con- which should be achieved against a civil enemy, ditions oflen tried; and a recovery of them not if the end may be—“ pacique imponere moren,' only to obedience, but to humanity and policy, ' to replant and refound the policy of that pation, from more than Indian barbarism. There is yet to which nothing is wanting but a just and civil another kind of divination familiar in matters of government. Which design, as it doth descend state, being that which Demosthenes so often to you from your noble father, (who lost his life relieth upon in his time, where he saith, that in that action, though he paid tribute to nature, which for the time past is worst of all, is for the and not to fortune,) so I hope your lordship shall time to come the best, which is, that things go ill be as fatal a captain to this war, as Africanus was not by accident but by error; wherein though to the war of Carthage, after that both his uncle your lordship hath been a waking censor, yet, you and his father had lost their lives in Spain in the must look for no other now, but “ medice, cura same war. teipsum;" and although your lordship shall not Now, although it be true, that these things be the blessed physician that cometh to the de- which I have writ (being but representations clination of the disease, yet, you embrace that con- unto your lordship of the honour and appearance dition which many noble spirits have accepted for of success and enterprise) be not much to the advantage, which is, that you go upon the greater purpose of my direction, yet, it is that which is peril of your fortune, and the less of your reputa- best to me, being no man of war, and ignorant in tion; and so the honour countervaileth the adven- the particulars of state: for a man may by the ture; of which honour your lordship is in no eye set up the white right in the midst of the butt, small possession, when that her inajesty, known though he be no archer. Therefore I will only to be one of the most judicious princes in discern- add this wish, according to the English phrast, ing of spirits that ever governed, hath made choice which termeth a well-wishing advice a wish, of you merely out of her royal judgment, (her that your lordship in this whole action, looking affection inclining rather to continue your attend- forward, set down this position; that merit is ance,) into whose hands and trust to put the com- worthier than fame; and looking back hither, mandment and conduct of so great forces, the would remember this text, that “ obedience is gathering in the fruit of so great charge, the exe- better than sacrifice.” For designing to fame cution of so many councils, the redeeming of the and glory may make your lordship, in the adver

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