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inade it your only study and care to advance his of the chief justices and the learned counsel, was majesty's service. And so I rest

Your lordship's faithful friend and servant, G. BUCKINGHAM.

Wanstead, September 9th, 1619.



I have received your letters by both your servants, and have acquainted his majesty with them, who is exceedingly pleased with the course you have held in the Earl of Suffolk's business, and holdeth himself so much the more beholden to you, because you sent the letter of your own motion, without order or consent of the lords, whereby his majesty is not tied to an answer. His majesty hath understood by many how worthily your lordship hath carried yourself both in this and the Dutch business; for which he hath commanded me to give you thanks in his name; and seeth your care to be so great in all things that concern his service, that he cannot but much rejoice in the trust of such a servant, which is no less comfort to

Your lordship's faithful friend and servant, G. BUCKINGHAM.

Royston, October 23d, 1619.


On my Lord of Bucks, enclosing a letter of submission from my Lord of Suffolk.



The news of this victory hath so well pleased his majesty, that he giveth thanks to all; and I, among the rest, who had no other part but the delivering of your letter, had my part of his good acceptation, which he would have rewarded after the Roman fashion with every man a garland, if it had been now in use; but after the fashion of his gracious goodness, he giveth your lordship thanks; and would have you deliver the like, in his majesty's name, to Sir Edward Coke and the judges. Your news, which came the first, gave his majesty a very good breakfast, and I hope his health will be the better after it.

Your lordship's faithful friend and servant, G. BUCKINGHAM.

October 14th, 1619.


conceived agreeable to his majesty's meaning and directions; yet, lest we should err, we thought good to send it to his majesty. It is to be returned with speed, or else there will be no day in court to make it. God bless and prosper you. I

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We sentence to-morrow, but I write to-day, because I would not leave the king in suspense.

I shall write not so good news as I would, but better than I expected.

We met amongst ourselves to-day, which I find was necessary more than convenient. I gave aim that the meeting was not to give a privie verdict, or to determine what was a good proof or not a good proof, nor who was guilty or not guilty, but only to think of some fit proportion of the fines, that there might be less distraction in the sentence, in a cause so scattered; some would have entered into the matter itself, but I made it good and kept them from it.

I perceive the old defendants will be censured as well as the new, (which was the goal,) and I am persuaded the king will have a great deal of honour of the cause. Their fines will be moderate, but far from contemptible. The attorney did very well to-day; I perceive he is a better pleader than a director, and more eloquent than

Thanks on the Success in the Ore Tenus against considerate. the Dutch.



I send the submission of Sir Thomas Laque, drawn in such form as, upon a meeting with me

Little thinks the king what ado I have here, but I am sure I acquit my trust. To-morrow I will write particularly. God ever preserve you. Your lordship's most obliged friend and faithful servant, FR. VERULAM, Canc.

Tuesday Afternoon, this 7th Dec., 1619.

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I doubt not but Sir Giles Montpesson advertiseth your lordship how our revenue business proceeds. I would his majesty had rested upon the first names; for the additionals, specially the exchequer man, doth not only weaken the matter, but weakeneth my forces in it, he being thought to have been brought in across. But I go on, and hope good service will be done. For the commissions to be published in the Star Chamber, for which it pleaseth his majesty to give me special thanks, I will have special eare of them in time. God ever prosper you. Your lordship's most obliged friend and faithful servant,

February 10, 1619.




One gave me a very good precept for the stone;

that I should think of it most when I feel it least. This I apply to the king's business, which surely I revolve most when I am least in action, whereof, at my attendance, I will give his majesty such account as can proceed from my poor and mean abilities, which as his majesty, out of grace, may think to be more than they are, so I, out of desire, may think sometime they can

But still it must be

effect more than they can. remembered, that the stringing of the harp, nor the tuning of it will not serve, except it be well played on from time to time.

If his majesty's business or commandments require it, I will attend him at Windsor, though I would be glad to be spared, because quick airs at this time of the year do affect me. At London, and so at Theobalds and Hampton Court, I will not fail, God willing, to wait upon his majesty. Meanwhile I am exceeding glad to hear his majesty hath been lusty and well this progress. Thus, much desiring to see your lordship, cujus amor tantum mihi crescit in horas, (as the poet saith,) I ever remain Your lordship's most obliged friend and faithful servant,


Gorhambury, this 30th August, 1620.


The tobacco business is well settled in all points. For the coals, they that brought the offer to Secretary Calvert, do very basely shrink from their words; but we are casting about to piece it and perfect it. The two goose quills, Maxwell and Alured, have been pulled, and they have made submissions in that kind which the board thought fit: for we would not do them the honour to require a recantation of their opinion, but an acknowledgment of their presumption.

His majesty doth very wisely, (not showing much care or dread to it,) yet really to suppress this licentious course of talking and writing. My old Lord Burghley was wont to say, that the Frenchman, when he hath talked, he hath done; but the Englishman, when he hath talked, he begins. It evaporateth malice and discontent in the one, and kindleth it in the other. And therefore, upon some fit occasion, I wish a more public example. The king's states, if I should now die and were opened, would be found at my heart, as Queen Mary said of Calais; we find additionals still, but the consumption goeth on. I pray God give his majesty resolution, passing by at once all impediments and less respects, to do that which may help it, before it be irreniediable. God ever preserve and prosper your lordship.

Your lordship's most obliged friend
and faithful servant,

July 23d, 1620.


I have stayed the thousand pounds set upon Englefield, for his majesty, and given order for levying it.



I write now only a letter of thanks to his majesty, for that I hear in my absence, he was pleased to express towards me, (though unworthy,) a great deal of grace and good opinion before his lords; which is much to my comfort, whereunto I must ever impute your lordship as accessary. I have also written to him what sig nification I received from Secretary Naunton, of his majesty's will and pleasure, lest in so great a business, there should be any mistaking.

The pain of my foot is gone, but the weakness doth a little remain, so as I hope, within a day or two, to have full use of it. I ever remain Your lordship's most obliged friend and faithful servant,

October 2d, 1620.




I thought myself an unfortunate man, that I could not attend you at Theobald's. But I hear that your majesty hath done, as God Almighty useth to do, which is to turn evil into good, in that your majesty hath been pleased upon that occasion to express, before your lords, your gracious opinion and favour towards me, which I most humbly thank your majesty for, and will aspire to deserve.

Secretary Naunton this day brought me your pleasure in certain notes: that I should advise with the two chief justices, (old Parliament men,) and Sir Edward Coke, (who is also their senior in that school,) and Sir Randall Crewe, the last speaker, and such other judges as we should think fit, touching that which might in true policy, without packing or degenerate arts, prepare to a Parliament, in case your majesty should resolve of one to be heid, and withal he signified to me some particular points, which your majesty very wisely had deduced.

All your majesty's business is super cor meum, for I lay it to heart, but this is a business secundum cor meum; and yet, as I will do your majesty all possible good services in it, so I am far from seeking to impropriate to myself the thanks, but shall become omnibus omniu, (as St. Paul saith,) to attain your majesty's ends.

As soon as I have occasion, I will write to your majesty touching the same, and will have special care to communicate with my lords in some principal points, though all things are not at first fit for the whole table. I ever rest Your majesty's most bounden

October 2d, 1620.

and most devoted servant, FR. VERULAM, Canc.

Your majesty needeth not to doubt but I shall carry the business with that secrecy which appertaineth.


MY LORD:-I have acquainted his majesty with your letter, and labour in his service, for which he commandeth me to give you thanks, and to let your lordship know, that he liketh exceeding well your method held by the judges, which could not be amended, and concurreth with you in your opinions. First, touching the proclamation, that it should be monitory and persuasive rather than compulsive: and, secondly, that the point concerning the persons, who should be admitted and who avoided, is fit to be kept from the knowledge of the council table, and to be carried with all secrecy.

For the business of Ireland, his majesty had heard of it before, and gave commandment to the master of the wards, that it should be hastened and set in hand with all speed, which his majesty doubteth not but is done by this time. Touching your advice for a treasurer, his majesty is very mindful of it, and will let you know as much at his return, when he will speak further with your lordship of it: and so I rest Yours, &c.

Royston, Oct. 9th, 1620.



MY HONourable Lord,

I have showed your letter and the proclamation to his majesty, who expecting only, according as his meaning was, directions therein for the well ordering of the elections of the burgesses, findeth a great deal more, containing matter of state, and the reasons of calling the Parliament; whereof neither the people are capable, nor is it fit for his majesty to open unto them, but to reserve to the time of their assembling, according to the course of his predecessors, which his majesty intendeth to follow. The declaring whereof, in the proclamation, would cut off the ground of his majesty's and your lordship's speech at the proper time; his majesty hath, therefore, extracted somewhat of the latter part of the draught you have sent, purposing to take a few days' space to set down himself what he thinketh fit, and to make it ready against his return hither, or to Theobald's at the furthest, and then to communicate it to your lordship, and the rest of the lords. And so I rest Yours, &c.

Royston, Oct. 19th, 1620.




This might have been made more manifest as to the presence and acts of the prince in days of sitting, if, through the negligence of officers, the journal books of the Upper House of Parliament, before the reign of King Henry VIII., were not all missing.

We thought it our duty to impart to his majesty, by your lordship, one particular of Parliament business, which we hold it our part to relate, though it be too high for us to give our opinion of it. All which we thought it appertained to our care The officers that make out the writs of Parlia- to look through, and faithfully to represent to his ment, addressed themselves to me, the chancellor, majesty. And having agreed secrecy amongst to know whether they should make such a writ ourselves, and enjoined it to the inferior offiof summons to the prince, giving me to under-cers, we humbly desire to know his majesty's stand that there were some precedents of it, which pleasure, whether he will silence the question I, the chancellor, communicated with the rest of altogether, or make use of it for his service, or the committees for Parliament business, in whose refer it to his council, or what other course he assistance I find so much strength, that I am not will be pleased to take, according to his great willing to do any thing without them. Where- wisdom and good pleasure. upon, we, (according to his majesty's prudent and constant rule, for observing in what reigns the precedents were,) upon diligent search, have found as followeth:

This we have despatched the sooner, because the writs of summons must have forty days distance from the first days of the Parliament. And for the other parts of our accounts, his majesty That King Edward I. called his eldest son shall hear from us, by the grace of God, within Prince Edward, to his Parliament, in the thirtieth | few days. Evermore praying for his majesty's year of his reign, the prince then being about the prosperity, and wishing your lordship much hapage of eighteen years; and to another Parliament, piness, in the four-and-thirtieth year of his reign.

Edward III. called the Black Prince, his eldest son, to his Parliament in the five-and-twentieth, eight-and twentieth, and two-and-fortieth years of his reign.

Henry IV. called Prince Henry to his Parliaments in the first, third, eighth, and eleventh years of his reign, the prince being under age in the three first Parliaments; and we find in particular, that the eighth year, the prince sat in the Upper House in days of business, and recommended a bill to the lords.

King Edward IV. called Prince Edward, his son, to his Parliament, in anno 22 of his reign, being within age.

King Henry VII. called Prince Arthur to his Parliament in the seventh year of his reign, being within age.

Of King Edward VI. we find nothing; his years were tender, and he was not created Prince of Wales.

And for Prince Henry, he was created Prince of Wales during the last Parliament at which he lived. We have thought it our duty to relate to his majesty what we have found; and, withal, that the writs of summons to the prince are not much differing from the writs to the peers; for they run in fide et ligeancia, and sometimes in fide et homagio in quibus nobis tenemini, and after consilium nobis impensuri circa ardua regni. Whereby it should seem that princes came to Parliament, not only in the days of solemnity, when they came without writ, but also on the days of sitting. And, if it should be so, then the prince may vote, and likewise may be of a committee of the Upper House, and, consequently, may be of a conference with the Lower House, and the like.

Your lordship's to be commanded,

York House, Nov. 21st, 1620.






We have, these two days past, made report to the board of our Parliament committee, upon re lation whereof, for some things we provide, for some things we arm.

The king, by my lord treasurer's signification, did wisely put it upon a consult, whether the patents which we mentioned in our joint letters, were at this time to be removed, by act of counci! before Parliament. I opined, (but yet somewhat like Ovid's mistress that strove, but yet as one that would be overcome) that yes. My reasons: That men would go better and faster to the main errand.

That these things should not be staged, nor talked of, and so the less fuel to the fire.

That in things of this nature, wherein the council had done the like in former particulars (which I enumerated) before Parliament, near Parliament, during Parliament, the council were to keep their wonted sentinel, as if they thought not of a Parliament, to destroy in other patents, as concealments.

The reasons on the other side were,

That it would be thought but a humouring of the Parliament, (being now in the calends of a Q

Parliament,) and that after Parliament they would majesty thinketh it fit that some extract be made come up again. out of it, which needeth to be but very short, as That offered graces, by reason and experience, he will show you at his return. lose their thanks.

They that are to be suffered to play upon something, since they can do nothing of themselves.

That the choosing out of some things, when perhaps their minds might be more upon other things, would do no great effect.

Yours, &c.


Theobalds, Jan. 19, 1620.

That former patents, taken away by act of TO THE RIGHT HONOURABLE HIS VERY GOOD council, were upon the complaints of particular persons; whereas now it should seem to be done tanquam ex officio.

To this I yielded, though I confess I am yet a little doubtful to the point of suavibus modis. But it is true that the speech of these, though in the Lower House, may be contemned; and if way be given to them (as I writ to your lordship of some of them in my last) it will sort to your honour. For other things, the lords have put them in a very good way, of which I will give express account when I see his majesty, as also of other observations concerning Parliament. For if his majesty said well that when he knew the men and the elections, he would guess at the success; the prognostics are not so good as I expected, occasioned by the late occurrents abroad, and the general licentious speaking of state matters, of which I wrote in my last. God ever keep you. Your lordship's most obliged friend and faithful servant, FR. VERULAM, Canc.

Dec. 16, 1620



As soon as his majesty's convenience would permit, I have acquainted him with the draught of the proclamation your lordship sent me by his majesty's direction. His majesty liketh it in every point so well, both in matter and form, that he findeth no cause to alter a word in it, and would have your lordship acquaint the lords of the council with it, (though he assureth himself, no man can find any thing in it to be changed,) and to take order for the speedy setting it forth. And so I rest

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I humbly pray your lordships all to make a favourable and true construction of my absence. It is no feigning or fainting, but sickness both of my heart and of my back, though joined with that comfort of mind that persuadeth me that I am not far from Heaven, whereof I feel the first-fruits.

And because, whether I live or die I would be glad to preserve my honour and fame, so far as I am worthy; hearing that some complaints of base bribery are coming before your lordships, my requests unto your lordships are:

First, That you will maintain me in your good opinion, without prejudice, until my cause be


Secondly, That in regard I have sequestered my mind at this time in great part from worldly matters, thinking of my account and answers in a higher court, your lordships will give me convenient time, according to the course of other courts, to advise with my counsel, and to make my answer; wherein, nevertheless, my counsel's part will be the least: for I shall not, by the grace of God, trick up an innocency with cavillations, but plainly and ingenuously (as your lordships know my manner is) declare what I know or remember.

Thirdly, That according to the course of justice, I may be allowed to except to the witnesses brought against me; and to move questions to your lordships for their cross-examinations; and likewise to produce my own witnesses for the discovery of the truth.

And lastly, That if there be any more petitions of like nature, that your lordships would be pleased not to take any prejudice or apprehension of any number or muster of them, especially against a judge, that makes two thousand orders and decrees in a year, (not to speak of the courses that have been taken for hunting out complaints against me,) but that I may answer them according to the rules of justice, severally and respectively.

These requests, I hope, appear to your lordships no other than just. And so thinking myself happy to have so noble peers and reverend prelates to discern of my cause; and desiring no privilege of greatness for subterfuge of guiltiness:

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