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forthwith to set out a proclamation to that effect; | retractation of his wicked opinions in writing. not intending in that point to stand upon any doubt of law, nor to expect the judges' interpretation; nor to allow any freehold in that case; but holding this the safest rule, Salus reipublicæ suprema lex esto. And so I rest

Your lordship's faithful friend and servant, G. BUCKINGHAM.

Newmarket, Nov. 27, 1619.



I have presented both the submissions to his majesty. His answer is, he cannot alter that which was allowed of by the lords of the last Star Chamber day, except first they be acquainted with it, and the consent of the Lady Exeter be likewise had, because the decree doth necessarily require it. So I rest

Your lordship's humble servant,


The form was as good as may be. I declared to him, that this court was the judgment-seat; the mercy-seat was his majesty: but the court would commend him to his majesty and I humbly pray his majesty to signify his pleasure speedily, be. cause of the misery of the man; and it is a rare thing for a sectary, that hath once suffered smart and shame, to turn so unfeignedly, as he seemed to do.

God ever bless and keep you.

Your most obliged friend and faithful servant,

December 1, 1619.



On Friday I left London, to hide myself at Kew; for two months and a half together to be strongbent is too much for my bow. And yet, that the king may perceive, that in my times of leisure I am not idle, I took down with me Sir Giles Mompesson, and with him I have quietly conferred

Touching the submissions of Sir Thomas Lake of that proposition, which was given me in and his lady.



I acquainted this day, the bearer with his majesty's pleasure, touching Lake'st submission; which, whether it should be done in person or in writing, his majesty signified his will thus: that it should be spared in open court, if my Lady of Exeter should consent, and the board think fit. The board liked it well, and appointed my Lord Digby, and Secretary Calvert, to speak with my lady, who returned her answer in substance, that she would, in this and all things, be commanded by his majesty: but if his majesty left it to her liberty and election, she humbly prayed to be excused. And though it was told her, that this answer would be cause that it could not be performed this term; yet she seemed willing rather it should be delayed, than dispensed with.

This day also Traske,‡ in open court, made a

Harl. MSS. vol. 7006. + Sir Thomas Lake's.

John Traske, a minister, who was prosecuted in the Star chamber for maintaining, as we find mentioned in the Reports of the Lord Chief Justice Hobart, p. 236, that the Jewish Sabbath ought to be observed and not ours; and that we ought to abstain from all manner of swine's flesh, and those meats which the Jews were forbidden in Leviticus, according to Bishop Andrews, in his speech in the Star Chamber on that occasion, printed among his lordship's works. Mr. Traske being examined in that court, confessed, that he had divulged those opinions, and had laboured to bring as many to them as he could; and had also written a letter to the king, wherein he seemed to tax his majesty with hypocrisy, and expressly inveighed against the bishops high commis

charge by his majesty, and after seconded by your lordship. Wherein I find some things I like very well, and some other, that I would set by. And one thing is much to my liking, that the proposition for bringing in his majesty's revenue with small charge is no invention, but was on foot heretofore in King Philip's and Queen Mary's time, and had a grave and mighty opinion for it. The rest I leave to his relation, and mine own attendance.

I hope his majesty will look to it, that the fines now to come in may do him most good. Both causes produce fines of one hundred and fourscore thousand pounds, whereof one hundred thousand may clear the anticipations; and then the assignations may pass under the great seal, to be enrollable; so as we shall need to think of nothing but the arrears in a manner, of which I wish the twenty thousand pounds to the strangers (with the interest) be presently satisfied. The remain

sioners, as bloody and cruel in their proceedings against him,

and a papal clergy. He was sentenced to fine and imprisonment, not for holding those opinions, (for those were examinable in the Ecclesiastical Court, and not there,) but for making of conventicles and commotions, and for scandalizing the king, the bishops, and clergy. Dr. Fuller, in his Church History of Britain, book x. p. 77, 64, mentions his having heard Mr. Traske preach, and remarks, that his voice had more strength than any thing else he delivered; and that after his recantation he relapsed, not into the same, but other opinions, rather humorous than hurtful, and died obscurely at Lambeth, in the reign of King Charles I.

* Who, in the parliament, which began, January 30, 1620-1, was sentenced to be degraded, and rendered incapable of bearing any office, for practising several abuses, setting up new inns and alehouses, and exacting great sums of money of the people, by pretence of letters patents granted him for that purpose. But he fled into foreign parts, finding himself abandoned by the Marquis of Buckingham, on whom he had depended for protection.

inay serve for the king's present and urgent occa- | chequer* hath promised his majesty that he will sions. And if the king intend any gifts, let them be no more sick, whereby you shall have this stay for the second course, (for all is not yet done,) comfort, that the burden will not lie upon your but nothing out of these, except the king should lordship alone. give me the twenty thousand pounds I owe Peter Vanbore out of his fine, which is the chief debt I owe. But this I speak merrily. I ever rest Your lordship's most obliged friend and faithful servant, FR. VERULAM, Canc.

Kew, December 12, 1619.

After I had written this letter, I received from your lordship, by my servant, his majesty's acceptation of my poor services; for which I pray your lordship to present to his majesty my most humble thanks. I have now other things in my mind for his majesty's service, that no time be lost.



The little leisure I had at Theobalds made me bring your man down hither for this answer, which I hope your lordship will excuse; and ever hold me for

Your lordship's faithful friend
and servant,

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This day we met about the commission, the commonwealth's commission, for the poor and His majesty hath been pleased, out of his gra- vagabonds, &c. We have put it into an exceedcious care of Sir Robert Killigrew, to refer a suit ing good way, and have appointed meetings once of his, for certain concealed lands, to your lord-in fourteen days, because it shall not be aslack. ship and the rest of the commissioners for the I was glad to hear from the two chief justices, treasury; the like whereof hath been heretofore granted to many others. My desire to your lordship is, that, he being a gentleman whom I love and wish very well unto, your lordship would show him, for my sake, all the favour you can, in furthering his suit. Wherein your lordship shall do me a courtesy, for which I will ever rest

Your lordship's faithful friend and servant, G. BUCKINGHAM. Royston, December 15, 1619.



I have acquainted his majesty with your letter,

who for that business, whereof Mr. Chancellor of the Exchequer brought the message to his majesty to Theobalds, returned the answer by him. As for that, whereof Sir Giles Mompesson spake to your lordship, his majesty liketh very well, and so lo all others with whom his majesty hath spoken of it, and, therefore, he recommend eth it to your care, not doubting but your lordship will give all your furtherance to it, being your own work, and so much concerning his majesty's honour and profit; and will speak farther with your lordship of it at his return to


that whatsoever appears in the country to come from primum mobile, (that is, the king's care,) works better than if it came from the law. Therefore we have ordered that this commission shall be published in the several circuits in the charges of the judges. For the rest hereafter."

For the proposition of Sir Giles Mompesson we have met once. Exchequer-men will be exchequer-men still; but we shall do good.

For the account, or rather imparting, of the commissioners of treasury to the council, I think it will but end in a compliment. But the real care (and I hope good purpose) I will not give over, the better, because I am not alone.

For the Star Chamber business, I shall, as you write, keep the clock on going, which is hard to do, when sometimes the wheels are too many, and sometimes too few. But we shall do well,

especially if those whom the king hath hitherto made bondmen, (I mean, which have given bonds for their fines,) he do not hereafter make freemen.

For Suffolk's business, it is a little strange, that the attorney made it a question to the commissioners of treasury, whether Suffolk should not be admitted to the lease of the extent of his own land, which is the way to encourage him not to pay his fine. But when it was told him, that the contrary course was held with the Earl of Northumberland, and that thereby he was brought

to agree for his fine; then he turned, as his man

ner is.

For those other businesses of the Star Chamber, which his majesty hath recommended to your lordship, he hopeth you will keep the clock still going, his profit being so much interested there- Sir Fulke Greville, who surrendered that office in Sepin, especially seeing Mr. Chancellor of the Ex-tember, 1621, being succeeded in it by Sir Richard Weston. He had been created Lord Brooke of Beauchamp's Court, Jan. 9, 1620-1.

Harl. MSS. vol. 7006.

For the errors, we have yet so much use of the service of Sir Henry Britten in bringing in the fines, (indeed more than of the attorney,) as we cannot, without prejudice to his majesty's service, enter yet into them; and, besides, Sir Edward Coke comes not abroad.

Mr. Kirkham hath communicated with me, as matter of profit to his majesty, upon the coals referred by his majesty to us of the treasury; wherein I hope we shall do good, the rather, because I am not alone.

The proclamation for light gold Mr. Secretary Calvert, I know, hath sent to his majesty; and therefore of that I say no more.

For the raising of silver by ordinance, and not by proclamation, and that for the time to come, we have given order to finish it. I hear a whispering, that thereupon the commissioners of the navy, the officers of the household, the wardrobe, may take occasion to break the book and the undertakings, because the prices may rise, which I thought good to signify to his majesty. And, to speak plainly, I fear more the pretence than the natural effect.

God evermore preserve your lordship. I rest
Your lordship's most obliged friend
and faithful servant,

January 20, 1619.



I have acquainted his majesty with your letter, who is very well pleased therewith, finding in you a continual care of his service. In that point of the Star Chamber business, his majesty saith there is a mistaking: for he meant not the Dutchmen's business, but that motion which your lordship made unto him, of sitting in the Star Chamber about the commissions, which you had not leisure to read till he came down to Royston, and hath reason to give you thanks for it, desiring you to prepare it, and study the point, (of which he will speak more with you at his return to London,) being a matter worthy your thinking on, and his majesty's practice.

For the last point of your letter, his majesty saith it cannot but proceed of malice, that there should be any such plot, which he will not endure, but he will account those that whisper of it in that sort, enemies of his service; and will put them out of their places that practise it. And so I rest

Your lordship's faithful

friend and servant,


Newmarket, Jan. 22, 1619.

Harl. MSS. vol. 7006.



I have received your letter of the 3d of this present, signifying his majesty's pleasure touching Peacock's examinations, of which I will have special care.

My Lord Coke is come to town, and hath sent me word, he will be with me on Monday, though he be somewhat lame. Howsoever, the service shall be done.

I was made acquainted, by your letter to Secretary Naunton, with his majesty's dislike of the sending to him of the jolly letter from Zealand. I will now speak for myself, that when it was received, I turned to the master of the wards, and said, "Well, I think you and I shall ever advise the king to do more for a Burlamachi when he seeketh to his majesty by supplication and supplying the king at the first word, than for all the rest upon any bravados from the Burgomasters of Holland and Zealand :" who answered very honestly, that it was in the king's power to make them alter their style when he would. But when another of us said, we could not but in our own discharge send the king the letter, scilicet negandum non fuit; though indeed my way is otherwise.

I have at last recovered from these companions, Harrison and Dale, a copy of my Lord of Bangor's book, the great one, and will presently set in hand the examinations. God keep you. Your assured friend,

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MAY IT PLEASE Your Majesty,

Sir Edward Coke is now afoot, and, according to your command, signified by Mr. Secretary Calvert, we proceed in Peacock's examinations. For, although there have been very good diligence used, yet certainly we are not at the bottom; and he that would not use the utmost of his line to sound such a business as this, should not have due regard neither to your majesty's honour no safety.

* He was a minister of the University of Cambridge. He was committed to the Tower for pretending that he had, by

sorcery, infatuated the king's judgment, in the cause of Sir Thomas Lake.-Camd. Annal. Regis Jacobi I., p. 54.

† Sir Lionel Cranfield.

Dr. Lewis Bayly, born at Caermarthen in Wales, and educated in Exeter College, Oxford. He had been minister


of Evesham in Worcestershire, and chaplain to Prince Henry, and rector of St. Matthew's, Friday street, in London. He was promoted to the bishopric of Bangor in 1616. the 15th of July, 1621, he was committed to the Fleet, but on what account is not related by Camden, Annales Regis Jacıbi I, p. 72, who mentions the circumstance of the bishop's inprisonment, but that he was soon after set at liberty. He was the author of the well known book, The Practice of Piety. L2

A man would think he were in Luke Hutton's | Spain from hence, are discharged, together with case again; for, as my Lady Roos personated some munition, which was also upon the point of Luke Hutton, so it seemeth, Peacock personateth being sent. Another thing is also certain, that Atkins. But I make no judgment yet, but will both in the court of Spain and this, there is at go on with all diligence; and, if it may not be this time a strange straitness of money; which I done otherwise, it is fit Peacock be put to torture. do not conceive, for my part, to proceed so much He deserveth it as well as Peacham did. from want, as design to employ it. The rendezvous, where the forces were to meet, was at Malaga, within the straits; which makes the en. terprise upon Algiers most likely to be intended. For I take that to be a wild conceit, which thinks of going by the Adriatic per far in un Viaggio duoi servitii; as the giving a blow to Venice, and the landing of forces in aid of the King of Bohemia about Trieste.

I beseech your majesty not to think I am more bitter because my name is in it; for, besides that I always make my particular a cipher, when there is question of your majesty's honour and service, I think myself honoured for being brought into so good company. And as, without flattery, I think your majesty the best of kings, and my noble Lord of Buckingham the best of persons favoured; so I hope, without presumption, for my honest and true intentions to state and justice, and my love to my master, I am not the worst of chancellors. God ever preserve your majesty. Your majesty's most obliged and most obedient servant, FR. VERULAM, Canc.

10th of February, 1619.



I presume now, after term, (if there be any such thing as an afterterm with your lordship,) to offer this enclosed paper* to your sight, concerning the Duke of Lerma; which, if your lordship have not already read, will not, I think, be altogether unpleasing, because it is full of particular circumstances. I know not how commonly it passeth up and down more or less. My friend, Mr. Gage, sent it me lately out of Spain. But, howsoever, I build upon a sure ground; for, though it should be vulgar, yet, for my desire to serve your lordship, I cannot demerit so much, as not to deserve a pardon at your lordship's most noble hand.

Before the departure of the Duke of Lerma from that court, there was written upon the gate for a pasquinade, that the house was governed por el Padre, y el Hijo, y un Santo; as, in Paris, about the same time, was written upon the Louvre gate, C'est icy l'hostel des troys Roys; for Luynes's brother is almost as great as himself. But, the while there is good store of kings now in Christendom, though there be one fewer than there was. In Spain, there are very extraordinary preparations for a great armada. Here is lately in this court, a current speech, as that the enterprise (whatsoever it should have been) is laid wholly aside but that were strange. Yet this is certain, that the forces of men, to the number of almost two thousand, which were to have gone into

1 nave, out of a ragged hand in Spanish, translated it, and accompanied it with some marginal notes for your lordship's greater ease. Note of Mr. Matthew.

Perhaps the King of Spain would be glad to let the world see, that now he is hors de paye; and, by showing himself in some action, to entitle the Duke of Lerma to all his former sloth; or perhaps he now makes a great preparation, upon the pretence of some enterprise, that he will let fall, that so he may with the less noise assemble great forces some other year for some other attempt not spoken of now.

My Lord Compton* is in this court, and goes shortly towards Italy. His fashion is sweet, and his disposition noble, and his conversation fair and honest.

Diego, my Lord Roos's man, is come hither. I pray God it be to do me any good towards the recovery of the debt his lord owes me.

Most honoured lord, I am here at good leisure to look back upon your lordship's great and noble goodness towards me, which may go for a great example in this age; and so it doth. That which I am sure of is, that my poor heart, such as it is, doth not only beat, but even boil in the desires it hath to do your lordship all humble service.

I crave leave, though it be against good manners, that I may ever present my humblest service to my most honoured lady, my Lady Verulam, and Lady Constable, with my best respects to my dear friend, Sir John Constable; who, if your lordship want the leisure, would perhaps cast an eye upon the enclosed paper.

I do, with more confidence, presume to address this other letter to Mr. Meautys, because the contents thereof concern your lordship's service.

I beseech sweet Jesus to make and keep your lordship entirely happy. So I humbly do you reverence, remaining ever

Your lordship's most obliged servant,

P. S. I should be glad to receive some of your lordship's philosophical labours, if your lordship

*Spencer, Lord Compton, only son of William, Earl of Northampton. This nobleman, who succeeded his father in his title and bis estate, in June, 1630, was killed at Hampton Heath, near Stafford, on Sunday, March 19, 1642-3, fighting for King Charles I.

could so think fit. I do now receive a letter from the Conde de Gondomar, who, thinking that it should find me in England, saith thus: Beso las manes mil vezes a mi sennor, el sennor Gran Chancilor, con my coracon; como estoy en su buena gracia. The empress is dead long since, and the emperor is so sickly, or rather so sick, that they forbear to bury her with solemnity, as conceiving, that he will save charge by dying shortly. They say here, that the business of Bohemia is growing towards an end by composition.

Brussels, this 14th of February, 1619.



For the services committed to Sir Lionel Cranfield, after his majesty hath spoken with him, I shall attend and follow his majesty's pleasure and directions, and yield my best care, advice, and endeavour for performance.

In the pretermitted duty I have some profit, and more was to have had, if Queen Anne had lived; wherefore, I shall become an humble suitor to his majesty, that I may become no loser, specially seeing the business had been many a time and oft quite overthrown, if it had not been upheld only, or chiefly by myself; so that whatsoever service hath been since done, is upon my foundation.

Mr. Attorney* groweth pretty pert with me of late; and I see well who they are that maintain him. But be they flies, or be they wasps, I neither care for buzzes nor stings, most especially in any thing that concerneth my duty to his majesty, or my love to your lordship.

I forgot not in my public charge, the last Star Chamber day, to publish his majesty's honour for his late commission for the relief of the poor, and suppressing vagabonds; as also his gracious intention touching informers, which I perceive was received with much applause. That of projectors I spake not of, because it is not yet ripe, neither doth it concern the execution of any law, for which my speech was proper. God ever preserve and prosper you.

Your lordship's most obliged
friend and faithful servant,

February 17, 1619.



I send by post this sealed packet, containing my Lord of Suffolk's answer in the Star Cham

Sir Henry Yelverton

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ber; I received it this evening at six of the clock, by the hands of the master of the rolls,* sealed as it is with my Lord of Suffolk's seal, and the master's of the rolls; but neither I, nor the master of the rolls know what is in it; but it cometh first to his majesty's sight. Only I did direct, that because the authentic copy (unto which my lord is sworn, according to the course of the court) is not so fit for his majesty's reading, my Lord of Suffolk should send withal a paper copy, which his majesty might read with less trouble.

My Lady Suffolk is so ill of the small-pox, as she is not yet fit to make any answer.

Bingley's answer is come in, a long one; and, as I perceive, with some things impertinent, yea, and unfit. Of that I confer with Mr. Solicitor to-morrow; and then I will farther advertise your lordship. God ever preserve and prosper you. Your lordship's most obliged

friend and faithful servant,

York House, this 23d of Febr. 1619,
at 9 of the clock, 1619-20.



I do even now receive this letter from the Conde de Gondomar, with direction I should send it (since I am not there to deliver it) to Mr. Wyche, that so he may present it to your lordship's hand at such time, as it may be of most use to him. He commands me, besides, that for his sake I should become an humble solicitor to your lordship for this friend of his; which I presume to do the more willingly, because this party is a great friend of mine, and so are also many of his friends my friends. Besides, he wills me to represent his great thanks to your lordship, for the just favours you have been pleased to vouchsafe to Mr. Wyche already, the rather in contemplation of the Conde, as he hath been informed. And if in the company, or rather in the attendance of so great an intercessor, it be not an unpardonable kind of ill manners to intrude myself, I presume to cast myself at your lordship's feet, with protestation that I shall be very particularly bound to your lordship's goodness for any favour, with justice, that he shall obtain.

I beseech Jesus keep your lordship ever entirely happy; and so, doing all humble reverence, I take leave.

Your lordship's most humble
and most obliged servant,

Brussels, this 26th of February, 1619.

* Sir Julius Cæsar.

+ Sir John Binglev'c. Sir Thomas Coventry.

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