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nent place of equity your lordship holdeth, I must, since I cannot understand from your lordship the cause of my late close restraint, rest, during your lordship's pleasure,

Your lordship's close prisoner in the Fleet,

Oct. 28, 1617.


I have thought good to renew my motion to your lordship, in the behalf of my Lord of Huntingdon, my Lord Stanhope, and Sir Thomas Gerard; for that I am more particularly acquainted with their desires; they only seeking the true advancement of the charitable uses, unto which the land, given by their grandfather, was intended: which, as I am informed, was meant by way of a corporation, and by this means, that it might be settled upon the schoolmaster, usher, and poor, and the coheirs to be visitors. The tenants might be conscionably dealt withal; and so it will be out of the power of any feoffees to abuse the trust; which, it hath been lately proved, have been hitherto the hindrance of this good work. These coheirs desire only the honour of their ancestor's gift, and wish the money, misemployed and ordered to be paid into court by Sir John Harper, may rather be bestowed by your lordship's discretion for the augmentation of the foundation of their ancestors, than by the censure of any other. And so I rest

Your lordship's servant,

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Though I had resolved to give your lordship no more trouble in matters of controversy depending before you, with what importance soever my letters had been, yet the respect I bear unto this gentleman hath so far forced my resolution, as to recommend unto your lordship the suit, which, I am informed by him, is to receive a hearing before you on Monday next, between Barneby Leigh and Sir Edward Dyer, plaintiffs, and Sir Thomas Thynne, defendant; wherein I desire your lordship's favour on the plaintiffs so far only as the justice of their cause shall require. And so I rest Your lordship's faithful servant, G. BUCKINGHAM.

Newmarket, the 15th of November.
Endorsed, 1617.

Harl MSS. vol. 7006.

+ Ibid.

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I have acquainted his majesty with your lordship's letter, who liketh well of the judges' opinion you sent unto him, and hath pricked the sheriff of Buckinghamshire in the roll you sent, which I returned signed unto your lordship.

His majesty takes very well the pains you have taken in sending to Sir Lionel Cranfield; and desireth you to send to him again, and to quicken him in the business.

Your lordship's faithful friend and servant,

His majesty liketh well the course taken about his household, wherewith he would have your lordship, and the rest of his council, to go forward. Newmarket, the 17th November, 1617.

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The last letter of my lord's, whereof the conclusion, indeed, is a little blunt, as the king calleth it, was concluded in my absence, which hath been but once since I came to this town; and brought me by the clerk of the council, as I sat in Chancery. Whereupon I retired to a little closet I have there, and signed it, not thinking fit to sever.

For my opinion, I despatched it the morrow following. And till Sir Lionel Cranfields be

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In answer to his lordship's letter from Newmarket, No vember 19, 1617, printed in Lord Bacon's Works.

He was originally a merchant in the city of London, in troduced to the king's knowledge by the Earl of Northamp ton, and into his service by the Earl of Buckingham, being the great projector for reforming the king's household, nd.

↑ Eldest son of Sir John Thynne, knight, who died, Novem-vancing the customs, and other services; for which he was ber 21, 1604. This Sir Thomas's younger son by his first wife, Mary, daughter of George, Lord Audley, was father of Thomas Thynne, Esq.; assassinated by the followers of Count Conigsmark, February 12, 1682-3.

made lord treasurer, Baron Cranfield, and Earl of Middlesex; but being accused by the House of Commons for misdemeanors in his office, he had a severe sentence passed upon him by the lords in 1624.

able to execute his part in the sub-commission, it will, in my opinion, not be so fit to direct it. He crept to me yesternight, but he is not well. I did his majesty's message to him touching the tobacco; and he said he would give his majesty very real and solid satisfaction touching the


This is all for the present I shall trouble your lordship withal, resting ever

Your lordship's true friend and devoted servant, FR. BACON.

November 20, 1617.



His majesty liketh very well of the draught your lordship sent of the letter for the sub-commission, and hath signed it as it was, without any alteration, and sent it to the lords. Which is all I have to write at this time, but that I ever rest your lordship's faithful friend and servant, G. BUCKINGHAM.

Newmarket, the 2d of December, 1617.



His majesty hath been pleased to refer a petition of one Sir Thomas Blackstones to your lordship, who being brother-in-law to a gentleman whom I much respect, Sir Henry Constable, I have, at his request, yielded to recommend his business so far to your lordship's favour, as you shall find his case to deserve compassion, and may stand with the rules of equity. And so I rest Your lordship's faithful friend and servant, G. BUCKINGHAM.

Newmarket, the 4th of December.

Endorsed, 1617.



Your lordship may marvel, that together with the letter from the board, which you see passed so well, there came no particular letter from myself; wherein, though it be true, that now this very evening I have made even with the causes of Chancery, and comparing with the causes heard by my lord,‡ that dead is, of Michaelmas term was twelvemonth, I find them to be double so many and one more; besides that the causes that I despatch do seldom turn upon me again, as his many times did; yet, nevertheless, I do as

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sure your lordship, that should have been no excuse to me, who shall ever assign both to the causes of the subject, yea, and to my health, but the leavings of times after his majesty's business done. But the truth is, I could not speak with Sir Lionel Cranfield, with whom of necessity I was to confer about the names, till this afternoon.

First, therefore, I send the names by his advice, and with mine own good allowance of those, which we wish his majesty should select; wherein I have had respect somewhat to form, more to the avoiding of opposition, but most to the service.

Two most important effects his majesty's letter hath wrought already: the one, that we perceive his majesty will go through stitch, which goeth to the root of our disease. The other, that it awaketh the particular officers, and will make their own endeavours and propositions less perfunctory, and more solid and true for the future. Somewhat is to be done presently, and somewhat by seasonable degrees. For the present my advice is, his majesty would be pleased to write back to the table, that he doth well approve that we did not put back or retard the good ways we were in of ourselves; and that we understood his majesty's right: that his late direction was to give help, and not hindrance to the former courses; and that he doth expect the propositions we have in hand, when they are finished: and that for the sub-commissions, he hath sent us the names he hath chosen out of those by us sent and propounded; and that he leaveth the particular directions from time to time, in the use of the subcommissioners, wholly to the table.

This I conceive to be the fairest way; first to seal the sub-commission without opening the nature of their employments, and without seeming that they should have any immediate dependence upon his majesty, but merely upon the table.

As for that which is to be kept in breast, and to come forth by parts, the degrees are these:

First, to employ the sub-commissioners in the reconsidering of those branches, which the several officers shall propound.

Next, in taking consideration of other branches of retrenchment, besides those which shall be propounded.

The third, to take into consideration the great and huge arrears and debts in every office; whether there be cause to abate them upon deceit or abuse; and at least how to settle them best, both for the king's honour, and avoiding of clamour, and for the taking away, as much as may be, that same ill influence and effect, where by the arrear past destroys the good husbandry and reformation to come.

The fourth is to proceed from the consideration of the retrenchments and arrears to the improve



All these four, at least the last three, I wish not discovery upon the discourse you had with me to be stirred in till his majesty's coming.

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this day. For I do freely confess, that your offer of submission unto me, and in writing, if so I would have it, battered so the unkindness that I had conceived in my heart for your behaviour towards me in my absence, as, out of the sparks of my old affection towards you, I went to sound

Your lordship will be pleased to have a little his majesty's intention towards you, specially in care of the bestowing of this letter.

York House, this 6th of December, 1617.


any public meeting; where I found, on the one part, his majesty so little satisfied with your late answer unto him, which he counted (for I protest I use his own terms) confused and childish, and his rigorous resolution on the other part so fixed, that he would put some public exemplary mark MY LORD, I have received so many letters late- upon you; as I protest the sight of his deep conly from your lordship, that I cannot answer them ceived indignation quenched my passion, making severally but the ground of them all being only me upon the instant change from the person of a this, that your lordship feareth I am so incensed party into a peacemaker; so as I was forced against you that I will hearken to every informa- upon my knees to beg of his majesty, that he tion that is made unto me; this one letter may would put no public act of disgrace upon you. well make answer unto them all. As his majesty And as I dare say, no other person would have is not apt to give ear to any idle report against been patiently heard in this suit by his majesty men of your place; so for myself, I will answer but myself; so did I (though not without diffithat it is far from my disposition to take any ad-culty) obtain thus much, that he would not so far vantage in that kind. And for your lordship's unkind dealing with me in this matter of my brother's, time will try all. His majesty hath given me commandment to make this answer in his name to your letter to him, that he needeth not to make any other answer to you, than that which in that letter you make to yourself, that you know his majesty to be so judicious, that whatsoever he heareth, he will keep one ear open to you; which being indeed his own princely disposition, you may be assured of his gracious favour in that kind. I will not trouble your lordship with any longer discourse at this time, being to meet you so shortly, where will be better trial of all that hath passed, than can be made by letters. So I rest Your lordship's at command, G. BUCKINGHAM.

Warwick, Sept. 5, 1617.


MY LORD,-I have made his majesty acquainted with your note concerning that wicked fellow's speeches, which his majesty contemneth, as is usual to his great spirit in these cases. But notwithstanding his majesty is pleased that it shall be exactly tried whether this foul-mouthed fellow was taken either with drunkenness or madness, when he spake it. And as for your lordship's advice for setting up again the commissioners for suits, his majesty saith, there will be time enough for thinking upon that, at his coming to Hampton Court.

But his majesty's direction, in answer of your letter, hath given me occasion to join hereunto a

* This seems to be the letter to which the lord keeper returned an answer, September 22, 1617, printed in his works.

disable you from the merit of your future service, as to put any particular mark of disgrace upon your person. Only thus far his majesty protesteth, that upon the conscience of his office he cannot omit (though laying aside all passion) to give a kindly reprimand at his first sitting in council, to so many of his counsellors, as were then here behind, and were actors in this business, for their ill behaviour in it. Some of the particular errors committed in this business he will name, but without accusing any particular persons by name. Thus your lordship seeth the fruits of my natural inclination. I protest, all this time past it was no small grief unto me to hear the mouth of so many upon this occasion open to load you with innumerable malicious and detracting speeches, as if no music were more pleasing to my ear, than to rail of you which made me rather regret the ill-nature of mankind, that, like dogs, love to set upon them that they see snatched at.

And to conclude, my lord, you have hereby a fair occasion so to make good hereafter your reputation, by your sincere service to his majesty, as also by your firm and constant kindness to your friends, as I may (your lordship's old friend) participate of the comfort and honour that will thereby come to you. Thus I rest at last Your lordship's faithful friend and servant,

G. B.

The force of your old kindness hath made me set down this in writing unto you, which some, that have deserved ill of me in this action, would be glad to obtain by word of mouth, though they

* At Windsor, according to Sir Anthony Weldon, who may perhaps be believed in such a circumstance as this See Court and Character of King James I., p. 129

be far enough from it for aught I yet see. But I beseech your lordship to reserve this secretly to yourself only, till our meeting at Hampton Court, lest his majesty should be highly offended for a cause that I know.


A letter of reconciliation from Lord Buckingham, after his majesty's return from Scotland.

year's gift, a plain cap of essay, in token that if your lordship in any thing shall make me your sayman, I will be hurt before your lordship shail be hurt. I present therefore to you my best service, which shall be my all-year's gift.



Lest Mr. Secretary† should be come away before the delivery of this packet, I have thought fit to direct it to your lordship, with this letter to your lordship about the Court of Wards, and another to the lords from his majesty. Which is all I have now to write, but that I ever rest Your lordship's faithful friend and servant, G. BUCKINGHAM.

Newmarket, the 7th of December, 1617



I have acquainted his majesty with your lordship's letter, who hath followed your directions therein, and written to the lords accordingly; which is all I have now to write to your lordship, but that I shall ever rest

Your lordship's faithful friend and servant,

Newmarket, the 9th of December, 1617.

My Lord of Buckingham to your lordship, showing
the king's liking of your opinion and choice of
names for sub-commission.



Sir George Chaworth and I am agreed, so that now I shall retain the grace of my place, and yet he rewarded. The king hath no ill bargain; for, he hath four times as much as he was offered by Sir George, of increase; and yet I take upon me to content my servants, and to content him. Nevertheless, I shall think myself pleasured by his majesty, and do acknowledge, that your lordship hath dealt very honourably and nobly with me.

I send enclosed a letter, whereby your lordship signifieth his majesty's pleasure to me; and I shall make the warrant to Mr. Attorney. I desire it may be carried in privateness. I ever rest Your lordship's true friend and devoted servant, FR. BACON.

This New Year's eve, 1617.


I PRESUME to send his highness this pair of small candlesticks, that his light, and the light of his posterity upon the church and commonwealth, may never fail. I pray you do me the favour to present it to his highness, with my best and humblest service.

Your most affectionate
and assured friend,

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I was bold to send your lordship, for your new

* Harl. MSS. vol. 7006.

+ Sir Thomas Lake; his colleague, Secretary Winwood, died October 27, 1617; and Sir Robert Naunton succeeded to the post of secretary, January 8, 1617-8, from that of Surveyor of the Court of Wards.



His majesty having given order to Mr. Solicitort to acquaint your lordship with a business touching alehouses, that, upon consideration

*He had been surveyor of the lands to Frince Charles, when Duke of York; and was groom of the stole to him when king. He died in January, 1630-1.

+ Harl. MSS. vol. 7006.

Sir Thomas Coventry.

The lord chancellor, in his letter to the Marquis of Buckingham, dated January 25, 1617, printed in his works, has the following passage: "For the suit of the alehouses, which concerneth your brother, Mr. Christopher Villiers, and Mr. Patrick Maule, I have conferred with my lord chief justice and Mr. Solicitor thereupon, and there is a scruple in it, that it should be one of the grievances put down in Parliament: For the title of Marquis of Buckingham to himself and the which, if it be, I may not, in my duty and love to you, advise riale heirs of his body. you to deal in it; if it be not, I will mould in the best manner,

Harl. MSS. vol. 7006.

thereof, you might certify your opinion unto his | of whom you write, Sir John Cotton, I know no majesty, whether it be fit to be granted or not; I have thought fit to desire your lordship to give it what favour and furtherance you may, if you find it reasonable, and not prejudicial to his majesty's service, because it concerneth Mr. Patrick Maule, and my brother, Christopher Villiers, whose benefit I have reason to wish and advance by any just And so I rest


Your lordship's faithful servant,

Royston, the 11th

of Jan. 1617.



Sir John Cottont having acquainted me with a petition he intended to exhibit to his majesty, that, without any apparent fault committed by him, he was put from his office of custos rotulorum; I have persuaded him to forbear the presenting of his petition until I had written to your lordship, and received your answer. I have, therefore, thought fit to signify unto your lordship, that he is a gentleman of whom his majesty maketh good esteem, and hath often occasion to use his service; and, therefore, besides that he is a man of good years, and hath served long in the place, I know his majesty, out of these respects, will be loath he should receive any disgrace. I desire, therefore, to understand from your lordship the reasons of his remove, that, if I cannot give satisfaction to the gentleman himself, I may at least make answer to his majesty for that act of your lordship's, which is alleged to be very unusual, unless upon some precedent misdemeanor of the party. Thus, having in this point discharged my part in taking the best course I could, that no complaint should come against you to the king, I rest

Your lordship's faithful friend,

Newmarket, the 16th of January, 1617.

cause in the world why I should have displaced
him, but that it was certified unto me, that it was
his own desire to resign: wherein, if I was abused,
I will restore him. But if he did consent, and,
now it is done, changeth his mind, then I would
be loath to disgrace the other, that is come in.
Therefore, I pray your lordship, that I may know
and be informed from himself, what passed touch-
ing his consent; and I will do him reason.
Thus, with my thanks to your lordship, I will

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My Honourable Lord,

Since I received your lordship's letter, Sir Lionel Cranfield being here, hath informed his majesty of the whole proceeding in his business of the household; which his majesty liketh very well, and is glad it is approved by your lordship, of whose care and pains therein he receiveth very good satisfaction.

In the business touching Sir John Cotton, your lordship dealeth as nobly as can be desired; and so, if it should come in question before his majesty, I would answer in your behalf. I leave Sir John Cotton to inform your lordship by his letter of the business, and ever rest

Your lordship's faithful servant,

Newmarket, the 24th of January, 1617.



I do not easily fail towards gentlemen of quality, to disgrace them. For, I take myself to have some interest in the good wills of the gentlemen of England, which I keep and cherish for his majesty's special service. And, for this gentleman,

and help it forward." A patent for licensing alehouses being afterwards granted to Sir Giles Mompesson and Sir

Frances Mitchel, and greatly abused by them, they were punished for those abuses by the Parliament, which met January 30, 1620-1.

*Harl. MSS. vol. 7006.

† Of Landwade, in Cambridgeshire, knight. He served many years as knight of the shire for that county, and died in 1620, at the age of seventy-seven. His eldest son, Sir John Cotton, was created a baronet, July 14, 1641.



I have been entreated by a gentleman, whom I much respect, to recommend to your lordship's favour Mr. John Huddy, between whom and Mr. Richard Huddy there is, as I am informed, a cause to be heard before your lordship in the Chancery on Saturday next. My desire unto your lordship is, that you would show the said John Huddy what favour you lawfully may, and as his cause will bear, when it cometh before you, for my sake. Which I will not fail to acknowledge, ever resting

Your lordship's faithful servant
Newmarket, the 28th of January, 1617.

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