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drawn by twelve oxen, carried the offerings of the princes. An ox for each prince, and a waggon for two of them. Moses gave two waggons, and four oxen to the Levites, the sons of Gershon; and four waggons, with eight oxen, to the sons of Merari; thus leaving none for the sons of Kohath, because the service of the sanctuary belonged to them, and they were to bear it upon their shoulders. These offerings were presented on twelve successive days, and it is observable, that the first is from Nashon of the tribe of Judah, and he is the only one who is not called prince in the history of this transaction. Though one tribe might be much more wealthy and numerous than another, they all presented ex. actly the same oblations and sacrifices; and altogether, the sum of their offerings amounted to
12 chargers of silver, (weighing 2400 shekels,) full of 12 silver bowls, flour and oil, for a meat-offering; 12 spoons of gold, (weighing 120 shekels,) full of incense;
12 bullocks, with
for the burnt-offering,
for the peace offerings. L60 lambs, This was the dedication of the altar.-Nearly 500 years after this time, we find David offering for the dedication of the temple, 3000 talents of gold, (estimated at £ 11,200,000,) and the princes, &c. gave 5000 talents, (£. 18,750,000,) besides silver, brass, iron, and precious stones in abundance. The people rejoiced for that they offered willingly. I Chron. xxix. 6. They manifested a similar disposition nearly another 500 years after, when they returned from Babylon under Ezra to rebuild the temple, but they had not then the same resources ; yet it is observed they gave according to their ability. Paul instances the liberality of the Macedonians, (2 Cor. viii. 3.) as having a willingness even beyond their power ; and he says afterwards, “ If there be a willing mind, it is accepted * according to that a man hath, and not according to that he hath 66 not.” The meaning of the riches bestowed in the dedication of the altar and the temple, will be fully understood when the words of the prophets are fulfilled, -such as Isaiah lx. 7, 13. Rev. xxi. 24. The observations on Exodus xxv. and xl. (p. 133 & 175,) may be turned to in reading the last verse of this chapter.
CHAP. VIII. The "figurative signification of the candlestick is enforced in pages 136, 137; and on the cleansing of the Levites, werse 6, we also refer to pages 147—149, as well as to the remarks on Lev. viii. p. 191.
Chap. IX. Here Israel are commanded to keep the passover in the appointed season; and while we refer to the interesting remarks
on Exod. xii. where the first institution of the passover is recorded, it is worthy of observation here, that the Christian will no where find the command of his Lord, Do this in remembrance of me, and that in the appointed season, more forcibly inculcated, than it is in the first 14 verses of this chapter. The importance of the ordinance in the eyes of Israel is strongly marked in the 6th and 7th verses; and it is enforced in the answer to their question from the Lord,--" The soul that forbeareth to eat the passover, even the same soul shall be cut off from his people.”—If he that thus despised Moses law, died without mercy, of how much sorer punishment, suppose ye, shall he be thought worthy, who hath troden under foot the Son of God, and counted the blood of the covenant, wherewith he was sanctified an unholy thing, and hath done de. spite unto the Spirit of grace?" Heb. x. 28, 29.
Upon the cloud covering the tabernacle, verse 15, ult. see the observations in pages 99, 100, and 162-164.
CHAP. X. Commences with a command to Moses to make two silver trumpets, and he is then instructed for what purposes they were to be used. It is generally supposed these trumpets typified the preaching of the gospel. In Numb. xxix. 1, it is said, " In the seventh month, on the first day of the month, ye shall have an holy convocation: ye shall do no servile work: it is a day of blowing the trumpets unto you.” And in Psalm lxxxi. 3. “ Blow the trumpet at new moon, in the time appointed, on our solemn feast day." This day was a joyful festival, returning every month; but the first day of the seventh month was the most solemn of the whole. This was called the feast of trumpets, and was celebrated by the blowing of trumpets from sun-rising to sun-setting. This feast was a memorial of the creation, and of the giving of the law, as well as a figure of the last day, when the trump of God shall sound, and the dead be raised. The Jews, it is said, employed men to watch the change of the moon, and when they observed an appearance of light on the moon's disk, they announced the glad tidings to the grand council, and if the witnesses were found credible, and their report agreed with such calculations as they were able to make, then the president proclaimed the new-moon, by saying makadesh, i. e. it is consecrated, or it is a holy-day, which was twice repeated aloud by the people, and ordered to be proclaimed every where by the sound of the trumpet, blown from hill to hill over all the land.
The disciples of Jesus were as ignorant of the time of the change of the dispensation of religion, as the Jews were of the time of the moon's change ; but when the Lord arose from the dead, the hope of the church brightened: her light came, and the glory of the Lord rose upon her. Hence the first day of the week is left in trust with the people of God, to be kept as a sabbath, in memory of the new creation, begun in him on that day. It is also our new-moon; a day of an holy assembly, and of blowing of the trum
pet to us, while a sacred feast is held to the Lord. “On the first day of the week the disciples met together,” in an holy convocation, “ to break bread," to keep the sacred feast appointed by the Lord; “ and Paul preached," or sounded the trumpet to them. • The new moon and the sabbath : which things are a shadow of things to come ; but the body is of Christ." Col. ii. 16.
The feast of the new-moon, was appointed at the time of the deliverance from Egypt. The festival of christianity was, in like manner, appointed at the death of Jesus, the æra of our redemption from the spiritual Egypt. “ Blessed is the people that know the joyful sound; (i. e. the sound of the trumpet ;) they shall walk all the day in the light of thy countenance.” Psalm lxxxix. 15.The returning light of heaven made the Jews rejoice, and should not we rejoice in the more brilliant light of life and immortality, shining in the face of Jesus Christ ?--An earnest of the complete fulfilment of the prophet's words: “ Thy light is come: thy sun shall no more go down, neither shall thy moon withdraw her shining."
By trumpets the Jews were regulated in their marches through the wilderness, and by them thcy were assembled for worship, as well as alarmed for war. How did Joshua attack Jericho? He sent seven priests, bearing seven trumpets, on seven successive days found the city, and on the seventh day they went round seven times, and on the priests blowing a long blast, the people were commanded to shout, when the walls of Jericho fell down fiat. In like manner, before the city or church of Rome, is utterly de. stroyed, and every Canaanite taken a
away, we find seven trumpets are sounded; and whilst the seventh is sounding, seven vials of wrath appear to be poured out, which are followed by the great cry, Babylon is fallen! and the kingdoms of this world become the kingdom of our Lord. Rev. xi. 15. xviii. 2. &c.
From verše 1l, we have an account of the journeyings of the Israelites, the standard of the camp of Judah marching first, then Reuben's, afterward Ephraim's, and lastly Dan's. As their position and typical appearance is beautifully illustrated in the preceding pages on the second chapter of this book, we need not here add any further remarks.
This chapter concludes with a very notable circumstance: they departed from the mount of the Lord three days journey, and the ark went before them to search out a resting place for them. On the ark setting forward, Moses said, Rise up, Lord, and let thine enemies be scattered and when it rested, he said, Return, O Lord, unto the ten thousand thousands of Israel. No doubt something very important is intended by this remarkable address, and when we re. member that David twice refers to this passage, when he is evidently speaking of the Messiah, we may safely perhaps consider this event as affording a grand prophetic figure of the resurrection of the Son of Man on the third day, by which he obtained the heavenly rest--made captivity captive--conquered the great ene
my of mankind, and his agents, and promised to return again to dwell in the midst of his people for ever. Psal. lxviii. 1. cxxxii. $. Eph. iv. 8. Heb. iv. 11.
CHAP. XI. Records the murmuring of the Jews, and their lusting for the flesh of Egypt. There is nothing, (said they) but this man. na before our eyes. It is humbling to observe the many instances we have of human ingratitude. The Lord of his great goodness, had in a most miraculous manner, brought these people out of slavery, and had sent down bread from heaven for their daily support
- yet they grew tired of it, and wept, saying, who shall give us flesh to eat? Now as Paul (1 Cor. x. 11.) says, these things happened to them for ensamples (types, margin,) and were written for our admonition, we ought to fear ourselves lest we be found like them, losing all relish for that bread of life, the true manna, which came down from heaven for the spiritual support of his people. If the Jews suffered temporal death, or the anger of heaven in dreadful judge ments upon them, even while the meat was in their mouths, ought not we to trenible at that eternal death which is threatened to those who turn from this heavenly food, to the lusts of this world? This Egyptian world may afford more variety to gratify our tastes, but let us be cautious, and though the same manna we had yesterday, must be repeated to day, let us remember that it is sufficient for us even to life eternal, notwithstanding its sameness, or insipidity to worldly appetites. If they escaped not who refused him that spake on earth, much more shall we not escape if we turn away from him that speaketh from heaven.
In this world we wander like the Jews in the wilderness, hungry and thirsty, our souls fainting within us, and depending upon God for his daily grace even as they were taught by the manna. Those who looked no farther than their bodies were soon tired of it ; but to those who received it in faith, it was the bread of God. The He. brews could no more be saved by bread alone, than Christians can.
Does not Paul say, they did all eat the same spiritual meat, and drink of that spiritual rock that followed them, and that rock was-Christ-Rock was Christ ! How can that be? Why, it means that rock spiritually represents Christ, even as our Lord, on taking the bread, and call. ing it my body, meant, This represents my body.*
The Lord promised Moses that he would give the people flesh to eat, even till it became loathsome to them. Moses observed that the people were 600,000 footmen, and asked if the flocks and herds were to be slain? Or if the fish of the sea was to be gathered together, to suffice such a multitude for a month? The Lord answered, Is the Lord's hand waxed short ?-After the Most High had shewn his willingness and power to save them out of Egypt--lead them dry through the sea--feed and clothe them, when all other resources failed them, was it reasonable, was it grateful, to doubt hig
K k 2 If we see a portrait, or well drawn painting of a friend, we commonly say, this is Mr
but he is not there; it merely represents such a person,
power to work a fresh miracle for their good? But what lengths will not the unbelief of man go?-Isaiah also replied to the unbelief of the Jews, The Lord's hand is not shortened ; and that while he not only promised them deliverance from Babylon, and restoration to their own land and worship, but with that intimated a much more marvellous work, even salvation from sin by Jesus Christ. Isai lix. -Were not the miracles our Lord wrought in the days of his flesh, so many proofs and signs to the people that his hand was not shortened, but that he could save to the uttermost? Were any petitions from poor wretched sinners, expressed in full confidence of his power to relieve them, ever refused ? Gracious were his answers Be it into thee even as thou wilt-To-day shalt thou be with me in paradise.
CHAP. XII. Commences by informing us that Aaron and Miriam were offended with Moses because of his marriage with an Ethio. pian woman, and they presumptuously said, Hath not the Lord spoken also hy us? Some have supposed this event bears a striking analogy to the admission of the Gentiles into the christian church, with the marked opposition to this manifested by the Jews, in their presumptuous claim to the distinguished favour of God. Their re. bellion was exposed--Miriam became leprous, and was put out of the camp for seven days, after which she was received again, Moses having interceded for her. The Lord declares that he spoke to the prophets by visions and dreams, but Moses was honoured by seeing the similitude of the Lord, with whom he spoke mouth to mouth. This visible appearance of Jehovah, as an earnest of the Word being made flesh, &c. is so often noticed in the preceding part of this work, that we need not here dwell upon it.
CHAP. XIII. Gives us an account of the twelve spies, one leading character from each of the tribes, being sent to search out the land of Canaan. Of these spies, only two brought a good report of it, and it is observable that Caleb was of the tribe of Judah--that tribe which was placed east of the tabernacle-carried the standard and marched first. Oshea, the other faithful spy, was the representative of the tribe of Ephraim, which tribe also carried one of the four standards, and stood to the west. Ephraim was the son of Joseph, born in Egypt, and his name signifies, the fulness of the nations. (See p. 63 & 61.) If what the prophets say of Ephraim, is frequently to be understood as spiritually descriptive of the Gentile church, it well becomes us to attend to their admonitions. Hosea observes, “ Ephraim has mixed himself among the people ; Ephraim is a cake not turned ; strangers have devoured his strength, and he knoweth it not ;,yea grey hairs are here and there upon him, yet he knoweth not.” vii. 8.
Two spies were afterwards sent by Joshua to Jericho, and they brought out Rahab and her family from that city, before it was utterly destroyed. If these interesting events are signs of any thing future, we do not conceive to what they can have respect, unless to