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of the way, they are together become unprofitable; there is none that doeth good, no, not one. Their throat is an open sepulchre; with their tongue they have used deceit; the poison of asps is under their lips ; Whose mouth is full of cursing and bitterness : Their feet are swift to shed blood : Destruction and misery are in their ways: And the
way peace have they not known : There is no fear of God before their eyes. Now we know that what things soever the law saith, it saith to them who are under the law ; that every mouth inay be stopped, and all the world may become guilty before God.”—“For there is no difference: For all have sinned and come short of the glory of God." (Rom. iii. 10–19, 22, 23.)
All this is in exact accordance with what he states else. where, respecting his own natural condition, and that of all who were now become partakers of like precious faith with himself. “ You hath he quickened, who were dead in trespasses and sins; wherein in time past ye walked according to the course of this world, according to the prince of the power of the air, the spirit that now worketh in the children of disobedience : among whom also we all had our conversation in times past in the lusts of our flesh, fulfilling the desires of the flesh and of the mind; and were by nature the children of wrath, even as others.” (Eph. ii. 1–3.) “ We ourselves also were sometimes foolish, disobedient, deceived, serving divers lusts and pleasures, living in malice and envy, hateful, and hating one another.” (Tit. iii. 3.) Our Lord himself testifies, that the human heart is an abundant fountain of all manner of wickedness; “For from within, out of the heart of men, proceed evil thoughts, adulteries, fornications, murders, thefts, covetousness, wickedness, deceit, lasciviousness, an evil eye, blasphemy, pride, foolishness." (Mark vii. 21, 22.) And the apostle Paul, to sum up all in few words, tells us plainly that “the carnal mind is enmity against God : for it is not subject to the law of God, neither indeed can be. So then they that are in the flesh cannot please God.” (Rom. viii. 7, 8.)
These are some of the most remarkable declarations of the Old Testament and of the New, upon this subject. Can there be a more exact agreement ?
How sinful Man may draw near to the High and Holy God—The doc
trine of Sacrifice in the Old TestamentThe one great Sacrifice of
the New. If God be indeed so holy and glorious, and man so corrupt and depraved, it becomes a matter of momentous enquiry, How can such a sinful creature approach, with any hope of acceptance, to “ the high and lofty One that inhabiteth eternity, whose Name is holy ?" Compare then the Old Testament with the New, and answer;
Do these volumes give different views of the way by which man can find access to God ?
It is evident to every one who reads the Old Testament, that, since the Fall of man, the appointed way of approaching God has always been by a Sacrifice.
Thus " Abel .. brought of the firstlings of his flock, and of the fat thereof. And the Lord had respect unto Abel, and to his offering.” (Gen. iv. 4.) “Noah builded an altar unto the LORD; and took of every clean beast, and of every, clean fowl, and offered burnt offerings on the altar. And the LORD smelled a sweet savour; and the LORD said in his heart, I will not again curse the ground any more for man's sake.” (Gen. viii. 20, 21.) Abraham, whereever he went, “builded an altar unto the Lord.” (Gen. xii. 7, 8, xiii. 4, 18.) Job offered sacrifices continually for his children, (i. 5,) and, at God's express command, he offered them also for his friends. (xlii. 8, 9.) We cannot therefore suppose, that he neglected to offer them for himself. And how sacrifices were multiplied, and offered upon every occasion, under the Mosaic Law, is evident to any one that will read the first five chapters of Leviticus. Even he who sinned ignorantly, could not approach the Lord with acceptance, without a trespass-offering. “ If a soul sin, and commit any of these things which are forbidden to be done by the commandments of the Lord; THOUGH HE WIST IT NOT, YET IS HE GUILTY, and shall bear his iniquity. And he shall bring a ram without blemish out of the flock, with thy estimation, for a trespass-offering, unto the priest: and the priest shall make an atonement for him concerning his ignorance wherein he
HATH CERTAINLY TRESPASSED
erred, and wist it not; and it shall be forgiven him. It is a trespass-offering: HE AGAINST THE LORD.” (Lev, v. 17-19.) Whence it is evident, that no kind, no degree, of sin could be pardoned, but through the medium of a sacrifice. It was with special reference to this way of acceptance with God, and to keep the nation in perpetual remembrance of the doctrine of sacrifice, that blood was so strictly forbidden to be eaten. “ For the life of the flesh is in the blood; and I have given it to you upon the altar, 'to make an atonement for
souls : for it is the blood that maketh an atonement for the soul.” (Lev. xvii. 11.)
Observe that awful denunciation to Eli, “I have sworn unto the house of Eli, that the iniquity of Eli's house shall not be purged with sacrifice nor offering for ever." (1 Sam. iii. 14.) Here it is distinctly implied, that sacrifice and offering were appointed to purge away iniquity; and that, without sacrifice or offering, iniquity could not be purged at all. Through no other medium could a sinner find acceptance. And, according to the declarations of Scripture, all men are sinners. Hence we find, that all those whom God will gather to himself in the Day of Judgement, are described as having made a covenant with Him by sacrifice. “Gather my saints together unto me; those that have made a covenant with me BY SACRIFICE. (Ps. 1. 5.)
Observe, also, among the solemnities of the Great Day of Atonement, that even the high-priest (who was, in the most remarkable manner, separated from all the tribes and families of Israel to minister in holy things) might not venture into the Holy of Holies without a sacrifice, to “make atonement for himself, and for his house." (See Lev. xvi. 2, 3, 11.) So clearly is it taught by the law of Moses, that, without a sacrifice, there is no approach to God !no possibility of coming into His presence!
Turn, then, to the pages of the New Testament. Are we not plainly taught, in this volume, that we have no way of access to God, but by the one sacrifice of Jesus Christ, “who suffered for sins, the Just for the unjust, that he might bring us to God?” (1 Pet. iii. 18.) And He tells us plainly, in his last discourse with his disciples, just before He offered Himself as a sacrifice for sin ; “ I am the way, and the truth, and the life : no man cometh unto the Father, but by Me.” (John xiv. 6.) - There is one God, and one Mediator between God and men, the man Christ Jesus; Who gave himself a ransom for all, to be testified in due time.” (1 Tim. ii. 5, 6.) Having reconciled both Jews and Gentiles “unto God in one body by the cross, having slain the enmity thereby :" He “came and preached peace to you which were afar off, and to them that were nigh. For THROUGH HIM WE BOTH HAVE ACCESS by one Spirit unto the Father.” (Eph. ii. 16—18.) To which similar passages might be added : but this is not necessary, as the doctrine is more largely and distinctly explained in the epistle to the Hebrews, especially in the 8th, 9th, and 10th chapters. Having pointed out the insufficiency of the rites and sacrifices of the law, which was manifest from this circumstance—that only the high-priest could enter into the Holy of Holies, and that but once a-year, the apostle proceeds; - But Christ being come an High-Priest of good things to come, by a greater and more perfect tabernacle, not made with hands, that is to say, not of this building ; Neither by the blood of goats and calves, but by his own blood He entered in once into the holy place, having obtained eternal redemption for us." offering He hath perfected forever them that are sanctified.” “ Having therefore, brethren, boldness to enter into the holiest by the blood of Jesus, By a new and living way, which he hath consecrated for us, through the veil, that is to say, His flesh; And having an High-Priest over the house of God; Let us draw near with a true heart in full assurance of faith, having our hearts sprinkled from an evil conscience, and our bodies washed with pure water." (Heb. ix. 11, 12, and x. 14, 19–22.) Here we are plainly taught, that a way of access to God, and an opening for intimate communion with Him, is now made manifest to all men, by the one sacrifice of Jesus Christ, and by that alone. On the doctrine of Sacrifice, therefore, there is an exact agreement between the Old Testament and the New. The design and importance of it, as lying at the foundation of all intercourse between a holy God and sinful men, is equally manifest from both.
And here it should be remarked, that, if we take the epistle to the Hebrews for our guide, we shall find a very
« For by one extensive and wonderful system of analogies between the Old and New Testaments, opened at once to our view. All that was signified, and dimly shadowed forth, in the multiplied rites and sacrifices of the Mosaic law, is there represented as really accomplished in our Lord Jesus Christ, who is at once our Priest, and our Sacrifice. Whatever solemn truths, and important principles, were inculcated by those manifold offerings, are yet more plainly and strongly enforced by His sufferings for sin. And, whatever blessings were represented as figuratively and ceremonially obtained by them, these are all truly and substantially purchased and secured by His infinitely valuable and allsufficient sacrifice and by His abiding and unchangeable Priesthood. This is the sum of the Apostle's argument, throughout the first ten chapters of that epistle ; which, therefore, I recommend to your very serious and attentive perusal.
That sinful Man must be purified as well as pardoned. The necessity of
a Divine influence to cleanse the heart, plainly taught in the Old Testament-And with equal clearness in the New.--The promises to Israel in the latter days.
We have seen, in the foregoing statement, by what means a sinner may find pardon and peace. But again : It is evident, that, if Man be thus corrupt and polluted, as he is represented in the passages above quoted both from the Old Testament and the New, it is necessary that his heart and mind should be effectually cleansed and purified, before he can be fit for converse with a holy God, or for blessedness in Him. Let us therefore enquire ;
Whether the volumes we are comparing give different views of the nature and necessity of a great spiritual change in Man,—a renewal of his heart and mind, effected by a Divine power and influence-as the source of all practical religion and vital godliness?
In the Old Testament, we meet with very distinct and repeated mention of such a spiritual change, and plainly ascribed to a Divine influence. Moses, speaking of the mercies which the Lord would bestow upon Israel, after