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rects the horse's motion. The tici, hired a guide and mule, and hirer holds the reins ; but is not rode up through the vineyards to reiponsible for any mischief the the foot of the mountain, where carriage may do, unless he also vegetation terminates in a long take poffeffion of the lash. The coarse grass, the only plant that reins are fastened to a cavesson, can bear the vicinity of the hot without a bit ; and the more the ashes and fulphureous exhalations. animal is pulied, he faster he I ascended the feep cone of cingoes : a hiss stops him.

ders in a direct line, up to the One of these chairs conveyed ancles at every step in purple me about eight miles from Naples, lukewarm ashes. The beat was not to the place where the lava ceased very powerful till we came within to run, after filling up a road, a few yards of the summit, and overturning some cottages, and there smoke breaks out through consuming a wide track of vine many crannies. On the Portickyards. The poplars, to which fide there is very little lava, exthe vines were tied, were burnt or cept a few scattered stones that crushed beneath the weight of the serve to reít upon. It is imposcooler lumps that tumbled off on fible to give a juft idea of the faeach fide from the fiery mass. tigue of this climbing. Before The surface of this black and now that day I had mounted some very itagnant river is very uneven, full exalted points of the Alps, and of points and protuberances, and clambered up the highest peak of broken into chafins. It answers the Pyrenees, without feeling fuch the idea I have of a rocky moun. oppreffive weariness and exhaustion sain overturned into a valley, and of spirits and strength as I expeThattered to pieces by an earth- rienced on Vesuvius. Perhaps, quake. In colour, the lava re- the mephitic effavium, which alsembles flag, or the first clearings tacked my respiration, may allo of an iron inine. The intense have had a debilitating effect upon heat that still issued from it, my nerves and muscles. I should though the flames were not visible hardly have been able to proceed, by day-light, kept me at a dif- had I not held by my guide, who iance. By night, fire may be went before, with a handkerchief feen through the crevices of the tied round his waist. dulky crust. It had run close to I contess I was a good deal dita lava of seventeen years date, appointed on reaching the funwhich is not yet fufficiently tritu. mit; for the descriptions I had rated by the action of air, to af- read had raised in my imagination ford hold to the feeds of any an expectation of every thing that plant, except a long hoary mofs, could be glaring and striking in commonly the first fcttler on these colours, poopous and tremendous cinders, which are infinitely sofrer, in a scene of igicous phænomena; and sooner crumbled to dult, than but the late eruption had, for 2 the Sciarras of Atna, - time, laid all the mountain's fury

After fatisfying my curiofity asleep, and every thing was dull with an attentive examination of and dark. The vent, by which these objects, I returned to Pore the laya ran out, is much belos


the top of the mountain; and on plete, and reputation on that head that lide the fulphureous steams are lo firmly established at Naples, very pungent, I was on the point that more than once the court has of returning rather frustrated of waited to regulate its stay at Pormy hopes, when a curling column tici, or removal from thence, till of smoke and flame rose Now ly he had declared when he thought out of the gloomy abyss, and the eruption would begin, and brought up with it a thick white what direction the lava wis likely cloud, that had hitherto rendered to follow. Many writers of dif the crater impervious to my fight. Sertations on ignivomous moun The wind quickly caught hold of tains, have been led into a labythis column, and whirled it round rinth of mistakes, false positions, the immense caldron several times and falle consequences, by trustwith inconceivable noise and ve- ing solely to the relations of locity, till it forced part of the others, and not being at the pains smoke to fiy off horizontally from of examining the phænomena with the mountain, and dathed the re- their own eyes. Whoever has not mainder back into its original ca. had the advantage of inspecting vern. During this conflict, on the an active volcano, fhould not preopposite side to that where we sume to write upon that lubject, food, I had a peep very far into as he must unavoidably fall into the crater. The fides seemned all error, in 1pite of all the learning, lava and scoria, with very little combinations, and fagacity the variety in the tints, closed at bot- wit of man is susceptible of. Intom by an impenetrable screen of deed, fome authors, who have finoke. I have leun old ruined had Vesuvius before their eyes for coalpits, that afford a tolerable forty years, have likewise fallen idea of this volcanic kettle. As into strange indetensible opinions soon as the finoke was driven away, concerning its component parts, the roaring below grew loud, and original formation, and modes of frequent explosions were heard operating. Atachment to system with a hollow found; and at every mileads us all, and frequently throe, which caused a very consi- causes us to see things, not as derable commotion in the thin they are, but as we with to find arch on which we stood, a shower them. Nothing but the desire of of red-hot itones was not up; proving Veluvius to be a primorbut not rising many feet above dial mountain, and not the prothe mountain, they did not come duce of eruptions, could have within the sweep of the wind, and brouglit Padre della Torre to beso fell back perpendicularly into lieve that he law regular,' orithe rumbling gulf.

ginal, calcarious, and gr nite I thall not presume to investigate it rata, far down in the bowels of minutely the origin, composition, the mountain ; where, if he law or operation of the mountain, as any thing, it was probably streaks we have ample information on of sulphureous and mineral efflothis subject in the works of Sir rescences adhering to the coats of William Hamilton. His know the funnel. Nothing but filem ledge of the volcano is so come could have so blinded Richard, as to prevent his finding a single thrown up to the perpendicular pumice-Itone, or other mark of height of two hundred feet, in fire, in the rocks of Posilipo, the short space of forty-eight where any trivial observer may hours ; and upon the apparition meet with innumerable black cal. of many islands raised out of the cined stones, though he may not botom of the waters by submarine be sufficiently conversant in the fires, of which both ancient and subject, to discover that the whole modern history afford examples. rock owes its birth to the work. The island of Afcenfion, and ings of volcanic fires. Without many in the Archipelago, cne of prejudices of this kind, could which rose out of the sea in 1707, other authors have seen nothing in completely prove this affertion, Monte Somma, and the hills of The origin of the isle of Rhodes, Naples, but primitive substances, as related in Pindar's feventh unaltered since the deluge; when, Olympic, seems to be of the fame in reality, every stone bespeaks a class. This poet calls Rhodes a fiery origin?

native of the floods, and tells us, To be convinced that Vesuvius “ that ancient tales of men relate, has been raised from the level of " that when Jupiter and the gode the plains, or, more properly " divided the earth, Rhodes was speaking, of the sea, by the sole “ not visible amidst the marine action of fire contained in its “ waves, but lay hid in the bring bowels, requires, methinks, no- “ deep*.” Apollo, being abthing but an eye accustomed to fent, was left out of the partitionobserve, and a sound judgment treaty, and, on his appearance, unbiased by party. I own I can- Jupiter would have proceeded to not entertain a doubt of it, after a fresh division ; but the god of having confidered the insulated day declined the offer, contenting position and apparent composi- himself with dominions that did tion of the mountain, together not interfere with any god's share; with the foil of all the adjacent " for (says he) I behold in the country ; after having reflected so frothy lea a fruitful land rifiog upon the birth of Monte Nuovo “ from the bottom." And 20

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cordingly, as he spoke,- Lo! the power of all human calcula. " the island shot up out of the tion. I believe, however, that 6 waters." It is easy to trace with all its terrors, Vesuvius, this fable to its source, the heav- open and active, is less hostile to ing up of the foil at the bottom of Naples than it would be if its the fea by the vehemence of fire. eruptions were to cease, and its

Whatever may have been the struggles were to be contined to its origin of Vesuvius, whether as bowels: then undoubtedly would a mountain it be coëval with the ensue most fatal Mocks to the unfirst-created protuberances of this stable foundation of the Terra di globe, or whether it be an irre- Lavoro, gular production of ages suble. The day being clear, I made quent to the creation, this we fome stay on the top, to obtain a just may safely affirm, that it has been idea of the topography of this curia volcano beyond the reach of ous country. There cannot be a history or tradition. Long before more advantageous station for exait laid Herculaneum waste, it was mining Naples and its environs, as described by authors as bearing Vesuvius lands single, at a di. the marks of fire on its summit. Itance from all other mountains, Some even say, the report of its and commands the plains of Nola, having vomited flames went fo Capua, and Sarno, ihe chain of. far back into antiquity as to the Appennines,' the promontory border upon fable.. A most ani- of Sorrento, the hills and gulf of mated description of its ravages Naples, with all its islands. I in 79 is left us by the younger obfcrved, that the ridge extending Pliny, who was a woeful witness westward from Poggio Reale to to all he relates. From that time Monte Gauro, is entirely fep3it now and then burst out, and rated by the plains from every alarmed the neighbouring conn- other eminence, and constitutes a try; but feemed by degrees to vast detached promontory, full of lofe its vigour, till, in the lower lakes and hollows, the craters of ages, it scarce gave sufficient exrinet volcanos. On surveying alarm to merit a place in the chro- thote regions from this elevated nicles of the times. In 1631, it pinnacle, it appeared to me that, broke out again with accumulated in times of the remotest antiquity, fury, and spread such devastation there may have exified an inore around, as almost equalied the mous flaining mountain, with its horrors of the first year of Titus. centrical point between Ischia and Since that epocha, it has had its the Camaldoli, and that Solfatara, periods of turbulence and repofe ; Alruni, Barbaro, &c. may be but and of late years it has fo re- the excrefcences and montagnuole doubled its violence, as to emit of one gigantic mals, which, after 1moke continually, and every year, exhausting its force, and wearing at least a torrent of lava. Whence out the furface till it grew unable it draus its immense supplies of to support its own weight, may combustibles, and how long its have funk, and been overwhelmed present cone will be able to bear by the waves. The gulf of Baia, these unremitting efforts, exceeds and the channels of Ischia and




Procida, may have been formed feeble in comparison of the tides by this cataclysm. The size of in the ocean: however, it serves Ætna renders such an extent no to keep the waters of this land. objection to my hypothesis, and locked bay sweet, and to bring in shews to what a monitrous bulk a caravans of fish, that fatten and mountain can swell itself. Monte breed in its quiet pools. When Epomeo in Ischia, and the Camal- the Scirocco blows hard, the waves doli, are both , abruptly broken are driven up with great violence, down facing each other, and both and navigation become perilous flope off very gradually different for small vessels. ways, till one is lost in the Campi The first obiects of my curiofity Leborini, and the other finks into were the beds of Cozzenere, or the sea.

muscles, the greatest and most con. Itant supply of the market. Their

spawn is dropt in the mud. About Some Account of the Mare Piccolo the

the twenty-first of March, little of Taranto-of its Shell-fish--of

f muscles begin to rise up, and The Nautilus---Coral-and Pinna

"cling to long stakes driven by the Marina. From ibe fame.

fiil.ermen into the water under

the city wail, and in the calleT DEVOTED the afternoon to ditch. There they thrive and la water-party, taking with me grow in still water, while the one of the oldeit and most intelli- washings of the streets supply them gent of the Tarantine fishermen, with rich and copious nutriment, to shew me the fishing and spawn- In August they are as big as aling places, and explain the dif- monds, and are then drawn up ferent seafons and methods of with the poles, and fown on the catching filh. We took boat, and opposite side of the Mare Piccolo, rowed up ihe southern shore of among the fresh water springs the Mare Piccolo, with an in- About the middle of Otober tention of measuring the whole they are again dragged up, sepa. circumference, which Strabo fixes rated, and scattered over a larger at one hundred ftadia. or twelve space. In spring, they are brougbt English miles and a half. Ac- to market long before they arrive cording to my calculation, the at their full growth. This balle circuit of the western part is not proceeds from tbe avidity of the more than half as great as that of officers of the revenue, who rethe eastern one; and both together, ceive a duty of four carlivi a canby a rough estimate, are about fix- taro for them, whether old or teen miles. Tbis increase may be young accounted for by the destruction of When a long continuance of all the parapets and walls of the heavy rains swells the little streams old city, the wearing away of the that discharge themselves into this banks, and overflowing of the low gult, the waters become muddy, grounds." A tide is very percep. and these fith are then observed to tible, especially when the moon grow distempered, rotten, and vochanges, and still more so at the wholesome. The cause of this follices and equinoxes ; but very malady lies in the noxious frag:


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