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took some food, but not, as one without spirit, and was soon gain. would suppose, what was very ed over by the Austrians. Guita. light and easy of digestion, burvus divided and diffipated his some good Inbitantial meat, and force, like a great river that in no imall quantitv. This, how. overflows its banks, and went here ever, affected neither bis health and there throughout Germany, rior his stomach, so as to prevent besieging towns, and laying counhim from pursuing his ordinary tries under contribution; but courfe of living.'
knew not how to contract and Whenever he played at Chess, abridge the war, according to the as he frequently did to pass away Roman and Turkish method. He the time at Bender, he always gave time to the enemy to recover moved the king towards the front himself, and lost all his former as soon as poffible. To cover advantages : so that he was oblig. himself was entirely out of the cd at Lutzen to recommence that question; and it ever a pawn hap- game which he had before won, pened to be in his way, he did and which then terminated with not puzzle himself long about his life. the method of moving him, but It appears to me, berond all knocked him at once of the dispute, that the greatest man board. Such influence has that among the Swedish monarchs was genius, or natural disposition, Guftavus Vafa. He found the that is born along with us, which means of well regulating and die in Charles Mewed its prevalence recting the natural frength of his to the last: for, afcer receiving country; and did not attempt to his fatal hlow at Frederickstadt, push it beyond its proper bounds; he was found with bis hand upon but made to judicious a use of it the hilt of his sword.
wiibin the kingdom, that without • Thus you have a night sketch, him it could neither have been but an original one at least, of extended fo far beyond the limits the rival of Peter the Great, to' of the realm by Guftavus Adol, whose great qualities he was at phus, nor so gloriously misguided, length obliged to give way. Guf- as it was afterwards, by Charles tavus Ad Iphus, who attended the the Twelfth. lectures of our Galileo at Padua, and united the characters of the foldier and the politician, was, Some Account of the Life of Caftruca doubtless, a much greater man ; cio Caltracani of Lucca. Fron notwithlanding Gustavas com- the fame Author. mitted an oversight, in neglecting to follow up his victory of Leip- AMONGST the opuscula of fic. Having completily routed the secretary *, the most conhis enemies in that batile, instead fiderable is the life of Caftruccio of marching straight into Bohe. Castracani; who fignalized him. mia, he was content with detach- felf for his valour about the time ing there his ally the elector of that Dante recalled the Mufes Saxony, who carried on the war into Italy; and, as this latter * Machiavel.
gave a new life to poetry, so did the Arno to overflow it. He. Caftruccio to the military art. 11.ewed prodigious ingenuity in Of the lowest extraction, he raifthe fiege of Piitoja, a little before ed himself by his personal merit his death; having made use of se. alone to the dominion of Lucca, veral curious machines, particuof Lunigiana, of part of the Rin larly the wooden tower of the viere of Genoa, and afterwards of antients, and fortified his camp Pria and Piltoja ; and, if death in a most admirable manner ahad not put a stop to his career, gainst the town, and fill more so after he had just brought to a against the Florentines, who atsuccessful iffue a most important tempted in vain to relieve it ; so enterprise against the Florentines, that nothing can be richer than he would in the end have made this piece of embroidery, as we himself master of all Tuscany, niay call it, wrought by the seCritics will have it, that he took cretary, the thread only from real history, Three battles were given by the texture being entirely his own; Caftruccio, which were embeland that, in imitation of Xeno. lished, if not entirely planned, by phon's Cyropædia, he wished to Machiavel; who seems in his reexhibic Castruccio to the world lation of them to be fond of thewas a model of civil and military ing his military knowledge. The conduct. That this was really the first was at Mount Carlo, not far cafe, may be inferred from fome from Pelcia, when Caftruccio serve expressions of the antients, which ed under Uguccione della Faghe puts into the mouth of Caftruc- giuola, who commanded the comcio; and in particular from the bined forces of the Pisans and variation that is observable be- Lucchefe against the Florentines. tween the facts he lays down in Bloess having obliged Uguccione the Life, and those which he has to leave the camp, the enemy took related of him in the Hiftory of courage, thinking they could easiFlorence. In the former he gives ly beat an army without a comfree scope to his imagination; mander. They accordingly marcha whereas in the latter he follows the ed out, and offered battle every authority of Villani, a contem- day, eager to coine to action, and porary author ; who nevertheless in their own minds sure of gainrepresents Caftruccio to have been ing the victory. Caftruccio did magnanimous, prudent, dexterous, all in his power to confirm them diligent, indefatigable, brave, and in this opinion, Mhewing every at the same time cool in battle, sign of fear, and not suffering any and extremely fortunate in his one to go without the entrenchenterprises. Such in fact does he ments. At length, having learnt flew himself in all his actions, the disposition of the Florentines, That might be ruly called a de- who placed the flower of their fign worthy of a Cæfar, which he troops in the center, and the had formed, of throwing a dam weaker upon the flanks, he fallied across the streighựs of the Golfo- out, forming his army in an opline Rock, that he might make pofite order; and having ordered himself master of the city of Flo- his center to move Now, whilst çoce, by causing the waters of the wings advanced rapidly, she
best of his troops came to engage encourge the Florentines to pass the worst of ihe enemy's : by it. His design succeeded; and no which mancuvre he obtained the sooner had they begun one morn. victory.
ing to ford it with a part of their The next battle was fought army, than Castruccio, having upon the hill of Serravalle, which divided his forces into two lines, lies at the end of the vale of Nie- fell upon' them with the firft. vole, between Pescia and Piltoja. The fight was obftinate ; CarThe Lucchere were encamped on truccio being inferior in force, one fide of the hill, and the Flo- but with the advantage of engag. rentines on the other. It was Caf. ing troops who were in disorder; truccio's intention to engage the for the Florentines, not having enemy in this narrow pais ; where all crossed the river, had not time his troops could not, before the to form their line of battle. Mcanaétion Mould begin, discover their while he detaches two corps of number, and would have the ad. infantry, one higher up, and the vantage of the ground. The night other lower down the river, to before the battle he to k the pre- prevent the enemy from paffing it, caution of occupying fecretly the in order to take him in flank. cattle of Seriavalle, which was The fortune of the day ftili remain. fituated at the top of the hill, at ed in suspense, the Florentines a little distance from the road; making a vigorous defence against and in that war obferved a perfect the troops of Caftruccio, as fait neutrality. This done, he puts as they gained the bank. Cara his army in motion betines in the truccio then ordered bis fecond morning; and about break of line to relieve the first; which, day, his infantry falls in with the being composed of frem troops, cavalry of the advanced guard of foon broke the Florentines, who the Florentine ariny, who were were nearly exbaulied, and drove ascending the hill on the other them into the river. That part Gide, with little expectation of of the Florentine cavalry which meeting Caitruccio. The advan, had hitherto remained unbroken, tage he had of attacking the Flo- was obliged to give way, when rentines unexpectedly, and of attacked at once by Caitruccio's flanking them from the castle, cavalry, and by his infantry, gained him the battle.
which had no longer any of the The third vi&tory which he nb- Florentine intantry to oppose tained over the lame enemy, was them.
no, less signal. They were en. With such ikill and dexterity · kramped at St. Miniato, on the does Caftruccio fight his batiles,
left side of the Arno, about thirty according to the secretary's ac. miles from Pisa. Having secured count of them. If his relations Pifa with a Itrong garrison, Cal are not true, we must allow them truccia pitched his camp at Fucec- at least to be plausible; and they chio, on the other lide of the ri- may perhaps induce us to think ver: a arong and commodious with Aristotle, that fiction is more. polition. He kept at a little dit- instructive than history. Lance from the Arno, in order to
Extrot from the Confeffions of after that, likewise, on seeing the
9.7. Rousseau. Transla! from sea ; and the same thing will al. the French of y. y. Rouflean, ways happen to me, on seeing any
thing too much extolled; for it IL TOW much did the first fight is impoffible to mankind, and difM of Paris belie the idea I had ficuli to Nature itself, to surpass of it! The external decoration the richnets of my imagination. I had seen at Turin, the beauty F rom the manner I was received of the streets, the tymmetry and by all those for whom I had letters, squareness of the houses, induced I thought my fortune made. Him me to seek at Paris still more. II was most recommended to, and had figured to myself a city as least caressed by, was M. de Surbeautiful as large, of the most beck, retired from the service, and impofing aspect, where nothing living philosophically at Bagneux, was seen but fuperb streets, and where I went several times to see marble or golden palaces. Com- him, without his once offering ing in at the suburbs St. Marceau, me even a glass of water. I was I saw none but little, dirty, slink- better received by Madam de Mering Itreets, ugly black houses, the veilleux, fitter-in-law to the inappearance of nastiness, poverty, terpreter, and by his nephew, an beggars, carters, old cloth-botch- officer in the guards. The more ers, criers of ptifan and old hats. ther and son not only received me All these things struck me at well, but offered me their table, first to such a degree, that all I of which I often benefited during bave feen at Paris really magni- my fay at Paris. Madam de ficent, has not been able to destroy Merveilleux appeared to me to this first impression, and that there have been handsome; her hair was Atill remains a secret disgust to the a beautiful black, and formed in residence of this capital. I can say (the old fashion) ringlets on her the whole time I afterwards re- forehead. That which does not mained there was employed in perish with beauty till remained, seeking resources which migbt an agreeable mind. She seemed enable me to live far from it. pleated with mine, and did all in Such is the fruit of a too active her power to serve me; but no imagination, which exaggerates one seconded her, and I was soon beyond the exaggerations of man- undeceived in all this great intekind, and always fees more in a rest they appeared to take in my thing than has been heard. I had behalf. I muit, however, do the heard Paris so much boasted of, I French justice; they do not looked on it like ancient Babylon, fmother you with protestations, as from which I Thould, perhaps, is said of them; and those they have found fall as much to deduct, make are almost always fincere; had I feen it, from the picture I but they have a manner of intehad drawn of it. The same thing resting themselves in your favour, happened to me at the opera, which deceives you more than where I bastened to go the mor- words. The coarie compliments row of my arrival: the same at- of the Swiss can impofe on fools' terwards happened at Versailles ; only. 'The French manners are
more feducing, only because they but to languish, wait, solicit, are are more simple ; you think they to me impoflibilities. I was dila don't tell you all they intend to couraged, appeared no more, and do for you, to surprise you more all was at an end. I had not foragreeably. I fhall go farther: they got my poor mamma : but low are not falte in their demonftra- to find her where to seek her? tions: they are naturally officious, Madam de Merveilleux, who bumane, benevolent, and even, knew my flory, affifted me in the whatever may be said of it, more research, but long to go purpose. downright than any other nation; At last she told me that Madam de but they are light and airy. They Warens had been gone more than have, in etfect, the fentiment they two months, but it was not known express; but this sentiment goes whether to Savoy or Turin; and off as it came. While speaking that some faid she was returned to to you, they are full of you: go Switzerland. Nothing more was out of their right, they have for- necefiary to deterinine me to folgot you. Nothing is pertanent low her, certain that wherever in them; every thing with them the might be, I should find her in laits but a moment.
the country much easier than I I was therefore flattered much, could have done at Paris. . served little. The Colonel God. Before my departure, I exer. ard, whose nephew I was to be ciled iny new poetical talent in with, seeing my distress, and al- an epilile to Colonel Godard, in though rolling in riches, wanted which I hantered him as well as I me for nothing! He pretended I could. I thewed this (crawl to fhould be with his nephew a kind Madani de Merveilleux, who, inof valet, without wages, rather than stead of censuring me, as she as a real tutor. Continually en: ought, laughed heartily at my gaged with him, and by that dif- farcalms, and her son likewise, penied from duty, I must live on who, I believe, did not love Mr. my cadet's pay, that is a soldier's. Godard : it niuit be owned he It was with trouble he consented to was not amiable. I was tempted give me an uniform; he had been to send him niy verses; they ena glad to put me off with that of couraged me: I made a parcel of the regiment. Madam de Mer- them, directed to him ; and, as veilleux, enraged at his proposals, there was no penny-post then at advised me herself not to accept Paris, I sent it from Auxerre in them ; her fon was of the same opi. palling through that place. I nion. Other things were sought, laugh yet, sometimes, on think but nothing found. I began, ing of ihe grimaces he must have however, to be in want; an hun- made on reading his panegyric, dred livres, on which I had made where he was painted Itroke by my journey, could not carry me stroke. It began thus : far. Happily, I received from the amballador a trifling renie
Tu croyois, vieux Penard, qu'une folle 1
manie tance, which was very useful ; D'elever ton neveu m'inspireroit l'envie. and I believe he had not discarded ne, had I had more patience : This little piece, badly com,