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and I Mall be happy, if (from its not absolutely rolled up in a fimplicity) your Society Mould not scroll, where the infects are out think it beneath their notice, but of harm's way, and the finell of take it under their patronage. the etder. I have tried the 'like

Reflecting on the effects of this experiment on another tree with experiment, and the cause which the like success. produced them; and thinking This has suggested a thought, that blights are chiefly and gene- whether an elder - plant, now. rally occasioned by small Aies and esteemed noxious and offenfive, minute insects, and that their ol. may not be one day seen planted factory nerves are as much supe. with and entwining its branches rior in delicacy to butterflies as among fruit trees, in order to they are inferior in size, I whipped preserve the fruits. the limbs of a wall-plumb-tree, I struck over a bed of young when in full blossom, as high as I caulifower-plants which had been could reach, with a bush of young bit, and almost destroyed by ineider, whose leaves I had bruised, rects (either feas or Aies) with that the effluvia might be the an elder-bush; since which they stronger, and so as not to hurt the do not appear to have been blossom. The effects produced by touched or hurt, but are recoe this whipping are, that the leaves vering apace; and I promise my. of these limbs are very green, self they will not be infested freih, smooth, and Aouriihing; again with any sort of infects, un. the fruit has set very fair, thick, lets some can be discovered fond and thriving; and there is not the of living on elder leaves. least appearance of a blight on any This circumstance has deter. of the limbs so whipped; while mined me to try the following exthose not fix inches higher, and periment on a crop of young ture: from thence to the top of the tree, nips (which I am about to till) : are blighted and wrivelled up as When they come up to the height usual, and as those of this trec at which they are usually eat, and had been for several years past, greatly damaged by insects of some and not one-third so much fruit let kind or other (either flies or fleas) on the unwhipped part as on the I intend to let a man draw a bush limbs whipped, though the blos- or two of elder, spread so as to som was equal : and there is more cover the breadth of a ridge at fruit promising to ripen this sum: once, up and down sinoothly over mer on the two limbs whipped, the young turnips; ar.d I have than has been on the whole tree little doubt of their' being effec. for three years past. I have since tually preserved. endeavoured to restore one of the Crops of wheat, I Aatter my. blighted Moots, by whipping the self; may be prelerved in like leaves, and tving up a twig of manner from what the farmers elder among them ; which hath call the yellows, and other like in part had the desired effect, by accidents, which they consider as the offensive efluvia driving away a kind of mildew; but which is the flies. By this means those in fact (as I have no doubt but yuji leaves have revived which were well know) occasioned by a small

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Aly that blows in the ear of the fragraney of the apple-blossom, or corn, and produces a worm al- guided by instinct, or both, not most invisible to the naked eye; only a small black fiy produces but appearing through a micro. [warms of young ones in the scope a large yellow maggot, of leaves, which contract, Inrivel, the colour and gloss of amber, and blight them, but they, or with eggs like a very fine yellow some other flies, blow also into powder.-Was a person to draw the blossom, which produces a an elder-bush lightly up and down white maggot; in consequence of over a ridge of corn, when the which, the blossom is contracted, ears are first formed, and before huis itself close round the worm, those flies have blown, I have little and forms a complete covering to or no doubt but the parent in- it, like a shell; where it conti. feets would be effecally deterred, nues devouring the heart of the and prevented from pitching their blossom till that is effectually de. tents in so noxious a situation. ftroyed, and turned to a yellowish

As these thoughts, and the length red colour, like a dried dock-leaf. I have extended them to, in a variety of other cases in my own

Mr. Gullett's Second Letter on Blights, imagination, have afforded me some pleasure, I trust you will pardon my troubling you with

Sir, them, when I assure you, that, YOUR obliging letter, of the though the basis of this subject is 20th instant, in consequence of only a simple bush of stinking mine of the 4th ultimo, gives me elder, yet the communication of pleasure, as well as confers an ho. it is meant as a proof of that re- nour upon me, which I was ap. spect which, as a member of the prehensive the fimplicity of my community, I owe to so truly subject would scarcely entitle me laudable an institution, and is in- to; and therefore demands, and tended (however it may be re- you have my thanks, Sir, for the ceived) pro bono publico.

early, notice you have been pleased I have the honour to be, Sir, to take of it, and your promise of ✓ You most humble servant, laving it before the Society.-1

Chris. GULLETT. was and still am doubtful, wheTavistock, Devon,

ther you meant to have an imme"4:h June, 1771

diate answer to your queries, or

at any time before your next meet. P. S. Since writing the fore- ing in October ; but concluded going account, I have observed, upon the whole, it was better to that the fame cause is the destruc- err in ilewing my over-readiness, tion of great part of our apple than the least backwardness to blossom; and, could the above enter on a correspondence with so method of whipping our apple- worthy a society of literati, which trees take place, I have little or would do me so much honour; no doubt of its contributing effen. more essentially, as I think with

tilly 10 the increase of our cyder- you, that the subject under confia - pearings, For, allured by the deration may be of public utility;

which I consider as the basis of which, I apprehend, it loses conyour institution, and which should fiderably, the ne:rer it approaches animate every individual to en- to its blossoming state; as the courage it. Therefore, as the blossom in particular scarce repoor widow threw her mite of tains any of the genuine flavour. money into the public treasury of I do remember to have seen the riches, so do I my' mite of obser- ebulus. vation into your Society, the pub. Since my last letter, I have lic treasury of useful arts, and the been informied of the following great promoter of commerce ; and fact, which seems to corroborale which has fo largely contributed my hypothesis, viz. That when to that ascendency this kingdom this county was infested with such is gaining over the rest of Europe swarms of cockchafers, or oakin these several branches. O webs, about eight or nine years

The elder I made use of was the ago, in many parishes, like the fambucus fructu in umbella nigro, Egyptian locuits, they eat up the common hedge-elder. But every green thing but elder; and then it was folely of the young there was scarce a green leaf left, shoots of this last spring, which at unless on the elder-bushes. I have that time smelled much stronger been credibly assured, that they and more offensive than they do at remained untouched, amidst the prefent, when arrived at their general devastation; which can blossoming season. For the rind, only, I think, be accounted for or outer skin, of the shoots of from their unpalatableness, which this year, is now much thicker must certainly be greal, to occathan when I used them; and con- fion their escaping so voracious a fequently less permeable to the multitude. juices, which are now become As the farm I keep in hand is more vifcid, beginning to lose at some distance from this town, their fluidity, and to acquire an I ordered my hind to be sure to arborical quality. The large stems draw an elder-bush over the wheat of elder, which are covered with fields, as I mentioned in my last, a thick rough cortex, do not, I as soon as the corn was eared, and apprehend, give any strong smell; before it began to blossom : but and the expressions in my foriner the very dry hot weather bringletter was meant to be confined ing on the corn sooner than was solely to young elder twigs, or expected, I was surprised, and thoots of this {pring only.' The greatly vexed, on taking a ride dwarf kind of elder, mentioned thither one day, to find it got in your letter, which botanists, I and getting into fine blossom. apprehend, call ebulus, being more I, however, ordered, and accordoffensive than the young lhoots of ingly next morning, at day-break, common elder, must undoubtedly two servants went with two elder be much preferable to it; by so bushes on each fide the ridge, much as the smell is more offen- from end to end, and so back five, fince all the virtues I attri., again, and drew them over fuch buted to elder are derived merély of the fields as were not got toa from the strong, ill-favoured, dif- far in blossom. These I examined agreeable effluvia it emits : of last week, and found pretty clear of the yellows, much more so tha'n gots, or insects, in tlie hulk of one those which were not elder-struck: fingle grain, viz. in the first corn and I have little doubt but that, fifteen, in the second nineteen, in had the operation been performed the third twenty-nine, and in the sooner, it would have totally pre. fourth forty-one. - So large a vented their being at all touched. number as forty-one insets in one But the evening before they were single grain, feems sufficient to eat struck, in going through the fields, up all the corn in a whole ear: and looking atientively at the ears and we must suppose, either that, of corn, I discovered vast numbers like the northern nations of old, of the flies which occasion the or modern Arabs, when they have damage, already on the corn, consumed all their old stock, they seven or eight flies on a single ear. decamped in search of more ; or Therefore I have no doubt but that they are starved and perich in that the eggs of the yellows, which their citadel. This last seems the are there now, were lodged before most likely,--as, first, it appears the corn was struck with the elder; difficult for them to get out, and, as prevention, and not cure, is all next, should such innumerable to be cxpected from the operation. multitudes all survive, or did not -I took notice of the manner of innumerable multitudes periih, the 'flies." They are about the they would threaten us with an - size of gnats, with a yellow body, entire destruction of the next and blueith wings, depositing their wheat harvest. eggs; which they do on the out. I am much obliged to you for side of the hulk of the ear, about the opportunity you have afford. the upper or middle part of the ed me of repeating my respects husk; from whence, I suppose, for your laudable Society, and they descend into the husk by the subscribe myself, as with great next showers of rain, or dews. truth I am, One fly in particular I saw lay a . Your obliged great number of eggs, after the

and obedient servant, rate of about one egg every second

CHRIS, GULLETT. of time, till at length I caught her Tavistock, by the wing; and, in carrying her 27th July, 1771. across three or four ridges,I thought I perceived something on my thumb, which I took up, and, on Discovery of the con

on Discovery of the Construction of a Ma viewing it through a pocket micro- . chine for preventing the ill Efeits of scope, found it to be at least eight. the Fumes of Mercury rifing in the or ten egos, of an oval forin, which :: Operation of Water-gilding HOM The had laid in that time, and which, Silver, Company, and other Haak. I preserved for fome time, and By Mr.J. Mills. Newed to several people.-- Judge To the President and Members of the then of their fecundity.-As a i Society for the Encouragement F further proof of which, I will inform you, that the day I received your letter, I examined some corns - My Lords and Gentlemen, of one ear, and found the follow-I THOUGHT it necesary, at ing numbers of living yellow mag- I the introducing of the model,


which I hope will be found a pre- therefore, upon the whole, I dirventive against the ill effects of approve of such practices. The mercury in water-gilding, to ena glass, which I have made to take deavour to explain its use, as fol- off and bring on, as occasion re, lows :

quires, will supply them. I have The injury received, is at the still added one of a different make, time the work remains out of the on a plan which I think in the fire, from which arises a visible largest sort of work will be found vapour impregnated with the most effectual; a draught of which groffest part of mercury; which I have annexed to the model, and for want of proper conveyance, will here briefly describe. It is a the workman must inevitably re- frame glazed to go all around the ceive each time he breathes. To 'tin receiver, and come down as prevent those ill effects, I have low as the person's lap; two holes contrived a pair of bellows, which with valves, made of leather, reimmediately draw the effluvia that ceive the arms, and will not be would otherwise disperse about found inconvenient in working, him. The tin receiver, in which by reason that the shirt-sleeves are runs a tube from the bottom of the then always up.--Having thus far bellows, is to receive that part of described the principal parts of the vapour which the valve of the this model, thall leave it to your bellows repels every time it goes better judgment; and if approv. down. This is made of tin, but ed, will give great pleasure and would be found more efficacious satisfaction to, if made of common copper, gilt Genilemen, on the inside with leaf-gold, by Your most obedient : reason of the mercury adhering

humble servant, thereto. · It is perhaps proper to

J. Hills. mention, what otherwise may be Rosamond's Row, Clerkenthought an inconvenience, name. well, Dec. 9th, 1773. ly, the blowing of the bellows, . which may be done at any time by EXPLANATION.' å boy : but as it is not lo labo. To give a distinct idea of this rious as the treading of a turner, invention, a more circumstantial and many other ways of business, description must be attempted; persons so inclined may work them and the intended application be. with a stirrup, without other af- ing therewith likewise Mewn, a Gstance, and will find great bene- better judgment of its utility may fit by the moderate peripiration it be formed. It is generally unwill in course bring on; to which derstood, that the gilder is placed a farther precaution might be before an open furnace or raised added, that, if the workman fire-place, putting in and taking chufes, he may put a piece of gold out alternately the pieces of metal in his mouth and nostrils; but that are gilding. The memorial every continued obstruction to points out, that the injury rebreathing in the manner that na. ceived is dạring the time the work ture has ordained, must prove de- is out of the fire. The reason of trimental to the constitution ; that is obvious; the workman is


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