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if found to answer the purpose, to fulfil in some meafure those that it may be publifhed for the great and noble purposes of hu. benefit of the public ; as a great manity and patriotism, which the quantity of milk may be thus Society itfelf purposes in all its spared for the purpose of making transactions. cheese and butter, in order to I am, with due regard, reduce these two articles of on . Your most obedient proviGons to a more moderate

and humble servant, price than they have hitherto

J. R. FORSTER. been.

Before I leave this subjce, give Extract of a letter from Mr. Com me leave, Sir, to communicate to

refpeeting the Rearing of Cakes the Society another cheap method in such a Manner as to save the employed in Prusia for rearing black citle. After the expreffion of the linseed-oil from linseed, IT is well known by some of the the remaining husks, or dross, are old housewives of Norfolk to this made up into round balls of the day, the manner of rearing calves fize of a fift, and afterwards dried. is with fleeted milk-and-water, Two or three of thefe balls are in. warmed; which, being too lean fused and difíolved in hot water; and thin, turns four within them, and a third or fourth part of fresh and sometimes kills them; but in milk is added in the beginning; general they are pot-bellied, with but afterwards, when the calves their hair staring; and sometimes are grow'rt, the farmers employ they turn lousy, which feldom is only the skimmed-milk, which ihey cured till young grass purges the mix with the infusion. If this bad humours off : which effect is method Mhould deserve the atten- customary also with respect 10 tion of the Society, it would at hogs. · In large dairies they alonce spare great quantities of milk ways put their feeted milk into a towards making cheese and but. cistern from day to day, in order ter, and afford a good use for the to turn four, and curdle before dross left after the expreflion of they give it them; and even they the linfeed-oil.

put an equal quantity of water io As an ardent with to be of some it, otherwise it heats and binds service to mankind by every little them: wherefore they will not addition in saving huibandry, and take enough to satten them. But,

a view to reduce the exorbitant from the cooling quality of the · price of provisions to the poorer water, they will drink twice as · and manufacturing part of my much when thus mixed; and we · fellow-creatures in this country, find from experience, they do

prompted me chiefly to draw up much better in this way. this au count, I hope it will meet The best method I ever found with approbation from the So- of rearing calves, and which I ciety, if not on account of its real have pursued for thiriy years, is merit and usefulness, at least for to take them off the cou's in three the intention, and like endeavours wecks or a month; and to give

nothing nothing but a little fine hay, till different parts of the kingdom ; they begin through neceflity to but it never did, I believe, enter pick a little. I then cut some of the thoughts of any one till of the hay, and mix it with bran and late years, that the damage could oats in a trough, and nice some be nearly so great as it is now turnips, about the size of a crown- found to be, since unusual quanpiece, which they will soon, by tities of fints and other stones licking, for want of liquor, learn have been repeatedly gathered for to eat. When the work is thus the use of the turnpike-roads. done, give them but turnips Indeed the damage done by this enough, and they will do well. practice to many kinds of land, Give them no water, unless the especially to such as are mentioned turnips be left off.

above, is found to bę so great, as to be almost incredible to any one who has not particularly observed

for a number of years the proObservations on the Damage done to gress of this destruction. I shall,

Arable Land, by carrying off the therefore, here give a few in-
Stones from the Surface (in a letter
from Mr. Price); and an Account

have come to my knowledge, from of a Method of preventing Blights which it will appear how exceeden Fruits-trees and Esculent Plants.

ingly great the damage must be
In tre Letters from 1!1. Gullert. throughout the extent of the
Comniunicated to the Society for the kingdom.
Encouragement of Arts, Manu-,

Arts Manu- In the parish of Stevenage, in fa&tures, and Commerce ; ana in

Hertfordfire, there is a field of ferred at their Requcft. From the land well known in that neigh- , Jame.

bourhood by the name of Chalka

dell Field, containing about two Ifr. Price's Observations on picking

hundred acres. The land in this

field was formerly equal, if not off Stones from Arabie Land.

superior, to most lands in that To the Honourable Scciety of

county: in a word, it was good

Arts, to a proverb. But lying convenis Manufactures, and Commerce. ently for the survevors of the

roads, they have picked: il fo It has been a thing well known often, and stripped it of the flint

I for a great while to several and small stones to such a degree, of the most experienced farmers that it is now inferior to lands that in many parts of England, that were formerly reckoned not worth taking away the small stones and above one, haif its value, acre for flints is highly detrimental to al. acre: I mean such lands as, lymost all kinds of plowed land, ing at a good distance from the but particularly fo to thin stapled roads, have for that reason either or light lands; and likewise to not been picked at all, or not all lands of a . binding nature. nearly so much as this field. All This I find has been long the opi- the farmers and other persons pion of many skilful farmers in who bave known the field for a

VOL. XXV.

food

good number of years, and have comes it to pats that the farmers observed the man gement and who hold the afore - mentioned produce of it, do unanimously de. lands, have not either broke, clare, that the crops of grain from thrown up their farms, or got Chalkdell Field have not for their rents lowered? - none of these last fourteen years been which has generally happened. much, if any, above half what This I grant; but then let the they were the fourteen years im- very high price of grain for num. mediately preceding, notwith-bers of years past, and the famine standing the late improvements in of thousands of starving poor an. busbandry; and this is entirely swer these questions. I am tho. owing, as they all agree, to strip- roughly convinced that the high ping the land of the stones. Nor price of grain has been the prinis it Chalkdell Field alone that has cisal reason, and a dreadful rea. materially suffered 'n that county son it is, why none of these has by the above-mentioned practice; generally happened ; and any one on the contrary, the oldest and who knows the progress of trade most experienced farmers in the for thirty or forty years past, and parishes of Gravely, Stevenage, the different value of money in &c. some of whom have been well that period, may form to himself acquainted with farming for up. other concurrent circumstances. wards of thirty or forty years, What puts it beyond doubt that and have in general lived always this prodigious impoverishing of on the spot, do declare and say, the land is owing to no other they are ready to attest it upon cause whatsoever, but picking and oath if called upon, that several carrying away the ftones, is, that thousand acres bordering on the those lands have generally been turnpike-road from Welwyn to most impoverished which have Baldock, in Herts, have been so been moft frequently picked; and much impoverished by having the fo on in proportion. Nay, I know ftones frequently taken away, that a field, part of which was picked, they are not now so good as they and the other part plowed up bewould have been had the stones fore they had time to pick it: been left upon the land, fome by the part ihat was picked loft seven one-fourth, fome by one-fifth, or eight parts in ten of two fucfome more, some less, of their ceeding crops of grain, though whole present value. But that the whole field was manured and all in gencral have been mate- managed in all respects alike.rially damaged, so that the loss What proves inconteslibly that to the inheritance for ever in the this almost incredible damage was aforesaid lands, must be computed owing solely to picking the ftones, 'at a great many thousand pounds; is, it went to an inch as far as to say nothing of what the public they were picked, and no further. has suffered in the deficiency of I shall mention but one instance the crops of grain.

more at present. A gentleman in But it may be asked, If the the neighbourhood of Poultor, in damage by taking away the stones Lancashire, who farmed a part of bt so great as I represent, how his estate, ordered the stones,

which lay very thick on some rials gathered from plowed lands, grounds, to be carefully picked may be kept in as good repair as up and carried away. He did they are at present, without any this from an imagination that considerable additional expence, they prevented the grain from if the power of gathering mate. growing out of the earth. Those rials from plowed lands be taken grounds had always before pro away, let it be considered that duced very good crops; but he now the best turnpike-roads in Eng, found, to his astonishment, that he land are those which are entirely could hardly get any crops at all. made with round pebbles, and He asked the neighbouring farm- such other materials as are dug ers what they thought might be from under ground; and, on the the reason of it: they were of contrary, that those which are opinion it must be his cleaning made chiefly with materials gathe land of the stones, and advised thered from lands, are, generally him to carry them back and spread speaking, the very worit. This them again all over the land; is a circumstance any perion may which he did at a great expence. be satisfied in with very little inHe had excellent crops immediquiry. The turnpike road from ately : such as the land had pro- London to two or three miles be. duced before the stones had been yond Hatfield, and those from cleared away.

thence to Hitchin, rif compared Many persons have been ready together, will furnish a striking to imagine, because nothing can initance of the truth of this obfergrow upon a bare stone, that vation. Therefore, should there therefore it can be of no manner in such a case be at first an adof service to the corn, but rather ditional expence, there can be no the reverse, in preventing it from doubt but that it will be more growing freely out of the ground. than compensated for in the exBut this conclusion is by far 100 cellence and duration of the precipitate ; fince fiones are of roads. At the same time I make surprising and manifold uses. For this observation, I am not clear instance, they greatly allist the that, upon the whole, there would plough in working the land:--they be even at first an additional exalso prevent land of a binding qua- pence of any great consequence. lity from running together, and In some places, I believe the hardening like mortar in a wall: reverse would be the case. The they screen the tender blade from above instances and observations blasts and blights :--they prevent are submitted, and earnestly rethe crop, where the staple is thin, commended to the serious confifrom being scorched up by the deration of the Honourable. So. heat in summer; and they pre- ciety of Arts, &c. vent the exudations of the earth By their most humble from evaporating; and by that means greatly promote vegetation.

and most obedient servant, Should a doubt arise whether

R. PRICE: the turnpike, roads, which are Knelworth, Herts, now mended chiefly with mate- Jan. 23, 1779:

Sir,

Mr. Gullere's Letter on Blights. causes. Why may they not in

the present case? --Of the virtues

of elder in preserving cabbages EVERY member of the com- from being destroyed by cater. munity, however distant from the pillars, I can already say probar metropolis or private his station, tum eft. We all know how very who knows any thing of your lau- offensive to the olfactory nerves a dable institution, which not only bush of green elder-leaves is. No takes under conficeration, but en: body wishes to smell to it, because courages the propagation of every it is so disagreeable; and for that thing useful, from the cedar of reason every one avoids touching Libanus to the Hyffop of the it. I consider the olfactory organs wall, must, if he be a friend to of a butterfly as much superior to mankind, or a lover of his coun ours in delicacy and nicety as try, not only with it well, but their bodies are to ours. H 10, wish also to contribute somewhat why should not what is so offen. towards the general good. It is five to our smell, be much more that which occasions my giving fo to theirs? We often see them you this trouble; and at the same alight, and remain on cabbagetime, makes me hope you will plants; but who ever saw them on pardon my presumption in fend- a bush of green elder? ing you the following observations Laughable as this experiment on so seemingly trivial a subject. seems to be, I last year deter-V'iz. the preventing cabbage plants mined to try it. Accordingly, I from being eaten by caterpillars; toge- took some young elder-bushes, the ther with some realons why the stems of which I held incloled in same means feem capable of pre- a paper that my hands might not yenting blights, and their effects stink of it, and whipped the cabon fruit trees or others.—These bage-plants well with it (but so thoughts I have likewise extended gently as not to hurt the plants) in idea, to the preservation of just as the butterfles first apcrops of turnips from the fly; as peared. After this I never faire alio of crops of wheat from the a butterfly come on them ; yellows, and other destructive in- was there, I believe, a single cã. iecis. If these latter experiments terpillar blown on any of the should succeed.on trial, as I am plants so whipped, during the restrongly inclined to think they kidue of the season. I could often will, then the same means which observe the butterflies fluttering produced thife effects, may be ex- and hovering round the plants tended to an almost infinite v2- (like gnomes or fylphs) but never riety of cafes for the preservation alight on them; alihough another of the vegetable kingdom. bed of cabbage - plants in the

But risum linearis amici, how fame garden which had not been will you think you are insulted whipped, was infested and eat by when I tell you, all this is to be the caterpillars, as this has usually performed with a bush of Alinking been. I have tried the same expe. elder ! --Great effe&ts are frequent- riment again this year, doubting ly produced from seemingly trivial not buit to have the same success;

and

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