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expected from the red bark can- Manufactures, and Commerce, and not be obtained from any quan- inserted at their Requeft. From tity of common bark. The best Memoirs of Agriculture, &c. common bark, compared with the
To the honourable and laudabla red bark, appears inert and effete.
Society for the Encouragement All the above experiments were
of Arts, Manufactures, and Como executed in the presence of seve
merce. ral gentlemen.
I was led more particularly to Gentlemen, prosecute this subject, from an
SAVING been honoured with opinion that the red bark might N your premium for the cul. so impregnate cold water by infus
ture of turnips amongst beans, for Sion, as to cure intermittent fevers which I return you thanks, I find with more certainty than could be
you are desirous of being informed done even by the decoction or
of the best method to cultivare powder of common bark; the wheat.' either by drills or broad. lenfible qualities which appear caft: both of which I am well acfrom the above experiments, be
quainted with, having experiing so much greater in the cold
enced them many times upon all infusion of the one than in the de.
the de. forts of land. But the greatest coction of the other.
experiment was in 1752 and 1753, It cannot I think be denied,
In the year 1752, I had twenty, that the experiments above re- two acres of bean-gratten dunged, lated, and which have been exe. for the b
been exe; for the beans, about forty loads cuted and frequently repeated
alea per acre, which I managed as fol. with great accuracy, fufficiently
lows: prove that the red Peruvian bark I first plowed it: after which I exceeds the other in its sensible fowed my wheat in this manner : qualities, and that it contains a
contams a Every other rood in breadth was in
Eve much larger portion of those re- the broad-cast way: the other was linous and active parts on which in drills. In the spring I horse. the power and efficacy of bark hoed the drills, and harrowed it; have been by all writers on the as I did also that which was practice of medicine and Materia fown in the broad-cast way. Both Medica believed to depend. of them seemed to make a good
appearance. When harvest came,
I directed the reapers to cut each Account of Trials at large, made by rood separate, and to make the
Mr. Tadman, to determine the com fheaves as nearly of the same size parative Advantages of the Drill as poffible. By this I found a and Broad-caft Methods of Culture great deficiency in the drilled of Wheat and Lucerne ; and of an wheat, not having near so many Experiment made by Mr. Rebecca, shocks. This was tried on a sandy to discover what Increase may be ob- loam foil. tained from a Grain of Wheat in The next year I had a field of one Year, from repeated Tranfplan- twenty-three acres, adjoining to tations. Communicatea to the Society the other, managed in the same før the Encouragement of Arts, manner. I found the same defi.
ciency; and I think it very easy farming business, having been in to be accounted for. In the spring it near forty years. I began at of the year, when the wheat be first harrow-boy; from that, I gins to rise from the ground, the went through every other part ni land being very clean by the hoe- plowing, fowing, &c. and before ing and the ground very fine by so I was twenty-four years of age, I doing, the mowers, that are very paid eighteen hundred pounds per frequent in March, cause the fine year rent. . mould to rise on the tender part I have another thing to offer to of the wheat; which, when it thi; Society, which I can explain: happens, prevents it from grow, it is, that three crops may grow in ing any farther.- It is a very good the same year, with the same cul. way, io sow clover in wheat in ture' and 'expence as one crop; February. I never could find and that they will not inter. that drilling any thing but beans, fere with one another: but, pease, and tares, would produce quite otherwise, wherever one is near so good a crop ; ncither will good, the other two will be fo • they do any thing to well as in likewise. I hold at this time drills, by which means the land about two thousand two hundred is kept clean, and makes a good acres of arable, meadow, and season for weal.
pasture land. Now, in regard to lucerne, I am, with the utinost deference fanfoin, &c. Being put in drills, and respect, it is in a manner the same as in Your honour's most obedient the cale of wheat. I have a dial and humble servant, of lucerne; pact of it in drills, Higham, WM. TADMAX. which I have endeavoured to keep 19:k De..1772 clean by hand hoeing: buit, after a hard rain, seeing my borses To Mr. Shields, Narferyman, he would not eat it, I found upon
Lambeth, Surry. inspection, the earth was so much washed into it *, that it was a
Sir, good reason for fowing the other If the following single expe. Part broad cast way. I immedi- riment, process, and product of a ately cut off that they eat uponi singie grain of wheat, will give and I then sowed the land over in you any pl afure, and vou thall broad-cast, and raked it with a think it worth laying before the hand-rake. I have not found any Society for the Encouragement of thing of the same kind happen Arts, and particularly Agricul. ever fince.
I ture, I Mall think myself amply If this information may be of paid for the pains I took in niak. any utility, I shall be happy in ing the experiment. The increase having given it, as I may be sup- appears astonishing to me: I have, poled to know something of the therefore, communicated it to
. This inconvenience attending drilled lucerne, is peculiar to Mr. Tadman's, and such other very sandy land; for many instances can be produced of drilled luceme, now growing, which is entirely free from it.
yan, -though there may appear grew and tillered as well as the nothing wonderful in it when first. In the end of November I read before your learned body *; took them up a second time, and and I may be smiled at for my made thirty - fix plants or fets. rural fimplicity and ignorance. There I again planted, which As pollibly there may be many grew till March 1772; in which more wonderful instances of vege month I a third time took up table, increase, thould that be the my plants, and divided them into cafe, you will in a fingular man- two hundred and fifty-six plants ner oblige me, by communicating or fets. For the remaining part then to me; who am fond of of the summer, till the month of sudh subjects of admiration. August, they had nothing done I am, with great esteem, Sir, to them, except hoeing the ground Your most obedient
clean from weeds till the corn and humble servant, was ripe. When it was gathered
WM, REBECCA, I had the ears counted or num. , Amerdiam, Bucks,
bered, and they were three thou121h Jan. 1773.
sand five hundred and eleven : a'
great part of which proved as The Produce of a single Grain of
good grain as ever grew out of Whert, propagateil in the Goden
The earth. Many of the ears meaof the Rev. Dr. Drake, Relor of Sured fix inches in length; some Amer/h-m, Bucks, by William ke
Kem were middling grain, and tome beoca, Garderier.
were very light and thin. This ON the first day of August was the reason I did not number 1971, I foued, or rather fel, a the grains; but there was better single grain oi the red wlicat ; and than half a bushel of corn in the in the latter end of Sepiember, whole produce of this one grain when the plant had tillered, I took of wheat in one year. it up, and nipped or divided it Q uery. Would not this praAlice into four fets or lijs: those (spring-planting) be of great ulet tour fets: I planted, and they where the crops do miss, by va.
* Mr. Millar made the fainc trial at Cambridge, some years ago, and with. very little difference in the manner. The result was fimilar as to the produce ; and he communicated an account of the experiment to the Royal Society, who published it in their Vemoirs. Others have repeated the experiment with a correspondent fuccels. The making more generally knowo, however, what rapid increase corn and other herbs of the graminicous tribe admit of by trant. plantation and division, from the property of the quick production of oif. fers from their roots, may at prelent be of utility, when attempts are making to improve the culture of wheat on that principle; to which the knowledge of chis prodigious multiplication of the plants by divifion of the roos, gave rile. The Society have in this view offered, a premium to encourage trials of the apa. blication of transplantation, to practise in particular cales where it may be ad. wantageous.
7 Mr. Rebecca is not fingular in this opinion. Though the transplanting wheat as a general mode of culture, is not caliby reducible to constant practice,
rious accidents incident to farm- without milk; and having inade ng?
many experiments for thele four I can prove the above facts by or five years past, I am induced the attestation of sufficient wit. to become a candidate for it. I nesses, if doubted.
therefore lay before you the following method of rearing black cattle without milk
In two or three days after they Accounts of Methods of Rearing are calied, I take the calves fron
Calves without Milk, of saving the cows, and put them in a house it after a short time. Communicated by themselves. I then give them by Mr. Budd, Mr. Forfter, and a kind of water.
and a kind of water-gruel, composed Mr. Carr, to the Society for the of barley about one-third, and Encouragement of Arts, Manufac- two-thirds of oats, ground toge. tures, and Commerce, and inferted ther very fine. i then Gift the as their Requeft. From the fame.
mixture through a very fine fieve,
put it into the quantity of water To the Society for the Encouragement
mentioned below, and boil it of Arts, Manufactures, and com half an hour, when I take it off merce. .
the fire, and let it remain till it is
milk-warm. I then give each calf , GENTLEMEN,
about a quart in the morning and T TAVING observed in your the same quantity in the evening;
1 book of premiums for the and increase it as the calf grows vear 1771, your offer of a gold older. It requires very little medal for an account of the best trouble to make them drink it. method of rearing black cattle After the calves have had this
yet in such cases as he intimates, where considerable parts of land have failed after autumn sowing, it may be done with great convenience. Nor does there, after a very careful examination of the subiect, appear any folid reason why in the seasons when the autumn culture of wheat has failed much, fresh land might not be planted with off-sets of that grain, as well to private emolumeat as public advantage. This practice is the more promising, because the tranl. plantation may be performed much later than the last made by Mr. Rebecca, even till the end of April, with the same certainty of success; and land which had borne rurnips, cole-seed, or other plants for spring food, even late in the Seafon, might be made to afford a large erop of wheat the same summer with great profit, when there was a prospect of scarcity. The appreheasion of the roo high expence of labour has been made the great objection to this practice. Burthe introduction of the setting wheat instead of lowing it, which is now done in some places on great quantities of land, with very confiderable profit, has set this matter in so clear a light from large experience, that all difficulty on this score must be given up where those fačts are known. For the faring in the quantity of seed when the corn is set, nearly pays for the difference of the expence of labour betwixt that method and sowing; and this saving is still much greater in the case of transplanting than in secting, though the expence of the labour differs but little..
* This account was deemed fully satisfactory, and the gold medal was ae. cordingly adjudged to Mr. Budd.
diet for about a week or ten days, ment in husbandry are 'handed
I tie up a little bundle of hay, and about, which never have been * put it in the middle of the house; tried, and can have no success
which they will by degrecs come when put to the proper test by ex-" to eat. I also put a little of the perience. meal above mentioned in a small The account I presume to lay trough for them, to eat occasion. before the Society is founded on ally; which I find of great service an experience of several years. to them. I keep them in this A farmer's wife in Prussia, who manner till they are of proper had employed this method, kept age to turn out to grass; before it very secret ; but keeping only which they must be at least two two or three cows, and yet buying months old : therefore, the sooner, constantly ten or twelve calves, I get them in the spring the and fattening them in a short better.
time so advantageously, that the About a quart of the above butchers always preferred her meal, mixed with three gallons calves to those they could get of of water, is sufficient for twelve other farmers, it was suspected calves in the morning, and the she had devised a new and cheap same quantity in the evening. I method in feeding them. Some increase the quantity in propor- of my relations afterwards learned tion as they grow older. By this this method from the farmer's wife, method I have reared between and found it answer better than fifty and fixty beasts within these the best milk for fattening calves; four years, forty of which I have because it not only succeeded in now in my possession ; having fold a shorter time, and gave the veal off the others as they became of the most delicate and savory taste, a proper age : and by the same but it made the meat whiter, method calves may be reared with and was upon the whole cheaper a trifle of expence.
than in the common way, as the I am, Gentlemen, whole milk of the dairy could be Your most humble servant, fpared for the purpose of making I WM. BUDD. butter.
The infusion of malt or fresh
wort, is the substitute to milk. In No. 2, Somerset-house Stable-yard, Strand, October 10, 1771.
ard, summer it may be given cold;
but in winter it muit have the
same degree of warmth as the HAVING observed that the milk just coming from the cow, Society ordered a medal to be The quantity is the same as the given for the rearing of black milk commonly given at once cattle without milk, I thought the to a calf; and it must be in. Society would not be displeased creased in proportion as the calf with an account of feeding calves, grows. intended for the market and for I wish, that in case the Society butchers meat, without milk. Nould approve of it, a new trial Frequently accounts of improve- may be made of this method; and