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this little bird Nature has profuse. bour, my attention was engage
i ing its tail twice round a stalk of As I was one day fitting solitary hemp, and seizing its adversary and pensive in my primitive ar. by the throat, not by means of its jaws, but by twisting its own gained an unexpected superiority; neck twice round that of the wa- it acquired two great folds like. ter-snake, pulled it back from wise, which' necessarily extended the ditch. To prevent a defeat, the body of its adversary in prothe latter took hold likewise of a portion as it had contracted its stalk on the bank, and by the ac- own. These efforts were alterquisition of that point of refift. nate; victory seemed doubtful, ance became a match for its fierce, inclining sometimes to the one antagonist. Strange was this to fidc and sometimes to the other, behold; two great snakes strongly until at last the stalk to which the adhering to the ground, mutually black snake fastened, suddenly faltened together by means of the gave way, and in consequence of writhings which lashed them to this accident they both plunged each other, and stretched at their into the ditch. The water did full length, they pulled, but pulled not extinguish their vindi&tive in vain; and in the moments. of rage; for by their agitations I greatest exertion, that part of their could trace, though not distinbodies which was entwined seem- guish their mutual attacks. They ed extremely small, while the rest soon re-appeared on the surface appeared inflated, and now and twisted together, as in their first then convulsed with strong undu- onset; but the black snake seemlations, rapidly following each ed to retain its wonted superiority, other. Their eyes seemed on fire, for its head was exactly fixed and ready to start out of their above that of the other, which it heads. : At one time the conflict incessantly pressed down under the seemed decided; the water-snake water until it was stifed, and bent itself into two great folds, sunk. The victor no sooner per. and by that operation rendered ceived its enemy incapable of far, the other more than commonly ther resistance, than abandoning out-stretched; the next minute it to the current, it returned on the new struggles of the black one more and disappeared,
Some Account of the Chemical and twenty drops of the Tin&ture Flow
Pharmaceutical History of the Red rum Martialium. It immediately Peruvian bark, in order to thew became of a darker colour, soon its Efficacy as a part of the Materia lost its transparency, and after a Medica to be fuperior to that of the short time precipitated black common Bark. Extračied from vb. powder, fervations on the superior Eficacy of the Red Peruvian Bark, &c. by
Experiment III. William Saunders, M. D. & C. & C. To two ounces of the cold in.
fusion of the common bark were Experiment I. , .
added twenty drops of the Tin&tura To an ounce of red bark, Florum Martialium in the same
1 reduced to a fine powder, manner as to the other. It re. were added fixteen ounces of di. tained its transparency some time, stilled water; and after remaining and afterwards became of a dark together twenty-four hours in a colour; but there was no precipi. Fiorence flask, the liquid was tation from it as from the last. carefully filtered. The same experiment was made with the Peru . Experiment IV. vian bark commonly in use.
To an ounce of red bark, re. The colour of the two infuGons duced to coarse powder, were was very different; that made with added fixteen ounces of distilled the red bark being much deeper. water, and after boiling until one The taste and flavour of the infu: half was evaporated, the liquid sion of the red bark were confi- while hot was strained through a derably more powerful than of piece of linen. The same ex. the other. In the opinion of many periment, under similar circumgentlemen who tarted the infu. Itances, was made with the comlions, the cold infufion of the red mon bark. The superior taste bark' was more sensibly impreg- and favour of the decoction of the nated than even the strongest de red bark was equally observable coction of the common bark. with that of the infusion. The
decoction of the red bark, in cool. Experiment II.
ing, precipitated a larger quan. To two ounces of the cold in- tity of relinous matter than the Fusion of the red bark, were added decoction of the common bark,
The difference of colour was like. The quantity of extra& prowile very diftinguishable.
cured from the red bark was con.
siderably greater than from the . Experiment V...
lame quantity of common bark; To one ounce of red bark, re- but, as the residuum of neither was duced to a coarse powder, were rendered entirely inert, the abso. added eight ounces of proof spirit; lute quantity could not be ascerand, after standing a week toge- tained. ther, the tincture was filtered. The same experiment, under
Experiment VII. similar circumstances, was made A tea spoonful of each of the with the common bark. The tinctures, prepared by experiment tincture of the red bark, both 5th, was added to two ounces of when lasted by itself and under water; the resinous precipitation precipitation by water, had more from the red bark was not only favour and taste than that of the more copious, but fell more common Jark.
quickly to the bottom of the glass The tincture from the red bark than that from the other; and yet is of a much deeper colour than what remained still dilolved in the other.
the water, was infinitely more in
the red bark than in the common Experiment VI.
bark, so far as we could judge To each refiduum of the above from the taste and flavour of both.' tinctures were added eight ounces of proof spirit, which were in
Experiment VIII. fused in a moderate sand heat før In imitation of the experiments the space of twenty-four hour's, and of my ingenious friend Dr. Perci. afterwards allowed to remain 10- val, I added to two ounces of the gether a week, occasionally agi- watery infusion of each bark a few tating them. The tinctures were drops of the Sp. Vitriol, ten. The then poured off ; that of the red acid lost its taste more in the infubark evidently appearing to be the fion of the red than in the com. Itrongest.
mon bark; so that there were The tinctures both of Experi. more obvious appearances of its ments V. and VI. were by a being neutralized. . gentle heat evaporated to the con. Sittence of a relinous extract,
Experiment IX. . The extraet from the tincture of A decoction of both red and the red bark was of a sinooth, ho- common Peruvian bark was pre. mogeneous appearance, not unlike pared, by taking an ounce of each the Balsam of Peru when thick. and boiling them in a pint and a ened; the flavour and taste of the half of water to one pint. The original tincture were entirely former had greatly the superiority prelerved in it.
in strength and power, as men. The extract from the common tioned in a preceding experiment. bark had a very different appear. A pint of fresh water was added ance. It seemed coarse and gritty, to each decoction; the boiling ftill and by no means fo characteristic continued till that quantity was of its original tinture.
evaporated. The decoction of the
mon Peruvian bark seemed gra. Thirdly, That its active parts, dually to lose its sensible qualities, even when greatly diluted, retain while that of the red bark still re- their senfible qualities in a higher tained its own.
degree than the most saturated fo. The same quantity of water was lutions of common bark. added as before to each, and the Fourthly, That it does not undecoction repeated until a gallon dergo the same decomposition of of water was exhausted ; at the its parts by boiling as the common expiration of which time, the Peruvian bark. common Peruvian bark was ren. Fifthly, That the red bark is dered almost tasteless; the red more astringent than the common bark still retained nearly its former Peruvian bark. sensible qualities. This experi. Sixthly, That its antiseptic ment proves that the common powers are greater. As an addipractice of boiling the bark is iional proof of this, it may be hurtful to its powers.
proper to observe here, that both By my desire Mr. Skeete, a its cold infusion and decoction very ingenious and attentive young preserved entire their bitter and gentleman from Barbadoes, and a other medicated powers in the Itudent of medicine in Guy's Hof- month of June, in the elabora. pital, made several experiments in tory of Guy's Hospital for five order to afcertain the comparative weeks, and perhaps for a much antiseptic power of red bark with longer time, while a decoction of the common Peruvian bark; and common bark gave evident marks he found that the infusion of red of a change in a few days. In the bark preserved animal matter decoction of red bark, the powder, much better, and for a longer which is separated during the time, than the infusion, or even cooling of it, remains intimately decoction of the common bark: diffused through the liquor, which indeed, the decoction of common therefore continues loaded and bark, after its powdery part had turbid when at reft. In the desubsided, was less bitter, and pre- cotion of coinmon bark, the served animal matter for a shorter powder quickly subsides to the time than the infusion of the lame bottom; the red bark therefore bark. His experiments were con- contains in it a large proportion duced with great accuracy, and of mucilaginous parts, such as the result of them were submitted have been proposed by the late to the examination of many gen- Dr. Fothergill, io be added to the llemen at Guy's Hospital.
decoction of the common Peruvian The conclusions to which the bark, in order that it may remain above experiments evidently lead, turbid when at reft, and thereby are,
that its resinous parts be more First, That the red bark is more perfectly suspended in the body of soluble than the Peruvian bark, the liquor. 'It is obvious that this both in water and spirit.
circumftance will favour exceedSecondly, That it contains a ingly the action of the stomach much larger proportion of active upon it. and refinous parts.
The advantages therefore to be