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nor plan of action formed ; and great force in their way, Sir Eyre Sir Eyre Coote was in the fingular Coote formed the arıny in two fituation of being obliged to trust lines, and proceeded on his march entirely to his own genius, and to in order of battle. The grounds the quickness and fertility of his which Hyder occupied were paresource for making his disposi- turally strong and commanding ; tions in the face of an enemy so and he had already rendered this infinitely superior.'

position truly forinidable, by the July ist, in

At five in the morn- judgment and dispatch with which "sing, the army began to he had strengthened and fortified 70s. draw out from the camp the most advantageous fpots with at Porto Novo ; : and at seven, well constructed front and flanking commenced its march, with the batteries. Indeed, it would have sea at no great distance on the afforded no small demonstration of right. Small as it was, and the his military abilities, if other essenuimos exertion of every single tial proofs of it were wanting, that man it contained evidently ne- he had formed such a body of cessary to the purpose of attack• pioneers as had never before been ing and forcing so prodigious as known in India. army in a choses and fortified fi. The army had not advanced far, tuation, yet the general was under when the enemy's position and the hard necessity of drawing off works were clearly discovered, and a considerable detachment from their batteries feen to lie directly his line for the protection, during upon the intended line of march. the march and action, of the bag. Hyder's principal force was drawn gage and of the numerous fol- up in order of battle in the rear of lowers of the camp, from that his works, and extending farther multitude of Hyder's irregular on the plain than the eye could cavalry, who, upon the first open- command ; large bodies of cavalry ing, would be ready to pour in caught the light in every direcupon them. These, with their tion, and an infinite number of usual guard, confitting of about rockets were unintermittingly 150 sepoys, those few Poligars thrown, as well to prevent and who had joined the Company's confound the observation, as to forces, and a small Maratea corps, disorder the march and in pede the were judiciously placed in the open, movements of the English army. At ing between the right of the army the faine time they were exposed to and the sea ; and the detachment, a warm though diftant cannonade ; pow unavoidably drawn off from the enemy's artillery were well the line of a&tion for their support, ferved, and did execution, while the consisted of two regiments of ca, English general could not afford to valry and a battalion of sepoys, return many mot, as he was sensible with seven pieces of light artile that every round he poslefred lery.

would, in the course of the day, be The country, in about an hour's wanted to take the most deciüve march, opened an extensive plain effc&t. to their view ; and as the enemy's * Critical and dangerous as this cavalry appeared drawn up in situation was, a pause, little short

of an hour, became absolutely ne- neral, in filing off to the right, cessary, not only to afford time had been neceffarily obliged to to the general to examine the contract his front and break bis enemy's immediate position, but former order; but as soon as he farther to discover, whether the had gained the point he aimed at, country on the right might not and the ground would admit, he admit of his taking such a sweep instantly formed anew, about nine as would enable him to turn the o'clock, in order of batile; beenemy's left; and thereby to fall ing within reach of, but partly upon them rather obliqrels, than covered from the fire of the eneto be obliged to make his attack my's capnon. He then looked in the full front and fire of their eagerly back to see whether the works and batteries. The coun- heights in his rear were occupied try on the right fortunately an- by the second line; for on the swered his hope ; and nothing was success of that part of his design ever more boldly and happily ex- every thing till depended, as the ecuted than this daring and mass pofleffion of them would not only terly movement, in the face of have enabled the enemy to fe pasuch an enemy, and under the fire rate the two lines, but entirely to of a numerous artillery. The enclose and surround the firit, as troops had endured the galling fire soon as it ventured into action. of the enemy during the pause General Stuart, who commanded we have mentioned, with the ut- the seeond wing, perforized that most constancy and composure; service with such activity, as not and in the subsequent march and to keep him long in Suspense; and movement, they were obliged to as soon as he saw they were copass, as it were in review, under vered, he advanced with confidence the heavy flanking fire of all the on the enemy. enemy's batteries, while the fe. These sudden and unexpected poy's unharnessed their wretched evolutions, performed with an oxen, which were totally unequal to alertness of which Hyder himself the celerity of the occasion, and had yet seen ro example, obliged drew the artillery along at a quick him to a new arrangement of his pace, through a deep and heavy army. His guns were withdrawn land, for above a mile. The most from the batteries to the line with admirable order was preserved thro' equal order and expedition; he the whole.

- in itantly formed a new front to This prompt and happy move- receive Sir 'Eyre Coote; and seement, which was performed by ing at once the consequences the first line oply, decided the which wonld attend the poileflion fortune of the day. Nothing less of the high grounds, he detached could have done the bufinets, or a strong body of his disciplined inindeed have well saved the army; fantry, with a suitable artillery, for they had only four days pro- besides a number of irregulars, vifion, which they carried on their and a very great force of cavalry, backs, and delay, or even a drawn to attack the second line; while battle, would have been no less another detachment, or part of ruinous than a defeat. The ge- the fame, attempted, by getting

into the interval during the con- have been obliged to abandon the firct, to attack Sir Eyre Coote in Carnatic. It was intolerably vexthe rear. Thus the battle was ations to those brave men, to bedouble; and each wing separate- hold the Irong and vigorous cattle ly, and almost equally engaged. of the flying enemy carrying off

The main battle was long and their artillery at a full trot, while obstinately fought; and it was not their own were scarcely able to drag until four o'clock that, by dint the guns along. of courage, the most invincible The conduct and gallantry of perseverance, and an exertion for Major General Sir Hector Monro, 1o. many hours on the utmost who commanded the first line on ftretch, that the Englia at length this day, was highly diftinguishagained the day. At that time, ed. Indeed the behaviour of eve. the first line triumphing over every ry individual in the army, from obtacle, drove Hyder's infantry, the commander in chief to the artillery, and cavalry, promifcu- meanest fepoy, was beyond all ouļy before them, and compelledl praise. Sir Eyre Coote declares his whole army to seek their lafety in a letter, that every individual in a retreat. . During this time, of his little arıny seemed to feel the second line, under the conduct that all the interests of the nation of Brig. General Stuart, had not and Company were then at stake; only gallantly repulsed the repeat that falling, as they already were, ed attempts made by the other the most extraordinary exertions divifion of Hyder's army upon were necessary to their support; the hights, but attacked, carried, and, to their credit, faici he, and maintained those of which “ every nerve was exerted to the the enemy had first gained poffel- “ very extent of possibility." . fion; and while the rear of that Hyder left about 3,000 of his lioe were thus fully occupied, men dead upon the ground. His their van most obftinately disputed, principal and favourite general, and at length totally defeated, Meer Saib, was mortally woundthe attempt made to attack the ed ; and several other of his leadgeneral's rear. This poseffioa ers and best officers were among and brave defeoce of the heights, the killed or wounded. Sir Eyre likewise prevented the enemy, not- Coote halted just beyond the enewithstanding their multitude, from my's ground, from his inability being able to make any puth to- to continue the pursuit farther; wards the fea, or the smallest at- and was joined by the second line tempt upon the baggage.

and the baggage about midnight. Thus the victory was complete The loss on bis side was far from on all sides. Many of its advan- being considerable, considering the tages were, however, lost, through nature of the action; and did not the victors being bereft of the means exceed 400 men iu killed and of pursuit. If it were not for wounded; nor was there any ofthat unfortunate circumstance, the ficer of note in either lift. Nowhole of Hyder's artillery and thing could more fully thew Hystores would have fallen into their der's conviction of his interiority hands, and he would undoubtedly in the field, and his determination

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not to hazard another action un- draw some rice from Poonamalla, der any advantage of ground, This fupply being obtained, he than his leaving the strong and marched to seek the enemy'; and important pass of Puraveoaur open Hyder upon his approach fell back to the pursuit of the English when a few miles to the very ground he niade his retreat through it in where he bad defeated Colonel the evening. Among the imme. Baillie. There he took a very diate consequences of the victory, strong position ; but was more inTippoo Saib's raising the siege of fiuenced, as it is reported, by a Wandewash was not the least.. fuperftitious confidence in its be

* Hyder withdrew with his army ing a lucky spot, than by the to the neighbourhood of Arcot, strength of the ground, in his dewhere he was joined by. Tippoo terinination to try the fortune of Saib's detachinent,' Sir Eyre a second battle. Coote, having thus freed the lou- Sir Eyre Coote arrived in thern provinces from depredation Gght of the enemy about "7". and danger, marched with his eight o'clock in the morning; army to the northward, in order and discovered him to be in great to meet the long - expected and force, his army drawn up in order wished for reinforcement from Ben- of battle ready to receive him, and gal, which, under the favour of in possession of several very comMoodajee Boosia and his son, had manding and advantageous posts. marched through his territories in This fituation was rendered still Orissa, and were now arrived in more formidable by the nature the northern circars. This junc- of the country lying between both tion was happily effected in the armies, which was intersected by beginning of August; and the several very deep watercourses; general being now enabled to act so that nothing could be more arwith vigour, marched to lay fiege duous than the approach of the to Trepasfore. This place capi- troops to their object. The gene tulated after a few days fiege, and ral, in order to present a front to

w nothing could be more the enemy, was under a necessity Aug.234. timely or fortunate than of forming his line under a very the surrender; for besides that the heavy cannonade, as well from sepoffeffion was of importance, the veral batteries placed to great adadvance of Hyder's army (who vantage, as from the guns in the was in full march to ics relief) ap- enemy's line. This was an arpeared in light at the moment duous trial of the discipline and that the troops were taking pof- firmness of the troops; and the feffion of the works; and there general declared, that the steady was then only one day's rice left valour which tbey Thewed upon in the Englili army,

this occasion, could not bave been Trepaftore afforded some imme- surpassed by the first veterans of Hate relief; and the general find.. any nation in Europe. ing that byder was in full force · They had full occasion for the vt ab. ut fixteen miles distance, contioual exercise of these qualiHetermined to attack him ; but ties during the course of a very was under a necellity of waiting to long and hard fought day. The


battle lasted from nine in the The general then relieved Vel- . morning until it was near sun-fet. lore, which was reduced to the last By that time, Hyder was cured of extremity; and afterwards besieged his fuperftition; his army were and took Chittor. The season driven Successively from all their for some time occasioned a cessation ftroog posts, and obliged to aban- of action on both sides; but Vel. don the field of battle with preci- lore being again reduced to great pitation. The loss sustained by distress for provisions, the general the English army in this action was obliged, in the beginning of was greater than on the ist of the year 1782, to march again to its July, and that of the enemy less; relief. which, besides the causes we have Repeated defeat was not capafeen, proceeded from their fhel- ble of producing any remiffion of tering themselves under the banks Hyder's vigour or vigilance. On of tanks, and from their pofleff- Sir Eyre Coote's march to Vellore, ing in general such inequalities as the army were passing through of ground as afforded much co- a deep morass, the enemy appearver. It seems probable that their ed in force on different weathi artillery caused the principal loss quarters, and commenc-J in the Englich army. General ed a distant but a very hea 70%. Stuart loft a leg by a cannon-shot; vy cannonade. Their object was, Colonel Browne,' an old, ahle, besides impeding the progress of and experienced officer, his life, the army to Vellore (which was reo, by the same means; and Captain duced to the last day's provision) Hillop, one of the general's aid to cut off the baggage and convoy de camps, an active and spirited while the troops were entangled young officer, was killed, close to in these bad grounds. After an his fide, by a cannon-shot. These action, such as we have described, were the only officers of note who which lasted for four hours, the

enemy being foiled in all their atIt seemed as if defeat had tempts, were at length forced to wrought the extraordinary change abandon their object, and retiring in Hyder's disposition, of render- on all sides, the army, which had ing him enamoured of field battles; suffered very little in this action, Sept. 27th. of

h for, on the day-month pursued its course without interrup,

une of the late action, he tion to Vellore. waited to be attacked by Sir Eyre Upon the return of the army, Coote, near a place called Sholin- three days after, their indefatiga. gur. But this affair was soon decid- ble and ever watchful enemy ed. The action did not begin un- was again prepared for their retil four o'clock, and before night ception. On coming up to the his army was completely routed. fame morass, they, found Hyder In this battle both his cavalry and in full force on the other side, and infantry suffered extremely, 'while determined to dispute their passage. the loss of the victors was lo trilling They, however, passed the swamp, as not to deserve mention ; but the under the fire of his cannon, about enemy's troops were now used to be four in the afternoon; and the gebeaten.

neral having immediately formed,



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