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1. 311. indignant waves ;--cf. Virgil, Aeneid, viii. 728; Georgics, ii. 162. 1. 313. Pontifical ;-in its primary sense, 'bridge-making.'

1. 320. in little space ;—i. e. with no great interval, reckoning the bridge to Hell, while the stairs (iii. 5 10) connected the World with Heaven. (Keightley.)

1. 323. Keightley remarks that properly there were but two roads to Heaven and Hell; but Milton seems to reckon the way down to the Earth as a third.

1. 328. The Centaur and the Scorpion were six and seven signs in advance of the sun in Aries.

1. 329. His zenith ;-upwards, to the outside of the World. 1. 345. with joy and tidings ;-i. e. with joyful tidings. Cf. Aeneid, i. 636.

1. 368. our liberty, confind;-i.e. the liberty of us, confined. Instances of a similar construction are found in iv. 129, viii

. 423, and ix. 908. 1. 381. Cf. ii. 1048. On nearer view Heaven is found to be square. (Rev. xxi. 16.)

1. 383. Prince of Darkness ;-epithet of Satan in Spenser (Faery Queene, III. viii. 8) and Shakespeare (All's Well that Ends Well, iv. 5; King Lear, iii. 4), founded on Ephes. vi. 12.

1. 409. detriment ; -with allusion to the formula by which the consuls were invested with dictatorial power, ne quid respublica detrimenta capiat.'

1. 412. Newton remarks that Milton in adapting to his own use Ovid's journey of Envy to Athens (Metamorphoses, ii. 793) has altered Ovid's flowers,' herbs, people, and cities blasted by her presence, to stars, planets, and worlds. Marino and Tasso describe much the same effects from the passage of Jealousy and Alecto. The latter, as she moves, withers the fields and pales the sun. (Gierusalemme Liberata, ix. 1.)

1. 413. When the aspect of the planets was malign, persons and things were said to be planet-struck. This is here said of the planets themselves. Cf. “Some planet strike me down !' (Titus Andronicus, ii. 5), and ‘no planet strikes' (Hamlet, i. 1).

1. 415. causey; -causeway, from Fr. chaussée, and this from Lat. calceata, i. e. via calce strata,' a road made firm with stones or lime (Fr. chaux).

1. 416. exclaim'd;-cf. Psalm xlii. 7.

1. 426. paragon'd;—likened, from Fr. paragonner, to be equal, like. It is so used by Shakespeare (Antony and Cleopatra, i. 5; Othello, ii. 1).

1. 427. the grand ;- the grandees, as Tasso uses 'I grandi' (Gierusalemme Liberata, i. 20).

1. 430. Aeneid, ix. 40.

1. 431. The Russians had been extending their dominion eastward, and had advanced as far as Astrakhan. They consequently had frequent conflicts with the nomadic tribes (of Tartar or Turkish race) of the extensive eastern plains. Persia (in which was included Khorassan, the ancient Bactria) was at this time ruled by the Suffa vee family, and hence the word Sophi was used in Europe, like Shah, now to signify the Persian monarch. During the sixteenth century there was a continual war between the Persians and the Ottoman Turks, who were masters of Asia Minor and Syria. Tauris, or Tebreez, was the capital of the early Suffavee monarchs, as Erdebil to the east of it had been the original seat of their family. Casveen lies south-east of Tebreez. By the realm of Aladule is meant the greater Armenia, whose

last monarch, named Aladule, had been defeated and slain by the Turkish Emperor, Selim I; and the region beyond it was the country between it and Tebreez and Casveen. (Keightley.)

1. 438. reduc'd;-brought back. Always in this sense in Shakespeare. (Henry V. v. ii.; Richard III. ii. 2, and v. 4).

1. 441. Cf. Odyssey, vii. 39; Aeneid, i. 439. 1. 445. state ;-cf. note on Arcades 81.

1. 457. Divan ;-supreme council of the Turks. Satan is called Sultan' in i. 348. Keightley remarks that it is properly the raised seat that runs round the wall at the upper end of rooms in the East. 1. 458. So Caesar, before addressing his soldiers (Lucan, Pharsalia, i. 297):

• Tumultum Composuit vultu, dextrâque silentia jussit.' 1. 460. This line occurs in v. 601, 772, 840. Newton remarks that its repetition depends all along on the first use of it, and gives a force and beauty to it, which it would not have without the repetition.

1. 477. unoriginal ;-without beginning.
1. 478. Satan here lies to his followers. See ii. 1008.

1. 484. exile ;-here accented on last syllable. Shakespeare accentuates the word both as here and in the modern way.

1. 513. supplanted ;-tripped up (supplanto). Like reluctant (struggling), which occurs soon after, it is a gymnastic term.

1. 514. The transformation of Cadmus (Ovid, Metamorphoses, iv. 575) and that of Cavalcanti in Dante (Inferno xxv) were Milton's originals here.

1. 523. complicated;-i.e. intertwined.

1. 525. Hydrus is the water-snake. Elops is reckoned among the serpents by Pliny. Dipsas was so named from the unquenchable thirst (diva) that was occasioned by its bite.

1. 527. Bedropt ;cf. Ovid, Metamorphoses, iv. 618, 619.

1. 528. Opbiusa ;-—abounding in serpents. Several islands were so called. The one here meant is probably the smaller Pityusa, off the south coast of Spain.

1. 529. Rev. xii. 9. 1. 546. Hosea iv. 7. Exploding ;-condemning, used in the classical sense of hissing an actor from the stage.

1. 560. Megæra ;-one of the Furies. Their hair was serpents.

1. 561. Josephus and Mandeville give this tradition of the apples of Sodom, which was rejected by Sandys and Maundrell. This fruit, when ripe, if it be pressed, explodes, leaving in the hand only the shreds of the rind and a few fibres. It is not peculiar to the Dead Sea neighbourhood, being found in Nubia, Arabia, and Persia.' (Kitto's Bible Lands, quoted by Keightley.)

1. 565. gust ;-taste, pleasure, from Ital. gusto, which Dryden uses in its original form.

1. 569. Georgics, ii. 247. 1. 572. i.e. Whom they triumphed (over) for having once failed. 1. 573. Keightley takes · hiss' as a verb, and · long' and 'ceaseless' as adverbs.

1. 575. An idea suggested by Ariosto (Orlando Furioso, xliii. 98), where Manto and her companions are changed into serpents every seventh day. (Keightley.)

1. 581. wide-encroaching :--a translation of Eurynome, applied to Eve. 1. 586. Rom. vi. 6. 1. 590. Rev. vi. 8. 1. 599. ravin ;-prey.

1.616. Cf. Shakespeare's lines on Cæsar's spirit, raging for revenge' (Julius Cæsar, iii. 1). Landor, commenting on this passage, regrets that most of the worst verses, and much of the foulest language, are put into the mouth of the Almighty.' 1. 633. 1 Sam. xxv. 29. 1. 643. Rev. xv. 3, xvi. 7.

1. 645. extenuate ; —lessen. Cf. spes nostra extenuatur, et evanescit' (Cicero, Ad Atticum, iii. 13. I).

1. 647. the ages ;-the Millennium. Cf. xii. 549. The new heaven and earth are to rise (2 Pet. iii. 12, 13) or to descend (Rev. xxi. 2). 1. 655. Decrepit ; —like Spenser's Winter, • Faint with cold and weak with eld.'

(Faery Queene, VII. vii. 31.) 1.656. blanc ;-—a variation of the usual epithet, pale. Cf. candida luna' (Aeneid, vii. 8) and the ' bianca luna' of the Italian poets.

1. 659. If a planet were distant from another by a sixth part of the twelve signs, i. e. by sixty degrees, their aspect was called sextile; if they were parted by a fourth, square; and if by one half, opposite ; which last is said to be of noxious efficacy, because the planets so opposed were believed to strive to overcome one another, and their antagonism was deemed of evil omen to those born under the weaker star. Keightley observes that conjunction (i. e. when two planets were in the same sign and degree) was regarded as an indifferent aspect; the aspects of trine and sextile being benign, and quartile (or square) and opposition malign.

1. 668. On the supposition that the equator, before the Fall, coincided with the ecliptic, it became necessary to assume that one or the other circle had altered its position. If the Ptolemaic system were true, the ecliptic must have been moved ; if the Copernican, the equator. (Keightley.)

1. 670. sun's axle ;-axis of the ecliptic.

1. 673. A poetical mode of saying that the axis of the ecliptic was inclined to that of the equator. As the vertical angles were the same, the sun went as far from the equator on the north as on the south. (Keightley.)

1. 674. Atlantic sisters ;—the seven daughters of Atlas, the Pleiades ; seven stars in the constellation Taurus.

Spartan twins ;-Gemini, i.e. Castor and Pollux, sons of Leda, wife of Tyndareus, king of Sparta.

1. 686. Estotiland; the modern Greenland. Keightley observes that no country is named Magellan.

1. 687. Tbyestean ;-i.e. made for, not by, Thyestes. Cf. Horace, Ars Poetica, 91. “Thyéstean’ is for “Thyestéan,' as 'Chalýbean' is for 'Chalybéan’in Samson Agonistes 133.

1. 696. Norumbega ;-a province of North America, 'coinciding with the present New England and part of New York.'

Samoieda ;--a north-eastern province of Russia. 1.698, flaw;-blast of wind (filatus). Cf. • winter's flaw' (Hamlet, v. 1), and

* Like a red morn that ever yet betoken'd
Gust and foul flaws to herdsmen and to herds.'

(Venus and Adonis.) 1. 699. Boreas ;-the north wind.

Cæcias ;-(Kaukias) the north-east wind. 1. 700. Tbrascias ;--the wind blowing from Thrace, north-north west. 1. 702. Notus ;-the south wind.

Afer ;—the south-west wind. Cf. Aeneid, i. 85, 1. 703. Serraliona. The Lion Mountains (so called from the roaring storms there) are to the south-west of Africa, within a few leagues of Cape Verd. The Spanish name is Sierra (de) Leona, the Portuguese, Serra (de) Leoa. (Keightley.)

Eurus and Zepbyr ;-called also Levant and Ponent (rising and setting), are the east and west winds.

Sirocco (ventus Syrus) blows from the south-east, and Libecchio (ventus Lybicus) from the south-west. These winds are so called by the Italian sailors of the Mediterranean. (Keightley.)

1. 718. Isaiah lvii. 20. For a sea of passion' there is a precedent in Shakespeare's 'sea of troubles' (Hamlet, iii. I), and another in Aeschylus (Prometheus Vinctus 746).

1. 719. A metaphor from a ship in a tempest, disburdened to avoid sinking

1. 738. Mine own ;-i.e. curses.

1. 740. Milton here follows the notion that elemental bodies seek their determinate place by an impulse of their own, without regard to gravitation.

1. 741. Heavy, though in their place, Bodies should not weigh anything at the centre, their weight being only their tendency to the centre. (Keightley.)

1. 743. from my clay ;-this metaphor is found in Job xxxii, 6; Isaiah

xlv. 9.

1, 761. Isaiah xlv. 10.

1.778. Cf. xi. 536, and Spenser's phrase (Faery Queene, V. vii. 9) of the priests of Isis, who

• On their mother Earth's dear lap did lie.'. 1. 780. Job xxxvii. 5. 1. 783. Cf, 'non omnis moriar' of Horace (Odes, iii. 30. 6). 1. 788. Cf. Samson Agonistes 100.

1. 300. Cf. a passage in Jeremy Taylor's Treatise on the Real Presence (xi. 5): “But there is an impossibility which is absolute, which God cannot do, therefore [i. e. for that very reason] because he is Almighty, for to do that were impotency and want of power; as God cannot lie, he cannot be deceived, he cannot be mocked, he cannot die, he cannot deny himself or act unjustly.'

1. 806. According to the axiom of the schools, “Omne efficiens agit secundum vires recipientis, non suas.'

1. 808. sphere ;-i. e. of their operation, their power.
1. 816. Am found ;-cf. 'thou and I am one' (As You Like It, i, 3).

1. 817. Cf. O thou Adam, what hast thou done ? for though it was thou that sinned, thou art not fallen alone, but we all that come of thee.' (2 Esdras vii. 48.)

1. 832. me, me only ;--cf. Aeneid, ix. 427.

1. 840. future. The only instance in Milton of this accentuation of the second syllable in this word. Newton gives one from Fairfax's Translation of Tasso.

1. 845. Cf. the lamentations of Constance (King John, iii. 4) and Cleopatra (Antony and Cleopatra, v. 2). A classical precedent has been found in Sophocles (Philoctetes 786, &c.).

1. 846. From a comparison of previous passages (lines 329, 341, 651-5) it appears that this was some other night than that immediately after the Fall.

1. 859. slowest ;—very slow. Cf. ' pede Pæna claudo' (Horace, Odes, iii. 2. 32).

1. 861. Cf. v. 202 ; Virgil, Eclogues, i. 5. 1. 872. pretended ;

;-as in Latin, held up or before, i.e. masking fraud. 1. 887. *Some writers hold that Adam had had thirteen ribs on the left side, and that from the supernumerary rib Eve was made.' (Newton.)

1. 888. Hippolytus expostulates with Zeus to the same effect (Euripides, Hippolytus 616), and Posthumus in Cymbeline (ii. 5) holds similar language.

1. 898. for either, &c.; — cf. Lysander's lament on the course of true love' (Midsummer Night's Dream, i. 1).

1. 905. Keightley thinks that Milton had in view his own courtship of Miss Davies. He certainly bore in mind the scene that ended it. See p. xi. of Life.

1. 914. Eve's appeal and action have been thought to resemble those of Philoctetes in Sophocles (485, &c.), when imploring Neoptolemus not to forsake him. 1. 921. forlorn ;-utterly forsaken, lost (verloren). Cf. * Like a forlorn and desperate castaway.'

(Titus Andronicus, V. 3.) 1. 931. Psalm li. 4.

1. 936. The repetition resembles that in iïi. 236, and in Abigail's speech (1 Sam. xxv. 24).

1. 953. that place ;-of judgment. Cf. 932.

1. 978. As in our evils ; considering our evil plight. Cf. ut in tantis malis. (Cicero, Epist. Fam. xii. 2). An exactly similar use of “as' occurs in Juliet's soliloquy (iv. 3), "As in a vault.'

1. 981. and miserable it is ;-with these words begin a parenthesis ending at monster in line 986.

1. 1000. make short;-i. e. work. (Keightley.)
1. 1007. Aeneid, iv. 499, 645.
1. 1066. shattering ;--cf. Lycidas 4.

graceful locks ;---cf. vii. 323, note. 1. 1071. sere ;-cf. Lycidas 2.

foment ;-cherish (from foveo, fovimentum, fomentum). Cf. Aeneid, i. 175, 276. • Fulmen detulit in terras mortalibus ignem.'

(Lucretius, v. 1091.) 1. 1075. Tine ;-kindle (A. S. tendan, whence tinder). See the word in Glossary to Faery Queene, II.

1. 1072. Cf.

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