Imágenes de páginas

at his festival. (Bentley.) Pliny, however, names the gardens of Adonis with those of the Hesperides and Alcinous. Spenser (Faery Queene, 1II. vi.) describes them,

'as the first seminary Of all things that are born to live and die

According to their kinds.' 1. 450. tedded grass is grass just mown and spread for drying (A.S. getead, prepared). Latham adduces the Prov. Germ. zetten as a kindred word.

1. 453. Cf. Faery Queene, II. vi. 24.

1. 462. A similar repetition to that of fierceness and fierce occurs in Aeneid, i. 669.

1. 468. in mid Heav'n ;—perhaps with allusion to Job i. 6, ii. 1.
1. 471. See note on i. 528.
1. 473. Cf. Arcades 68.

1. 496. indented. Metaphor from the teeth of a saw, applied by Shakespeare (As You Like It, iv. 3) to the movement of a snake.

1. 505. chang’d;- transformed ; i. e. the forms that changed Cadmus and Hermione. (Newton.) Todd would place a comma after 'chang'd,' and understands that word as = ' underwent a change.'

1. 506. Keightley was the first to remark that “Hermione' should be • Harmonia.'

1. 507. Olympias was the mother of Alexander the Great. Cf note on Nativity 203. Dryden has the same allusion in the second stanza of Alex. ander's Feast.

1. 510. Scipio Africanus is here meant. Cf. the top of eloquence,' Paradise Regained, iv. 354.

1. 522. Cf. Ovid, Metamorphoses, xiv. 45, 46.

1. 549. Cf. Paradise Regained, iv. 4, 5; Comus 161. The invitation in line 732 may be compared with that of Comus to the Lady, ‘Be wise, and taste' (1. 813).

1. 563. speakable ;—not may be spoken,' but able to speak.' Horace thus uses illachrymabilis' as passive (Odes, iv. 9. 26), and as active (Odes, ii. 14. 6). “Since the time of Milton, there has been a decided tendency to diminish the number of words with a Saxon root and a French termination.' (Marsh.)

1. 581. Serpents were supposed to delight in fennel (Pliny, Natural History, xix. 56), and to suck the teats of ewes and goats.

1. 612. Universal dame ;-Lady of the universe (“dame' from Lat. domina'). 1. 613. spirited ;-inspired, possessed (Ital. spiritare). Cf. iii. 717. 1. 631. Cf. Georgics, 153.

1. 634. This account is bad physics. The ignis fatuus, which is of very rare appearance, is supposed to be produced by a luminous insect. (Keightley.) But Newton, in his Optics, remarks tható vapours arising from putrified waters are usually called ignes fatui. More modern authorities hold that the appearance is produced by the decomposition of animal or vegetable matter, or by the evolution of gases which spontaneously ignite in the atmosphere.'

1. 640. Cf. L'Allegro 104, and the gambols of Puck (Midsummer Night's Dream, ii. 1).


1. 643. fraud ;-cf. vii. 143, note. 1. 644. tree of prohibition is a Hebraism for prohibited tree,' as is daughter of his voice' at line 653.

1. 653. the rest ;—as for the rest, a usual idiom in Greek and Latin (e. g. * caetera Graius,' Aeneid, iii. 594.)

1. 654. Rom. ii. 14.
1. 668. fluctuates; -moves to and fro.

1. 672. since mute ;-i.e. as has never since been heard, excluding even the debates of the Long Parliament. (Keightley.)

1. 675. Sometimes in bightb began ;-like Cicero in his first oration against Catiline.

1. 702. your fear itself ;-i. e. your belief in God's justice removes the fear of death, since death implies that He is unjust.

1. 714. put on gods ;-a reminiscence of the Scriptural • put on incorruption' (2 Cor. xv. 53).

1. 729. can envy dwell ;--cf. Aeneid, i. 11.

1. 732. bumane ;--i. e. human. The differing sense attached to each form is of modern use.

1. 736. Cf. Iliad, ii. 41.

1. 742. inclinable ;-inclining, like 'oceano dissociabili' (Horace, Odes, i. 3. 22).

1. 771. author ;-adviser. Mihique ut absim, vehementer auctor est (Cicero ad Atticum, xv. 5).

1. 790. Eve thus falls into the very temptation by which Satan himself fell, by aspiring to be like God in knowledge, as he had aspired to be like Him in power. (Cf. Bacon, Advancement of Learning, ii. comment on Isaiah xiv. 14.)

1. 792. eating death ;-a Grecism imitated from Virgil, “sensit medios delapsus in hostes,' for 'se delapsum esse.' (Aeneid, ii. 377.)

1. 793. boon ;-gay, as in .boon-companion.' (From Lat. bonus.)

1. 795. precious ; --positive for superlative, as in Iliad, v. 381; Aeneid, iv. 576. Keightley remarks that it is also a Hebraism. Landor admires the wonderful skill with which Eve, after the Fall, is represented as deceitful and audacious; as ceasing to fear, and almost as ceasing to reverence, the Creator ; and shuddering not at extinction itself, till she thinks of “ Adam wedded to another Eve." ;

1. 800. Not without song ;-cf. the .non sine floribus' of Horace (Odes, iii. 13. 2).

1.811. Psalm xciv. 7; Job xxii, 12-14.

1. 815. safe ; i.e. as regards any danger from him. The word is thus used in Shakespeare by Miranda (Tempest, iii. 1), and by Henry IV (Richard II, v. 3) when threatening Aumerle.

1. 823. The Knight in Chaucer (Wife of Bath's Tale) is required, on pain of death, to tell what is that which women most desire. His answer, and the right one, is, “Wommen desiren to have soveraynte.'

1. 829. I extinct ;—nominative absolute. See note on l. 130.

1. 832. Newton remarks that this passage is stronger and more pathetic than the declaration of Lydia (Horace, Odes, iii. 9. 24).

1. 835. Idolatry is made the first result of eating the forbidden fruit. 1.837. sciential ;-possessing and giving knowledge (Lat. scientialis).



1. 838. Andromache is thus described as amusing herself, and awaiting the return of Hector, not knowing that he had been slain. (Iliad, xxii. 440.)

1. 847. divine of ;-foreboding. Cf. `praesaga mali mens' (Aeneid, x. 843), and Horace, Odes, iii. 27. 10.

1. 851. Cf. Virgil, Eclogues, ii. 51; Georgics, iv. 415.

1. 853. The original editions have “to,' which Newton and Todd altered to 'too. I have printed excuse' with a capital, as I believe that a personification is intended. Prologue and apology are connected in Romeo and Juliet, i. 4.

1. 888. The words in this line are so arranged as to necessitate an effective pause after Adam.'

1. 890. Aeneid, ii. 120; xii. 951.

1. 892. So Cymoent, in Spenser, hearing of the misfortunes of her son, flings away the garlands she had been making. (Faery Queene, III, iv. 30.)

1. 893. It is noteworthy that the roses had already faded. 1. 901. devole ;—the devota morti' of Horace (Odes, iv. 14. 18). 1. 908. A reminiscence of the speech of Admetus to Alcestis (Euripides, Alcestis 278).

1. 923. coveting to eye ;—to eye with desire, covetously.
1. 947. Cf. Deut. xxxii. 27.
1. 953. certain ;-for ‘resolved' (certus eundi,' Aeneid, iv. 554).

1. 980. oblige here means to render obnoxious to guilt or punishment, as in Horace, Odes, ii. 8. 5.

1. 989. to the winds ;-a quasi-proverbial expression. (Horace, Odes, i. 26. 1-3.)

1. 998. Milton follows St. Paul, ' Adam was not deceived.' (1 Tim. ii. 14.)

1. 1019. savour ;-applied in Latin to the understanding as well as to the palate, as in Cicero, 'nec enim sequitur, ut cui cor sapiat, ei non sapiat palatum.' (De Finibus, ii, 8.)

1. 1052. unrest ;-want of rest, unhappiness. The word is so used by Shakespeare (Romeo and Juliet, i. 5).

1. 1057. Shame covered them with his robe, but in so doing discovered to them their nakedness. Clothed with shame' occurs in Psalm cix. 29. Cf. Samson Agonistes 841.

1. 1068. worm is used as equivalent to 'serpent' in Macbeth, iii. 4.
1. 1086. Cf. Arcades 89, and Faery Queene, I. i. 7.
1. 1088. Cf. Rev. vi. 16, 17.

1. 1101. This description of the fig-tree is taken from Gerard's Herball. (1633). It accurately applies to the banian tree, with this exception, that the leaves of the banian are the smallest of the forest kind. Milton was led into the error by the name; the Portuguese calling the banian the fig-tree, from the resemblance of its fruit.

1. 1111. Amazonian targe ;—a light semicircular shield (méaty).
1. 1140. Refer to line 335.
1. 1144. "Iliad, i. 552, xiv. 83.

1. 1166. A reminiscence of the speech of Alcestis, telling her husband that she might have lived, but preferred death for his sake. (Euripides, Alcestis 282, &c.)

1. 1183. Milton's editions have women. Bentley read 'woman,' justifying

it by the following her.' But besides that such a transition is not unusual (as Newton observes), there may be here also that generalisation and reference to times long after the Fall, which are observable in other passages.

Book X. 1. 9. Ephes. vi. 13. 1. 16. manifold ; - divines having reckoned many sins as included in that of Adam, who, offending in one point, was guilty of all.

1. 23. Shakespeare has this idea of the angels weeping at the folly of man, in a well-known passage in Measure for Measure (ii. 2).

1. 37. sincerest ;-—most perfect. Cf. ix. 320; Paradise Regained, ii. 480. 1. 40. Cf. iii. 86-96. 1. 45. moment; ---see vi. 239, note. 1. 51. Eccles. viii. 11. 1. 56. John v. 22. 1. 59. Psalm lxxxv. 10. 1. 66. Heb. i. 3. 1. 68. John iv. 34. Cf. Aeneid, i. 76. 1. 74. Cf. iii. 236. 1. 76. Of right ;-i. e. ' As I have undertaken to bear the whole penalty, I have a right to make their share of it as light as I please' their doom being derived (diverted from its old channel, rivus) on me. (Keightley.)

1. 84. The meaning of this line is obscure when taken in connexion with line 164. Keightley understands it 'the serpent's part in the matter is so plain as to require no proof.'

1. 106. obvious ;-coming to meet (Lat. obvius). Cf. viii. 504, xi. 374, and Aeneid, iii. 499.

1. 145. An expostulation perhaps suggested by Gen. xxx. 2; 2 Kings v. 7. 1. 151. Cf. viii. 568, 570.

1. 155. part and person ;-terms borrowed from the stage : ‘persona' in its sense of character,' part in a play.' Cicero uses both the words in this sense in his oration Pro Muraenâ. So Milton: If it were an honour to that person which he (Caesar) maintained.' (History of England, ii.)

1. 157. in few;—i. e. words, a common Greek and Latin ellipse. So in 2 Henry IV. i. 1:

• In few, his death, whose spirit lent a fire,' &c. 1. 169. As man did not know the serpent to have been the instrument of Satan, and as the knowledge was not necessary then, the sentence was pronounced in such terms as, to man's apprehension, applied only to the serpent.

1. 184. Allusions are made in this passage to the following texts :- Luke X. 18; Eph. ii. 2 ; Col. ii. 15; Ps. lxviii. 18; Eph. iv. 8; and Rom. xvi. 20.

1. 214. Phil. ii. 7.
1. 215. John xiii. 5.

1. 218. Because some commentators thought that the beasts shed their coats for the purpose.

1. 219. Rom. v. 10.
1. 222. Isaiah Ixi. 10.

1. 230. counterview ;—from Fr, contrevue (We have country-dance' from contre danse.')


1. 246. sympathy. Sir Kenelm Digby professed to cure wounds by sympathy, i. e. by the treatment either of the sword that had inflicted them, or anything whereon the blood from the patient had fallen. Several of Digby's works on physical subjects were published between 1644 and 1655.

1. 249. my sbade ;—perhaps with allusion to the classical .umbra, an uninvited guest. (Horace, Satires, ii. 8. 22.)

1. 260. intercourse ;—from frequent passage backward and forward. 1. 261. transmigration ;—for quitting Hell altogether for Earth.

1. 273. Lucan has a description of the ravenous birds that followed the Roman camp, and scented the battle of Pharsalia (vii. 831), which may have suggested the simile. Todd quotes from Beaumont and Fletcher (Beggar's Bush):

"'Tis said of vultures
They scent a field fought; and do smell the carcases

By many hundred miles.' 1. 279. Feature ;-i. e. form, the two words are often coupled in Shakespeare; "feature' (from Ital. fattura), 'what is made,' thus almost synonymous with creature.'

1. 280. murky ;-dark (A.S. mirc). Mirk’ is a north-country word for darkness. Cf. · Hell is murky' (Macbeth, v. I).

1. 281. sagacious ;-quick of scent. Sagire enim, sentire acute est; ex quo sagaces dicti canes.' (Cicero, de Divinatione, i. 4.) Keightley observes that

quarry' is incorrectly used here, for it means the part of the deer given to the hounds (curée), and the chase is not yet begun. The word is, however, generally used for prey, and Richardson derives it from Lat. quaerere, through Fr. quérir.

1. 289. Pliny (Nat. Hist. iv. 16) says that the sea one day's sail from Thule is frozen, and is called Cronian.

1. 291. imagin’d way ;—the north-east passage to the East by the north of Europe and Asia.

1. 292. Petsora ;—Petchora, a river in the north-east of Russia, falling into the Arctic Ocean. 1. 294. mace ;—(from 'massa,' a club) was part of a knight's equip

Chaucer (Knight's Tale) having enumerated many weapons and kinds of armour worn by different knights at the Athenian tourney, concludes with an axe, and eke a mace of steel.' Todd says the word was used for sceptre in our old poetry,' and takes that sense of it here. (In Julius Caesar, iv. 3, the weapon rather than the sceptre seems intended, from the epithet 'murderous' applied to Slumber.)

1. 296. Delos ;-one of the Cyclades. The legend ran that Delos was a floating island till Zeus fastened it with adamantine chains to the bottom of the sea, that Leto might find it a secure asylum wherein she might bring forth Apollo and Artemis.

1.297. Gorgonian rigour ;-like that produced by the Gorgon, who turned to stone all that looked on her.

I. 304. Cf. Matt. vii. 13; Aeneid, vi. 126. 1. 305. inoffensive ;-—without obstruction, as in viii. 164. 1. 308. Memnonian. Susa, the residence of the Persian kings, is called Memnonia by Herodotus (vii. 35).


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