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practise whatever the blessed gospel perform whatever services it can reninculcates. If our Lord has laid upon der to any part of the body. Were us many duties; if he has prescribed the arms to refuse moving, or the the observance of various ordinances, limbs to refuse moving, unless some the reason is, that the exercise and special advantage of their own were the effort which they require are ne- to be gained, not only would they do cessary to the development of our irreparable damage to the whole body, spiritual strength. Be constantly but they would dry up the fountain employed in discharging your duty of their own strength. Under the to God: be constantly employed in blighting curse 'of selfishness, they discharging your duty to your fellow would become shrivelled and weak. men : be constantly employed in re- The idea of not troubling themselves gulating your own feelings and de- for the advantage of others, would be sires, conformably to Christ's word ; quite suicidal. and your progress will resemble the Now, the same holds good of the morning light, which groweth more body of Christ, which is his church. and more unto the perfect day. The members of Christ's body are
Once more, mutual assistance is all connected with one another; and necessary to the growth and vitality whether one member suffer all the of the members of Christ's body. members suffer along with it, or one
Let us again look back to the phy- member be honoured all the memsical constitution of man. We have bers rejoice with it. There should seen that the due exercise of every be no schism in the body, but the arm and limb is necessary to the pro- members should have the same care motion of its growth, and the increase one for another. Undoubtedly it is of its strength. But there is another the duty of each individual Christian fact connected with the body which to look well to his own growth in requires our consideration. Not only grace; and he should be constantly is it true that every limb requires to occupied with the use of those means be exercised for its own sake, but it which have been appointed for this is also true that each limb requires purpose. Every Christian grace it to be exercised for the benefit of the should be his endeavour to maintain rest. Nay more, the advantage of in vigorous exercise. But if any each limb in particular is best se- man confine his attention to himself, cured when it co-operates for the even to his own spiritual improvegeneral good. The harmonious de- ment, let him labour with ever so velopment of the whole body requires much zeal, he is acting in contraventhe action of each part for the benefit tion of the fundamental principles of of all; and each attains its own the Gospel. The substance of the greatest strength when its efforts are decalogue, that we love the Lord with not limited to itself. The exercise of all our heart, and with all our soul, the arms promotes the strength and and with all our strength, and with all growth of the arms; but it also pro- our mind, and our neighbour as our motes the strength and growth of selves, continues to be the substance the whole body. The exercise of of Christian duty. Every member the limbs promotes the strength and of the body of Christ is bound to growth of the limbs ; but it also pro- consult for the good of the whole. motes the strength and growth of the We are to look, not simply every whole body. Moreover, to secure man on his own things, but every the full development of the arm, it is man also on the things of others. A not enough that the arm be moved generous spirit is pre-eminently the when some purpose of its own is to spirit of the Gospel. Where the be served, but it must be ready to love of Christ has been truly felt, it will prompt to persevering efforts for the Christian name to act faithfully the conversion and improvement of upon these patriotic and self-denying others. The genuine believer, catch- principles, who can tell how speedily ing a portion of that matchless love the bright visions of prophecy might which throbbed in the breast of be realised, and the mountain of the Christ, will be ready to make all Lord's house fill the whole earth ? sacrifices, and to undergo all labours, The active co-operation of each indithat he may promote the advance- vidual member is necessary to the ment of the Gospel.
full and harmonious development of And this readiness to labour for the whole body. the benefit of others, serves, as in the But, further, the exercise of the case of the body, two most important large and generous spirit which I purposes. In the first place, it pro- have described, is necessary to the motes the extension of the church. growth and health of the individual It promotes the spiritual health of member himself. Who is the Christhe whole body of Christ. When tian that will make rapid progress in believers take a generous interest in all the graces of the Gospel, that will each other's welfare, they are em, speedily become meet for the inheritploying the most direct means for ance of the saints in light, that will strengthening and elevating the whole shine like a star in the firmament of Christian church. And their labours heaven? The man who confines his and sacrifices should have a respect attention almost entirely to himself, to the different spheres of Christian whose bosom scarcely ever throbs duty. When a stone falls upon the with a generous emotion, - from placid surface of a lake, one circle whom it is like pulling a tooth to after another, with ever widening procure any help for a Christian obcircumference, is seen to move over ject? As well might you affirm its waters, until they are lost in the that, in the body, that would become distance; an emblem of the different the strongest arm which was never spheres of duty with which every lifted from the side for the benefit of believer should consider himself sur- the body, but only moved when it rounded. As connected with some had some purpose of its own to serve. family circle, it is the duty of each of No, be assured, the most direct meyou to labour, with unwearied zeal, thod of promoting your own spiritual for the spiritual good of all who be- good, is to labour for the spiritual long to it. As connected with a par good of others. There are some proticular Christian society, it is your fessing Christians who wrap themduty to contribute liberally to its sup- selves up in a cloak of selfishness, port, and to take an interest in all its who are concerned, it may be, about plans of usefulness. As connected their spiritual state, who spend their with a widely-extended Christian de- days in seeking comfort, but leanness nomination, it is incumbent upon you continues the characteristic of their to consult the advantage of the whole souls. They are not the men of body, and to aid in supporting every whom it can be said that their proinstitution connected with it. And fiting appears to all. Let them open as members of the church universal, their hearts to the generous emotions it is your duty, both to pray that Je- of the Gospel ; let them select some rusalem may become the praise of walk of Christian usefulness, and be the whole earth, and to employ every of service in their day and generasuitable means for extending the tion; let them gather the neglected triumphs of the Gospel, that Jesus young around them in the Sabbathmay reign over the subjugated nations school; let them contribute both of the world. And were all who bear time and money to the support of benevolent and religious objects ; let the same God is their father, and the them consult for the good of Christ's same Jesus is the elder brother of whole body; and these labours, flow- them all. They form one great ing from the love of Christ, and fos- family, actuated by similar views, tering the love of Christ, will do exposed to similar dangers, and desmore to strengthen their faith, and to tined to dwell for ever in the same infuse joy into their hearts, than a happy home. Who should love each lifetime of solitary meditation. Far other, then, if not the followers of be it from me to substitute these Christ? Who should take such an labours in the room of the private interest in each other's welfare? Who exercises of religion. The Saviour's should sympathise with each other maxim here finds a most appropriate with such a depth of emotion ? Surely application : “ These things ought ye a love that is to outlive death, and to to have done, and not to leave the flourish with augmented power in other undone." While you are to heaven, should have free scope given seek your own spiritual good by to it upon earth, that it may treasure efforts specially directed to that pur- up for future enjoyment many pleaspose, you are, at the same time, to ing recollections of benefits given and seek the spiritual good of others; received during the day of conflict and the combination of these two ob- and probation. When companions jects will both produce the greatest in arms have retired from the scene amount of good to the Church at of battle, will not their hearts be the large, and the greatest amount of more knit to each other, and their good to your own souls.
pleasure in each other's society be Oh, what an intimate bond is it by increased by every recollection of which believers are united to their help either given or received amid Lord, and to one another! Every the dangers of the field ? So, in heafollower of Christ is the brother of ven, the happiness and love of the every other Christian that breathes. saints will be augmented by the reThey may be strangers to one an- membrance of every cup of cold water other while pursuing their several which they may have given in the courses upon earth; but they are name of Christ to any Christian solanimated by the same spirit, the same dier wearied with the burden and life-blood flows through their souls, heat of the day.
BOTANICAL THEOLOGY.—THE BEING OF GOD. No. III.
BY THE REV. DAVID SMITI. In further illustration of the argu- of view, the evidence of design will ment for the being of God from the appear obvious and striking. When constitution of vegetable bodies, we a house requires to be repaired or would refer to the mechanical organi- enlarged, there are certain mechanical zation for the nourishing of the plant contrivances which are put in requiThe provision for the nourishment of sition for this purpose. Scaffolding a vegetable body is, in nature, some- is erected, inclined planes are laid, thing analogous to that which, in art, and windlasses are fixed, in order is made for the reparation or enlarge that the materials for building may ment of a material fabric. It is, in be raised, and the workmen have a fact, just a provision for supplying place on which to carry on their the wastes of time and accident, and operations. Such provisions, viewed for promoting and securing the natural in connexion with their obvious end, growth of the plant. In this point suggest at once, even to the mast
unreflecting, the presence of a design- draw to a point all the water in a ing mind arranging and disposing all field, than is a system of tree roots in intended subserviency to the re- to draw to the tree all the nourishparation or alteration of the struc- ment within the circle of its influence. ture. Now, in every plant, which is But, observe still farther, how admijust a vegetable structure requiring rably contrived it is for extracting and reparation and renovation every year, conveying the moisture with which it we have mechanical contrivances of comes into contact. The countless the very same character; that is, fibres of the root, the small as well contrivances for collecting, convey- as the great, are literally just so many ing, and disposing the materials of capillary tubes, bored and hollowed nourishment,—with this difference, as visibly for the purpose of transthat instead of being rude and clumsy, mitting the moisture to the trunk, as they are of the most delicate and are pipes for the conveyance of water ; artificial kind ; and, instead of being and not only so, but each of these mere temporary expedients, they are fibres is armed, so to speak, at its exa permanent part of the constitution tremity with a sponge-like apparatus, of the plant. They are chiefly two- by means of which it imbibes the vathe root and the foliage, which are ried nutritive juices inherent in the soil, connected together by the vessels of so that we may justly regard the rathe trunk.
dicles or small roots, many of them not In referring in a former paper to larger in size than a hair, as so many the root as a mechanical organization mouths, through which the plant for fixing the plant, we remarked, sucks in its nourishment, and anthat it answered this purpose as com- swering the same purpose in the vepletely as if this had been the sole getable which the mouth and throat end of it. We may make the same do in the animal. That we rightly remark now in reference to it as an interpret the design of the contriorganization for nourishing the plant. vance in question, has been satisfacIt is, in every respect, so admirably torily demonstrated by experiments. contrived for drawing from the earth Two carrots were placed in waterthat kind of nourishment which the the one immersed, the other only soil is fitted to yield, namely, water, brought into contact with the water more or less loaded with vegetable by its extremity; and the result was, and animal matter, and the several not only that water was absorbed in gases with which it may happen to both cases, but that equal quantities be charged, that it could not have were absorbed. But there is still been more perfectly adapted to the something more in the root, consipurpose, though no other end had dered as a contrivance for furnishing had to be served. Observe, first of nourishment to the plant. It appears, all, how admirably contrived it is, by we would add, to be endowed with its form and position, for collecting a strange mysterious power, somemoisture. Instead of striking per- thing almost like instinct, of seeking pendicularly down, and in a single out for itself the nourishment it reroot, it spreads and ramifies itself in quires ; so that it will push its fibres every direction immediately below in the direction in which nourishthe surface, just where there is most ment is to be obtained, while it will moisture and earthy matter to collect, withdraw them from the contrary till it has covered all round, to an side. Thus, when a tree which reextent, in every case proportioned to quires much moisture, has been its size, with a thick net of fibres. planted in a dry soil in the vicinity No system of drains could have been of water, it has been observed that laid out with more obvious skill to the larger proportion of its roots have
been directed towards the water. A road was dripping with water so coremarkable instance of this kind of piously, that the road beneath was in vegetable instinct is mentioned as a puddle when the other parts conoccurring in the valley of the Earn, tinued dry, and manifested no apin Perthshire. A tree planted in a pearance of humidity.” What, howscanty soil by the bank of a stream, ever, is especially to be remarked over which, in its immediate vi- here is, that the provision for receivcinity, a foot bridge covered with ing and distributing the moisture turf had been erected, taking ad- attracted is so contrived, that that vantage of this circumstance, pushed moisture is first and principally made its roots through the dead turf of to descend where it is most needed, the bridge, till they fastened in the and will be most immediately taken fertile soil, which happened to be in by the roots. We have already on the other side of the stream; and stated that the extremities of the roots then strengthening and swelling its are the absorbing organs; and as the new organ of communication, drew extremities of the branches corressufficient nourishment from this pond to those of the roots, the one source to supply all the wants of just answering in extent to the other, nature.
it will appear obvious, that the moistBy these remarkable properties of ure from the branches falling, as it will, the root, some of the disadvantages from their outer extremities, will drop arising from the stationary character most profusely on the extremities of of plants, which cannot, like animals, the roots, that is, the line of a tree's move about in quest of food, are par absorbing powers, and the line of its tially overcome. But it is obvious drip will be always the same. But they are so only within a very limited water is not the only kind of nutriextent. The nourishment contained ment which the roots of a plant need. in a few square yards of surface, for A tree requires to be manured as such is the narrow range of an ordi- well as refreshed. The substances nary tree root, must soon be ex- which are taken from the ground hausted. How, then, is this want to must be returned to it, or else it will be supplied, and the plant continue to yield no further nourishment. And, be supported—for what are the most accordingly, the great object of agriexquisitely constructed organs with- cultural cultivation is just to do this out materials on which they can be —to bring to the plant or place withexercised ? Now, this is effected by in its range such a supply of matetwo expedients, which serve very re. rial as natural means cannot furnish markably to enhance the evidence of it with in the situation where it creative forethought or design. The grows. But what shall do for the first is the attraction which plants plants of nature, that which man have for moisture. Though they can- does for the cultivated kinds ? Are not go abroad like animals in search they left helpless ? No. Their Creator of it, they can do what is the next has provided them with a remedy. thing to this ; they can, to some ex- What man does for the cultivated tent, bring it to them. “ Trees,” says plants, the wild plants do for themthe Journal of a Naturalist, “have selves. Shedding their leaves all long been noted as great attractors of around them, and thickest where humidity. A strongly marked in- their roots lie, they become self-mastance of this was witnessed by my- nured ; and no manure, physiologists self. The weather had previously inform us, is better for a plant than been very fine and dry, and the road its own produce. Liebig mentions in a dusty state ; but a fog coming that a poor vine-dresser in Germany, on, an ash-tree hanging over the being so poor as to be unable to pur