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and that the scorn of their fellow-citizens their capacity of ministers of religion, they is utterly feeble against them. They have ventured to lift up their voice in their own fairly settled the question that public opinion, interest, and against the government meaand the rights of conscience, and the honour sure. Thus it turned out that the hushof that religion which proclaims peace on money had been thrown away on these hoearth, and good-will toward men, and which nest, outspoken clergymen; and was this enjoins its followers to avoid even the ap- to be tolerated ? It is not to be supposed pearance of evil, and to walk wisely towards that the British government, in these rethem that are without, are not to be per- trenching days, will be satisfied with giving mitted to stand between the state clergy of money for nothing—at least to parties who Edinburgh, and the stipend which an Act of are not aristocrats. Yet as there was noParliament authorises them to realise out of thing in the bond stipulating that the Irish the chairs and tables of Edinburgh citizens. Presbyterian ministers must never differ They have fairly thrown down the gauntlet from the Queen's government on any public to the Voluntaries; and we are glad to see question, it was not competent to sue them that it has been so promptly taken up by at law, as the Scottish non-intrusionists the Scottish Anti-State Church Society. were sued, for a breach of bargain. What, We trust that the public meeting held in then, was to be done ? Edinburgh in connexion with this notable The annual voting of the donum in the specimen of the beauties of State Churchism House of Commons, affords the means of a will be extensively followed up. Deeply convenient check to the presumption of the blameable as were the disorder and violence pensioners. Trifling though the hush-money of some of the spectators at the roupings, be, it is not got without a little grumbling much valuable truth may be taught in the on the part of Mr Hume, Mr Bright, and a exposition of the text furnished by the few other members of Parliament, who are Edinburgh State clergy on Monday, 3d ever watching the opportunity to throw July, 1848.
obstacles in the way of the grant. The
government, then, have only to hold up THE IRISH REGIUM DONUM PENSIONERS. Mr Hume in terrorem over the disobedient
ministers; and this (whether accidentally VARIOUS and conflicting opinions have been or by design, they who know any thing of expressed, by divines who may be held as government procedure will best judge), authorities in the case, respecting the royal they have actually done. The enemies gift to the Presbyterians of the Synod of of the donum have been allowed by her MaUlster. Dr Chalmers, in welcoming the jesty's ministers to carry a vote limiting it Synod's delegates at the disruption, pro- to three months, instead of a whole year nounced the system to be his beau ideal of as formerly. The recipients of the donum a Church Establishment. Dr Candlish, are thus put upon a short warning. Whether with, as we think, a keener observation of they will kiss their hand, and beg pardon of the scheme, has declared the donuin to be Lord John Russell for presuming to differ " the hush-money of the State to keep its from him on the landlord and tenant bill, recipients quiet." Which of the two remains to be seen. One thing is already opinions is the more consistent with the sufficiently plain—they are clearly conprinciples of the Free Churchman, is a vinced that Dr Chalmers' beau ideal of a question likely to be tested soon. The church establishment is a galling bondage, Synod of Ulster ministers, it is well known, and they are groaning for deliverance. cannot trust themselves for support either “The tendency of the present system,” says to the Establishment system in the shape of one of them, “tends to subserviency. Godonum, or to the Voluntary system in the vernment has only to interpose difficulties shape of the free gifts of their people, or in the way of the annual grant—to vote it even to both systems combined. With very in fragments, as has lately been done-or few exceptions, they are farmers as well as to intimate that the whole thing is an affair ministers, driven to the work of cultivating of good-will, and not a legal right; it may the soil in the way of supplementing the possibly be withheld altogether, and thus deficient remuneration they derive from its requirements will be as well understood both the sources we have named, for the as if they had been conveyed in direct landischarge of their ministerial office. In this guage. The church's choice now lies betheir secular capacity, they have a direct tween a disreputable sycophancy to every personal interest in every measure of legis- state faction which may happen to be upperlation affecting the agriculture of Ireland. most for the moment, and its own scriptural As agriculturists, they felt, or believed, that character." How they will make their electheir interests were affected by the landlord tion between these alternatives, we will and tenant bill, recently introduced by go- not venture to predict; but it is our earnest vernment in connexion with the prevailing wish and prayer, that they may be guided distresses of the Irish labourers. And in to place the support of the Christian minis
try on the foundation on which Christ left thereby raised to the minimum stipend. it. Then should another buttress of the Four were receiving L.10 of supplement, Irish Church Establishment be removed, on condition of themselves raising L.5 to and the overthrow of that most enormous meet this grant. One congregation had of all ecclesiastical enormities could not be received L.25 in name of ministerial suplong behind.
port. Four congregations under the minimum had not complied with the Com
mittee's terms, and were consequently reREFORMED PRESBYTERIAN SCHEME OF MI
ceiving no aid from the fund. In regard to NISTERIAL SUPPORT.
three others in which the standard was below In the second annual Report by a Com the minimum, the Committee, for reasons mittee of the Reformed Presbyterian Church, specified, had not yet come to any deterpresented to their Synod in May last, and mination, but expected soon to do so. The published in their Magazine for July, we Report adds, “The Committee have been find certain statements respecting the enabled to originate and carry on their scheme for ministerial support so gratify- operations during the current year, exing, that we cannot refrain from transfer- clusively by the liberality of a few friends ring them to our pages, with the view of in Glasgow. It was judged quite unadvisgiving them still wider circulation. The able, however, that a scheme of such magobject contemplated in the appointment of nitude and importance, involving the wellthe Committee was, “ to adopt measures for being, if not ultimately the very existence raising the stipend of ministers in weak of our beloved church, should be allowed congregations, under judicious regulations, any longer to depend for its support upon so that no minister in the church shall have so narrow a basis, even were the same a smaller income than L.100 per annum, generous individuals willing again to come with manse and sacramental and travelling forward, nnaided by their brethren throughexpenses.” The general principles by which out the church, which the Committee did the Committee's procedure was regulated, not consider themselves warranted either to were, “(1.) That congregations having 150 expect or request." The Report, after demembers, or upwards, shall be regarded as tailing the means taken by the Committee not entitled to direct aid from the Com- to put the scheme on a general and comniittee. (2.) That the average yearly value prehensive basis, goes on to plead the imof a manse shall be held to be not less than portance and necessity of the object conL.15, and sacramental and travelling ex- templated. On this subject the following penses not less than L.10; thus making paragraph deserves the notice of all who the minimum stipend of each minister feel interested in the efficiency and true L.125. (3.) That in no ordinary case shall success of a gospel ministry :a higher sum than L.20 per annum be "A minister is under, at least, equal granted to any congregation. (4.) That as obligation, with others, to provide things a general rule, congregations having fewer honest in the sight of all men-to owe no than 150, and not fewer than 125 members, man any thing, and to provide for his own, should get L.10; those having fewer than and specially for those of his own house ; 125, and not fewer than 100, L.15; those and when so straitened in temporalities as having fewer than 100, L.20, on condition of to find it almost impossible to do so, it canmaking up an equal sum. (5.) That the not fail to have a depressing influence upon Committee hold themselves at liberty to his moral feelings, and to impede his usefulexercise a discretionary power in regard to ness in a great variety of ways. A measure such congregations as may happen to be of comfort in outward circumstances is placed in very peculiar circumstances.” The essential, in all ordinary cases, to the enjoygrants by way of augmentation of stipend, ment of that buoyancy and elasticity of commenced at Whitsunday 1847. The mind which constitute an important elecongregations paying not less than the ment in the efficient discharge of the funcminimum stipend were, when the Com- tions of the ministerial office. It cannot mittee's proceedings commenced, six in be doubted, in fact, that, other things being number, but four had since been added equal, a minister, whose mind is at ease on under the stimulating influence of the new this head, will be more efficient in his own movement, so that they now amount to ten. proper sphere of labour, and will be able to Only three congregations having more than do more for the general furtherance of the 150 members pay less than the minimum. gospel, than the brother who is doomed to Two, having fewer than 150 members, had contend from day to day with humble dcclined drawing upon the general fund, poverty, which, instead of arousing the and were endeavouring to raise the mini- nobler energies, like the apostle's perilous mum stipend from their own resources, but exciting conflict with the wild beasts at Five congregations having complied with Ephesus, tends to harass, and irritate, and the terms of the Committee's offer, had been bedwarf the mind."
Well and truthfully spoken! The church Lucca he also preached; he there exhorted is decidedly a loser by leaving her ministers the people to read the translation of the in such circumstances as compel them to Bible by Dr Odati, for he was a native of waste, in an irritating concern about the Lucca; he talked to them of the necessity support of their families, the mental energy of its study by real Christians. A priest, which might otherwise be devoted to in- who was present, attempted to interfere, creased effort in the duties of their sacred but the congregation would not hear him, calling
for they said, if he would not preach the truth, he should at least hear it. At Florence he met several brethren, who were
quietly waiting for an announcement of an A MEETING of the Evangelical Alliance was opening by the free liberty of conscience. held at Bristol, on Tuesday 27th June and At Genoa he found some friends whom he three following days. The attendance of had before met, who all expressed a desire members from a distance was large and for an Italian minister, whom he promised encouraging, evincing the continued inte- to send on the first opening being given. He rest felt in the grand object of the alliance, then proceeded to Turin and to Piedmont, —the promotion of harmony and affection where in the valleys the Waldenses reamong all who hold the liead, even Christ. main, who, he believed, were the descendThe public meetings also held on the oc- ants of the true ancient Christians who casion, were uniformly crowded, proving there took refuge. They were still distinhow much they who seek the peace of guished by their zeal for religion. In every Jerusalem carry with them the sympathy part of Italy he thus found a desire for the of the Christian people. A committee was
In Malta, a depot of the Bible appointed to consider the state of religion Society was established, which distributed in France, and collect facts, to be reported Bibles
over every part of Italy. Sicily, parat next meeting; as also to communicate ticularly Catania and Messina, required with evangelical friends in France, Swit- more Bibles at the present time than any zerland, Italy, Belgium, and Hungary. It other part. He had no doubt that, when was agreed ihat a periodical paper be pub- they once had a free constitution there lished, containing accounts of the proceed would be a great opening in that island. ings of the Alliance. Deputations are to He had received letters from many priests be sent to the several divisions, with the and monks, and he hoped that within a few view of offering suggestions toward promot- months many preachers would be despatched ing the objects of the Alliance. Among to all parts. If this opportunity were taken other distinguished strangers, Signor Achilli advantage of by all Christians together, by of Malta, addressed the meeting, interpreted their help, the Italians themselves, by their by Sir Culling Eardley. He had just come prayers, would do the work. He hoped from Malta, and had passed in his way they would choose one day and one hour through Italy, Naples, Genoa, and Pied- which should be devoted to prayer for mont, for the purpose of investigating the Italy. Signor Achilli concluded by saying, state of national feeling as regarded reli- that one of the first acts of Italian Chrisgion. He found on the surface, every
tians would be to establish an Evangelical where, a political movement, but under- Alliance, similar to that which he had come neath one of religion. He had chiefly con- from Malta to be present at. versed with monks and priests. He had It was agreed that a meeting of the Allispoken to them of the Bible, and the ne- ance should be held in October, but the cessity of studying its doctrines, and every place of meeting was left for the council where the necessity of that study was to determine. We understand that there acknowledged. On one occasion he had is a strong likelihood of its being held at met with three Jesuits, and he gave them Glasgow; and as the idea of the Alliance three Bibles. He had found most zeal for may be said to have originated in our westreligion in Tuscany. At Leghorn he ern metropolis, we cannot doubt that the preached to a large congregation, including council, and all the friends, will own the a priest. He called upon them to study claims of that city to an early and a numerChrist through the Bible. At the baths at ous meeting
Printed by Thomas MURRAY, of No. 2 Arniston Place, and WILLIAM GIBB, of No. 12
Queen Street, at the Printing Office of MURRAY and Gibb, North-East Thistle Street Lane, and Published by WILLJAM OLIPHANT, of No. 21 Buccleuch Place, at his Shop, No. 7 South Bridge, Edinburgh, on the 26th July 1848.
UNITED PRESBYTERIAN MAGAZINE,
FOR SEPTEMBER, 1848.
THE PRESENT COMMOTIONS ON THE EUROPEAN CONTINENT, WITH
THEIR PROBABLE INFLUENCE UPON THE PROGRESS OF EVANGELICAL TRUTH.
The eager gaze of both worlds—the results—the friends of religion canOld and the New-is, at the present not fail to regard it with earnest attime, intently fixed on the European tention, in reference to its probable continent, watching the progress of influence on the progress of Messiah's the extraordinary commotions which kingdom, and the prosperity of evanhave transpired there within the few gelical truth on the European contilast months. The political earthquake nent. The nations of Europe head agitates the most powerful kingdoms the march of civilisation, and occupy and states; rocks to their bases insti- the van in the progress of science, tutions which centuries have consoli- art, and enterprise. These nations, dated; and has already prostrated one moreover, are all embraced within of the proudest thrones of Europe. the pale of Christendom. But it is
This mighty movement, unparal- in Europe that Antichrist has his leled in the era of civilisation-un- seat, and his most powerful influence. equalled by the commotions of the There his adherents are most numeReformation, or even by the incur- rous; thence his emissaries
forth, sions of the northern hordes—from to disseminate the seeds of error over its centre of action in the French the earth; and thence he draws his capital, spreads itself all around, chief resources. There, too, supercausing the waters of the Mediter- stition, irreligion, and infidelity, yield ranean to tremble on one side, and, on in abundance their deadliest fruits. the other, heaving the billows of the How devoutly to be desired, then, Baltic. The alarming tremors of this that Europe should be emancipated great movement have reached the from the thraldom of error; that the British islands, and its undulations truth should make Europe free ! have broken on
The Then would she be free indeed. The nations which have as yet escaped advantages to humanity would be inrevolution are standing in anxious calculable. Not only would her own suspense, with combined hopes and millions enjoy the liberty wherewith fears, awaiting the result. Whilst Christ maketh his people free, but all eyes are thus turned to this sud- the well-head of Antichristian error den movement — watching its pro- would be dried up; and emancipated, gress, observing its political and social enlightened, united Christendom,
NO. IX. VOL. I.
go forth an embattled host, direct influence on the other kingdoms to subvert the empire of darkness, to of Europe. This wide-spread influplant the banner of the Cross on ence is a very marked feature of the every shore, and achieve the speedy present commotion, by which it is conevangelization of the world. This spicuously distinguished from mere is a work reserved for a united provincial or national movements. church. All that can be accom- The countries pervaded by it are displished by different denominations, tinguished from each other by races, acting apart, and sometimes opposing laws, languages, principles, and haone another, must be partial and in- bits; yet are they all at the same complete. Whilst, therefore, the time in a state of unwonted commoProtestant churches give themselves tion. to the evangelization of the heathen, Again, it is not a mere contest bethey ought, above all, to seek the de- tween rival dynasties, a struggle beliverance of all who bear the name tween the adherents of contending of Christ from the domination of chieftains. The movement is not error and superstition.
occasioned by any question about the This blessed result achieved, the claims to power and sovereignty of followers of Jesus would form one the house of Bourbon, or Hapsburg, grand army of the faithful. Each or Brandenburg. Nor is it the mere kingdom would contribute its contin- outburst of the downtrodden multigent of spiritual warriors to this holy tude, as was the case, in a great crusade, to fight the battles of the measure, in the first French RevoluLord. The brave and sprightly tion. Then the oppressed, driven to Frenchman, the profound and perse- despair, no longer able to endure the vering German, the enthusiastic and heavy burdens imposed on them, colimaginative Italian, would go forth, lecting their remaining strength, made hand in hand, with enlightened a desperate effort to burst the galling and devoted Britain, to the help of yoke, and throw off the heavy incuthe Lord, to the help of the Lord bus of tyranny. against the mighty. If such results The present movement not only might reasonably be anticipated from pervades the European populations, the triumph of the truth in Europe, but is apparently participated in by the engrossing question presses itself all classes in the different communion us, How is the progress of the ties. It is not a movement of workgospel likely to be affected by the men only, or burghers, or nobles, movements now occurring? In an- or soldiers ; but embraces all these swering this question, we must look classes. Moreover, the great aim of at the distinctive features of this un- the movement seems to be to re-adjust paralleled commotion. It is not a the governments and institutions of mere Italian commotion, or French the different countries, and to adapt revolution, or German movement; it them to the present state of intelliis not bounded by the lofty Alps, or gence, freedom, distribution of proby the deep, broad Rhine ; but em- perty, and commercial enterprise. braces in its wide range the whole of Europe has reached a new era in her Southern and Central #urope, includ- history: the era of enfranchisement
, ing the kingdoms and duchies of the overthrow of effete oligarchies Italy, France, Austria, Prussia, Ba, and despotisms, the expiry of feudalvaria, and the minor states of Ger- ism and serfdom. The people of many. In its character it is Euro Europe have outgrown existing instipean. Altogether it pervades a po- tutions, and feel them to be only a pulation amounting to not less than restraint and oppression, under which 120,000,000, independently of its in their movements are cramped and