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will soon carry me away, to participate the scaffold which was prepared for with them in the joys of paradise.” him. He had no sooner seen it than

From this time the monks con- he exclaimed with holy transport, stantly attended him, persecuting“ Courage, courage ! This is the him with their persuasions and argu- place which I have so long desired, ments; but he confounded them all and for which God himself has preby his answers. In the midst of pared me. I see the heavens open these distractions, he evidently sought to receive me, and angels prepare to to raise his soul continually to God. bear me away." Sometimes he gave utterance to fer- As he approached nearer he began vent prayer, or chanted portions of to sing a psalm, but silence was imthe Psalms. The constancy and de- posed on him. Having reached the .votion displayed in these the last foot of the scaffold, he exclaimed, hours of his life, touched the hearts 66 Oh! how favourable is this ladder of all his attendants; even the monks to me! It will serve me as a step to could not restrain their tears.

mount to heaven!” After this he In the evening, when they were knelt down, and continued a long about to conduct him to the place time in prayer, making use of many of punishment, two monks presented parts of the fifty-first Psalm, which themselves to accompany him, and he pronounced aloud, and with much told him they were come to comfort fervour. Having concluded his prayer, him. “ I have no need of you," he he mounted the ladder with firmness replied ; “ I have a more faithful and composure. Seeing one of the comforter within me.” One of them monks ascending after him, he gently said, “ But do you not wish that we repulsed him, saying, “I have alshould accompany you ?”—“ No," ready said, and I tell you again, that replied the martyr; “ I have the I have no need of your assistance ; company of angels, who are about I have received enough from my God my person, and who have promised to enable me to take the last step in that they will be with me to my my career. latest breath.” But the monks were He would have addressed the peonot to be prevented from attending ple, but as soon as he opened his him : they walked on either side of mouth a number of kettle-drums him, and were witnesses of the con- were struck, to prevent his voice stancy with which he went to martyr- being heard. Perceiving that it dom. His countenance was radiant would be in vain to speak, he rewith joy, and he gave striking proofs signed himself into the hands of of the faith and hope which filled the executioner with the same firmhis heart. The streets through which ness as he had evinced from the he passed were crowded with people; first. Soon the last act of the tragedy and among them he perceived many was finished, and the lifeless body persons of his acquaintance who had was all that remained on earth of abjured the Protestant religion. He M. Fulcrand Rei. Even the darksaluted them; and, seeing the tears ened inhabitants of Beaucaire testiflow from their eyes, he said " Weep fied emotion at his death, and many not for me, weep for yourselves ; I exclaimed aloud that he had died a shall very soon be delivered from the true martyr. sufferings of this world, but I leave

“ Ye who your Lord's commission bear you behind. Repent, and God will His way of mercy to prepare, have mercy on you."

Angels He calls ye!-- be your strife He was led out of the town by

To lead on earth an angel's life.

Think not of rest ; though dreams be the gate of Beauregarde. It was

sweet, from this gate that he discovered Start up and ply your heavenward feet.

Is not God's oath upon your head
Ne'er to shrink back on slothful bed ?
Never again your loins untie,
Nor let your torches waste and die,

Till, when the shadows thickest fall,
Ye hear your Master's midnight call.”

A. H.


INDEPENDENCY.-No. VI. I now proceed to consider the views the meeting above mentioned affords which are entertained by Dr Ward- a sufficient warrant for holding law, concerning the meeting of apos- synods, or assemblies, of ministers tles and elders that was held at Jeru- and ruling elders to determine matsalem, of which we have an account ters of general interest to the church; given in the fifteenth chapter of the inasmuch as there is here a preceActs. Dr Wardlaw, referring to this dent, sanctioned by the apostles themaccount, says, “ This is the palladium selves, for calling elders together, to of presbytery as a system of courts deliberate and

deliberate and decide concerning of appeal and review. If it can be questions of vital importance. They shown that this fortress is one hold that the question, under the daubed with untempered mortar,' consideration of the assembly at JeI know not another that can afford rusalem, was determined not by the the supporters of that system any apostles acting under the influence of safe protection.”—P. 261. He inspiration, but by the apostles and obviously attaches great importance elders acting as a deliberative assemto this part of his subject, as he de- bly, exercising their reasoning faculvotes to the consideration of it a ties on the subject before them, and chapter of considerable length; and deducing conclusions from Scripture, employs no small ingenuity in an and from the events of providence, to attempt to show, that the “fortress” show what kind of decision they were is daubed with untempered mortar. warranted in giving. Dr Wardlaw, Dr Wardlaw is agreed with Presby- on the other hand, is of opinion that terians on the following points:-1. the meeting of apostles and elders, That the meeting of apostles and held at Jerusalem, cannot be pleaded elders, referred to, was called for the as a precedent for holding synods or special purpose of determining a assemblies; inasmuch as the appeal, point of doctrine.---2. That this point on that occasion, was made, not to the of doctrine which they were required judgment of a deliberative assembly, to determine, was brought under their but to the apostles acting in their consideration by an appeal or refer- official capacity as inspired men; and ence from the church at Antioch.- the validity of the decision that was 3. That there was discussion, or dis- given, depended in no degree on the puting, in the assembly, before com- opinions expressed by the uninspired ing to a determination on the subject elders, but rested solely on the under their review.-.-4. That the de- authority of apostolical inspiration. cision to which they came, after This opinion is expressed by him in discussion, was authoritatively bind- the following words :-“I trust that, ing upon the churches. These are before I have done, I shall be able to points which Dr Wardlaw admits, in convince my readers, that, whatever common with his Presbyterian breth- lessons may be incidentally, and by

Indeed, they cannot well be inference, deduced from some parts called in question, as they lie upon of it, it does not furnish a model for the surface of the narrative.

any one of those forms of church Presbyterians are of opinion that government between which the chris



tian community is divided,—Episco- “I avow it as my firm conviction palian, Presbyterian, or Congrega- (says Dr Wardlaw), that it was a tional;-but that, with regard to the case of appeal to inspired authority.” chief point, the point of doctrine, the My friend admits, that the church at determination ultimately adopted and Antioch already enjoyed the benefit communicated to the church at An- of an “inspired authority” when tioch, and to the Gentile churches gene- they had Paul amongst them, who rally, rested, not on the authority of “not a whit behind the very a church court, by what title soever chiefest apostles.” What necessity designated, but on that of apostolical was there, then, for making an apinspiration.”—P. 262. Again, he says, peal to an inspired authority at Je“I avow it as my firm conviction, rusalem, when they had an authority that it was a case of appeal to inspired of this kind already amongst them? authority, and that it was by such au- Was not Paul as competent to decide thority the decision was framed, and the the question, by virtue of his inspired decree issued.—P. 263.

authority, as any of the other aposSuch is the theory which Dr W. tles were ? If inspired authority was states, and by means of which he to determine the question, this could endeavours to show that Presby- be done as well by Paul at Antioch, terians can derive no support from as by the other apostles at Jerusalem. the fifteenth chapter of the Acts, in This objection to Dr Wardlaw's favour of that form of church go- theory meets us at the very outset. vernment which they have adopted. In order to obviate the force of Let us examine how far his theory is this objection, Dr Wardlaw makes in accordance with the facts recorded the following statements :-" The in the chapter. The narrative in- manifest object of the appeal was to forms us, that certain men came down ascertain whether the dictates of infrom Judea to Antioch, and taught spiration in him (Paul) corresponded the brethren the following doctrine, with the dictates of inspiration in the ** Except ye be circumcised after the other apostles, which had been brought manner of Moses, ye cannot be into question by the false pretensions saved.” It further informs us, that of these unauthorised Judaizers.”those who taught this doctrine met P. 269. “ These men taught the with decided opposition on the part brethren' that the apostles at Jeruof Paul and Barnabas: they “ had no salem preached a different doctrine small dissension and disputation from that which Paul was teaching with them.” In consequence of the in Antioch ; and, consequently, that controversy, the brethren at Antioch the church at Jerusalem held a dif66 determined that Paul and Barna- ferent doctrine from that which they bas, and certain other of them, should were receiving at Antioch. The men go up to Jerusalem unto the apostles were vehement and pertinacious in and elders about this question.” The their assertions. It may seem strange reader will observe, that the appeal to us that Paul's divinely accredited or reference was made to “ the apos- inspiration, did not suffice, if not to tles and elders ;” and the subject of silence them, at least to satisfy and the appeal was “ this question,"

secure against hesitancy and doubt namely, whether it was necessary the minds of the brethren. And yet that men, in order to their being there is little room for wonder. It saved, should " be circumcised after was the accredited inspiration of the the manner of Moses." No other whole college of apostles, which, on question, except this, is mentioned in the point in question, was by these the narrative. This, and this alone, men affirmed to be in opposition to constituted the subject of the appeal. the accredited inspiration of one; and that one not one of the original num- that all these things are mere supposiber. It became necessary, for the tion on the part of Dr Wardlaw. full satisfaction of the brethren’s They are not stated in the sacred narraminds, and the establishment of their tive. The object of his making these faith, that this question—a question supposititious statements is sufficiently of inspiration against inspiration, and obvious. It is to show that the miracle against miracle, should be brethren at Antioch had not suffipromptly, authoritatively, finally cient confidence in Paul's inspired settled. And it could be settled in authority as an apostle, so as to beno other

way than by an appeal to lieve, on his affirmation, that they the inspired apostles whether they would be saved even though they taught the doctrine imputed to them, should not be circumcised after the and to the elders, in their own be- manner of Moses, and that there was, half and in behalf of all the brethren, therefore, a necessity for appealing whether they held it. Where is the the case to the apostles at Jerusalem, riddle ??—where the mystery here?" that the point might be determined -P. 304, 305.

by their inspired authority. It is In making these statements, my upon such slender grounds as these, respected brother goes beyond the grounds that are altogether suprecord, and draws largely upon his posititious—that Dr Wardlaw makes imagination. All that is affirmed in the affirmation ; “the manifest object the record, concerning the teaching of the appeal was to ascertain wheof the men that came down from ther the dictates of inspiration in Judea, is, that they taught the breth- Paul corresponded with the dictates ren,

-“Except ye be circumcised of inspiration in the other apostles.after the manner of Moses, ye cannot So far from this being the manifest be saved.” Dr Wardlaw gives us object of the appeal, it does not apsome additional information concern- pear to have been the object of the ing their teaching, though he has not appeal at all. What that object was, been pleased to inform us from what is stated with sufficient clearness in source his information is derived. He the first and second verses of the tells us, that these men taught the fifteenth chapter of the Acts; it was brethren, “ that the apostles at Jeru- to obtain a deliverance from the salem preached a different doctrine apostles and elders on the question from that which Paul was teaching at issue between Paul and the judaiin Antioch ;" and they taught further zing teachers, namely, whether sin6 that the church at Jerusalem held ners could be saved without being a different doctrine from that which circumcised after the manner of they were receiving at Antioch.” Moses. But my friend is desirous Not only (according to my friend) to have it believed, that the deliverdid they teach the brethren these ance was given by inspiration; and, in things; but he adds, they were order to remove an objection that vehement and pertinacious in their presses upon this theory, it was neassertions." He goes on to describe cessary for him to assign a reason (still, however, drawing upon his why the deliverance could not be imagination) the effect produced by given by the inspiration of Paul at their teaching. He says they pro- Antioch, as well as by the inspiraduced “ hesitancy and doubt” in the tion of the other apostles at Jerusaminds of the brethren concerning lem.

Where and how does he find “ Paul's divinely accredited inspira- this reason ? He finds it—not in the tion.” And he adds, “ There is little narrative—but by making the supposiroom for wonder” that they did so. tion, that the Judaizing teachers had Now, I wish my readers to observe, succeeded in raising doubts in the



minds of the brethren at Antioch, to the “ free use of probabilities and concerning Paul's inspiration, so that suppositions." The following is the they would not believe the doctrine substance of the answer which he which he taught to be true, until the gives :—“I now further observe, point was first ascertained, whether what seems, after all, to constitute the dictates of inspiration in him cor- the true key to the whole case, that responded with the dictates of inspi- there were evidently, in the appeal, ration in the other apostles. I would two points to be ascertained--a point here remind Dr Wardlaw of the re- of doctrine, and a point of fact :-The mark which he makes, when finding point of doctrine, as before observed, fault with others, for doing the very was one of the very first magnitude, thing with which he himself is involving the freedom of the Gentiles chargeable in the present instance: from the yoke of the Mosaic law, and

“ If we are allowed (he says) the the justification of both Jews and free use of probabilities and supposi- Gentiles by faith, without deeds of tions for getting over difficulties, they the law;' the latter being the very can seldom be long in the way.”- first principle of the gospel. The P. 292. I ask, did it not occur to point of fact was, whether those men my ingenious brother, when he was who had come down from Jerusapenning the statements on which I lem,' pretending that they had a comhave been making comments, that mission thence to teach the doctrine he was making "free use of proba- of the necessity of subjection to the bilities and suppositions” for getting law for justification, really had such a

“ a difficulty.” That he has commission. When this twofold obmade “ free use of probabilities and ject of the message to Jerusalem is suppositions” in the passages re- kept in view, it throws a clear light ferred to, is certain : but, even with on the whole transaction, rendering such aid, he has not been able to get all easily consistent.”—P. 302. over the difficulties connected with In the extract now given, it is his theory.

affirmed that “there were evidently, Another objection that may be in the appeal, tuo points to be ascerurged against the theory which Dr tained-a point of doctrine, and a Wardlaw endeavours to support, is point of fact.” I ask, where is the that if it was a case of appeal to in- evidence? It is not to be found in spired authority, why was the appeal the record. The record mentions made to the elders, as well as to the only one point, and that is the point apostles? They were not inspired of doctrine. This point is specially men; and yet they were called upon mentioned in the first verse of the to give judgment in reference to the chapter ; and it is expressly stated in question that agitated the church at the second verse, that the appeal or Antioch. If the object of the appeal reference was made to the apostles had been to obtain a deliverance and elders 6 about this question.” from inspired authority, the appeal The point of doctrine is again stated would have been made to the apostles in the fifth verse, and it is mentioned alone, as the elders could not, on such in the verse following, that “the a supposition, have given any de- apostles and elders came together for liverance on the subject. This ob- to consider of this matter.Not a jection appears to be fatal to Dr single word is said about what Dr Wardlaw's theory. In what way Wardlaw calls the point of fact,” does my friend answer the objec- and which, he says, is evidently in the tion ? He answers it much in the appeal. We find no reference made same way that he answered the for- to it in any of the speeches that were mer one, namely, by having recourse delivered on the occasion. The

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