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Good. Division of Passive Good into Conservative and Perfective Good. Division of the Good of Communion into General and Respective Duties.
Division of the doctrine concerning the Culture of the Mind into the doctrine concerning the Characters of Minds, the Affections, and the Remedies or Cures. Appendix of this same doctrine, touching the Congruity between the Good of the Mind and the Good of the Body.
BOOK THE EIGHTH.
Division of Civil Knowledge into the doctrine concerning Conversation, Negotiation, and Empire or State Government.
Division of the doctrine concerning Negotiation into the doctrine concerning Scattered Occasions and the doctrine concerning Advancement in Life. Example of the doctrine concerning Scattered Occasions from some of the Proverbs of Solomon. Precepts concerning Advancement in Life.
The divisions of the doctrine concerning Empire or Government are omitted;-An Introduction only is made to two Deficients; namely, the doctrine concerning the Extension of the Bounds of Empire, and the doctrine concerning Universal Justice, or the Fountains of Law.
BOOK THE NINTH.
The divisions of Inspired Divinity are omitted; - Introduction only is made to three Deficients; namely, the doctrine concerning the Legitimate Use of the Human Reason in Divine Subjects; the doctrine concerning the Degrees of Unity in the Kingdom of God; and the Emanations of the Scriptures.
THE ADVANCEMENT OF LEARNING.
TO THE KING.
It might seem to have more convenience, excellent King, though it come often otherwise to pass, that those who are fruitful in their generations, and have as it were the foresight of immortality in their descendants, should likewise be more careful than other men of the good estate of future times, to which they know they must transmit these their dearest pledges. Queen Elizabeth, rather a sojourner in the world than an inhabitant, in respect of her unmarried life, was an ornament to her own times and prospered them in many ways. But to your Majesty (whom God in His goodness has already blessed with so much royal issue, worthy to continue and represent you for ever, and whose youthful and fruitful bed still promises more) it is proper and convenient not only to shed a lustre (as you do) on your own age, but also to extend your care to those things which all memory may preserve and which are in their nature eternal. Amongst which (if affection for learning transport me not) there is not any more noble or more worthy than the further endowment of the world with sound and fruitful knowledge. For how long shall we let a few received authors stand up like Hercules' columns, beyond which there shall be no sailing or discovery in science, when we have so bright and benign a star as your Majesty to conduct and prosper us?
For the first book vhich relates to the Dignity of Learning), see Vol. III. p. 261. The Latin differs so little from the English in that book, that a translation would be little else than a reprint. And the eight remaining books of the De Augmentis Scientiarum, considered as a treatise on the Divisions of the Sciences, are complete in themselves. -J. S.
To return then to the matter in hand: let us now review and consider with ourselves what has hitherto been done by kings and others for the increase and advancement of learning, and what has been left undone; and let us discuss the question solidly and distinctly, in a style active and masculine, without digressing or dilating. We may begin then by assuming (which will not be disputed) that all the greatest and most difficult works are overcome either by amplitude of reward, or by prudence and soundness of direction, or by conjunction of labours; whereof the first stimulates endeavour, the second removes uncertainty and error, and the third supplies the frailty of man. But of these three, prudence and soundness of direction,—that is, the pointing out and setting forth of the straight and ready way to the thing which is to be done,must be placed first. For the cripple in the right way (as the saying is) outstrips the runner in the wrong. And Solomon observes, most aptly to the point in question, that “if the iron be blunt it requireth more strength, but wisdom is that which prevaileth;" signifying that the prudent choice of the mean is more effectual for the purpose than either the enforcement or the accumulation of endeavours. This I am induced to say, for that (not derogating from the honour of those who have been in any way deservers towards the state of learning) I observe nevertheless that most of their works and acts have had in view rather their own magnificence and memory than the progress and advancement of learning, and have rather augmented the number of learned men than raised and rectified the sciences themselves.
The works or acts which pertain to the advancement of learning are conversant about three objects; the places of learning, the books of learning, and the persons of the learned. For as water, whether it be the dew of Heaven or the springs of the earth, easily scatters and loses itself in the ground, except it be collected into some receptacle where it may by union and consort comfort and sustain itself (and for that cause the industry of man has devised aqueducts, cisterns, and pools, and likewise beautified them with various ornaments, for magnificence and state as well as for use and necessity); so this excellent liquor of knowledge, whether it descend from divine inspiration or spring from human sense, would soon perish and vanish into oblivion, if it were not preserved in books, tradi
tions, and conferences; and especially in places appointed for such matters, as universities, colleges, and schools, where it may have both a fixed habitation and means and opportunity of increasing and collecting itself.
And first, the works which concern the places of learning are four; buildings, endowments with revenues, grants of franchises and privileges, and institutions and ordinances of government; all tending (for the most part) to retirement and quietness of life, and a release from cares and trouble; like the stations which Virgil prescribes for the hiving of honey bees.
Principio sedes apibus statioque petenda,
The principal works touching books are two; first, libraries, which are as the shrines wherein all the relics of the ancient saints full of true virtue are preserved. Secondly, new editions of authors, with more correct impressions, more faithful translations, more profitable commentaries, more diligent annotations, and the like.
The works pertaining to the persons of the learned (besides the advancement and countenancing of them in general) are likewise two. The remuneration and designation of lecturers in arts already extant and invented; and the remuneration and appointment of writers and inquirers concerning those parts of learning not yet sufficiently laboured or prosecuted.
These are summarily the works and acts wherein the merits of many excellent princes and other illustrious personages towards learning have been manifested. As for the particular commemoration of any one who has deserved well of literature, I call to mind what Cicero said when, on his return from exile, he gave general thanks; "It is hard to remember all, ungrateful to pass by any."2 Let us rather (after the advice of Scripture) look forward to that part of the race which is still to be run, than look back to that which has been passed.
First therefore, among so many noble foundations of colleges in Europe, I find it strange that they are all dedicated to professions, and none left free to the study of arts and sciences at large. For if men judge that learning should be referred to use and action, they judge well; but it is easy in this to fall
1 Virg. Georg. iv. 8.:-First for thy bees a quiet station find,
2 Cicero, Post Red. c. 12.