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Rome therefore is evidently and undeniably this

great city; and that Christian and not Heathen, papal and not imperial Rome was meant, hath appeared in several instances, and will appear in several more.


1 AND after these things I saw another

angel come down from heaven, having great power ; and the earth was lightened with his glory.

2 And he cried mightily with a strong voice, saying, Babylon the great is. fallen, is fallen, and is become the habitation of devils, and the hold of every foul fpirit, and a cage of every unclean and hateful bird. 3

For all nations have drunk of the wine of the wrath of her fornication, and the kings of the earth have committed fornication with her, and the merchants of the earth are waxed rich through the abundance of her delicacies.

4 And I heard another voice from heaven, saying, Come out of her, my people, that ye be not partakers of her fins, and that

ye receive not of her plagues ; 5 For her fins have reached unto heaven,


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and God hath remembered her iniquities.

6 Reward her even as she rewarded you, and double unto her double, according to her works : in the


which she hath filled, fill to her double.

7 How much she hath glorified herself, and lived deliciously, so much torment and · foi row give her: for she faith in her heart, I fit a queen, and am no widow, and shall see no lorrow.

8 Therefore shall her plagues come in one day, death, and mourning, and famine; and the thall be utterly burnt with fire: ; for strong is the Lord God who judgeth her.

After this account of the state and condition of spiritual Babylon, there follows a description of her fall and destruction, in the same sublime and figurative stile as Isaiah, Jeremiah, and Ezekiel have foretold the fall of ancient Babylon and Tyre, the types and emblems of this spiritual Babylon. "A mighty and glorious angel descends from heaven, (ver. !, 2, 3.) and proclames, as before, (XIV.8.) the fall of Babylon, and together with her punishment the crimes which deserved it, her idolatry and wicknedness. It is farther added, that after her fall she shall be made a scene of desolation, and become


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the habitation of hateful birds and beasts of: prey; as Isaiah alfo predicted concerning ancient Babylon, (XIII. 21.) Wild beasts of the deferts

fball lie there, and their boufes shall be full of doleful creatures, and owls hall dwell there, and fatyrs fhall dance there: where the word that we translate fatyrs, the Seventy translate Skupcovice, demons or devils, who (6) were supposed sometimes to take the shape of goats or satyrs, and to haunt forlorn and desolate places and it is from the translation of the Seventy that the apostle hath borrowed his images and expreffions. But if this fall of Babylon was effected by Totilas king of the Ostrogoths, as Grotius affirms, or by. Alaric king of the Visigoths, as the Bishop of Meaux contends, how can Rome be said ever fince to have been the babitation of devils, and the hold of every foul spirit, and a. cage of every unclean and bateful bird, unlefs they will allow the popes and cardinals to merit these appellations ?

Another voice is also beard from heaven,

( Vide Bocharti Hieroz. X. Pont. Max. apud Daubiz, Part. prior. Lib. 2. Cap. 33. p. 812 Col. 643.


(8) Tertia die barbari, quam (7) It is to be found in the ingreffi fuerant urbem, fponte difvery title of Kircher' (Obeliscas cedunt, facto quidem aliquantaPamphilius : In urbis' ternut rum ædium incendio, &c. Orof. ornamentum erexit Innocentius Hift. Lib. 7. Cap. 39 Edit:

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4.-5, 6, 7, 8.) exhorting all Christians to forat fake the communion of so corrupt á church, left they should be partakers of her fins and of ber plagues, and at the same time denouncing that her punishment shall be great and extraordinary in proportion to her crimes. But was there any such necessity of forsaking the church of Rome: in the days of Alaric or Totilas, before she had yet degenerated again into idolatry? or what were then her notorious crimes deserving of such exemplary punishment, unless Rome Christian was to suffer for the fins of Rome Pagan? She faith in her heart, like ancient Babylon, (II. XLVII. 7, 8.) I ft a queen, and ám no widow, and hall see no forrow; She glories like ancient Rome, in the name (7) of the eternal city: but notwithstanding the fhall be utterly burnt with fire ; for strong is the Lord God who judgeth her. These expressions can imply no less than a total destruction by fire; but Rome hath never yet been totally destroyed. by fire. The most that (8) Alaric and (9)

Totilas Havercamp. Alaricus trepidam de Occidentali Imperio Lib. urbem Romam invafit, partem- 10. in fine. que ejus cremavit incendio, &c. Marcellini Chron. Indict. 8. p. (9) Procop: de Bell. Goth, 38. Edit. Scaligeri. Quinetiam Lib. 3. Cap. 22. Poum de fer ædificia quædam incenfa, aliáque xalenant cowokasi motorer opera temeré furore barbarice Twaidas Isabes Porro Toriļasdeturbata funt. Sigonii. Hift. Romam nec delere, nec relini 1)



Totilas did, was burning some parts of the city: but if only some parts of the city were burnt, it was not an event important enough to be ascribed to the Lord God particularly, and to be considered as a strong exertion of his judgment.

9 And the kings of the earth, who have committed fornication, and lived deliciously with her, shall bewail her, and lament for her, when they shall see the smoke of her burning,

10 Standing afar off for the fear of her torment, saying, Alas, alas, that great city - Babylon, that mighty city! for in one hour is thy judgment come,

II And the merchants of the earth shall weep and mourn over her, for no man buyeth her merchandise any more:

12 The merchandise of gold and silver, and precious stones, and of pearls, and fine linen, and purple, and silk, and scarlet, and all thyine wood, and all manner vessels of ivory, and all manner vessels of most precious wood, and of brass, and iron and marble,

And cinnamon, and odours, and ointments, and frankincense, and wine,

and quere amplius voluit. Ibid. Cap. tilas dolo Isaurorum ingreditur 36. Ibid. Lib. 4. Cap. 22. To- Romam die XVI. Kal. Jan. ac



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