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tions, the only one which we admit to exist without an adequate cause, it will be expected that a similarity of plan, and of means adapted to the end, will be exemplified in the provisionary furniture of

every part of the natural and moral creation. In the material universe, though infinite form3 exist, and constitute an infinity of species, yet every species has an appropriate character, has a specific end to subserve, and by some latent constitution, of which we can give ro other account, than that it is the will and gift of its author, is furnished with powers, which enable it uniformly and invariably to sustain its part in the creation.We acknowledge this i appropriate character in every species of the fossil, the mineral, and the vegetable_kingdoms. Animal life with its faculties and functions presents so different a scene, that we know not how to consider the beings of this order as mere varieties of material form yet in the individuals of any species of the animal kingdom, except man, we observe an almost per


fect uniformity of character, and ascribe if to a similar cause as in a fossil or vegetable species, viz. to a latent constitution, originating with their birth, unfolded in their progress, from which every impulse and movement issue, and short of which, or beyond which, they cannot go.

To be more particular, the different classes of earths, stones, and metals, have each their peculiar properties and specific differences ; and if it be asked, whence they derive these properties, and what has impressed upon them these specific differences, no answer can be given by the theist, but that the hand of the universal Creator has for wise purposes so formed and furnished them; nor by the atheist, but that so they are. They both admit a primary and elementary character in each species as a datum. If from combinations of the simple forms new kinds be produced, the character of these compounds is supposed to be derived from the characters of the component parts.

The classes of the vegetable kingdom appear to

be much more numerous, and probably from this circumstance such a resemblance is observed in the approximate kinds, as misleads the vulgar eye, and exhibits them : as one and the same. But to a careful observer they are essentially distinguished, and each kind propagates its kind, and with the same properties, though from adventitious causes they may differ in the degree of these properties. The



every kind has unalterably the specific character of its pa-. rent, nor ever, under the operation of Nature or man, appears under the specific character of another kind, however approximate the kinds may be. Although from the seeds of an apple or a gooseberry a thousand subordinate species of apples or gooseberries may be produced, yet they are each separately apples or gooseberries. From the seed of the apple never springs a gooseberry, a pear, a cherry, or any other vegetable whatever, and vice versa. We have no reason to suppose, that from the period of the creation any such transmutation has taken


place, or one new simple form been produced, though it is possible that some may have been lost. Compound kinds from kindred and proximate species may, perhaps, have issued; but such as are the essential properties of the kinds which enter into the union, such probably will be found to be the mixed property of the compound. I speak here with diffidence ; for I do not know that a new and mixed kind of

vege: tables has ever been produced from two primary kinds; or, if such a phænomenon have taken place, that such a vegetable mule has been able to propagate its kind, and introduce a new species into the vegetable kingdom. The different classes of the material creation do most probably continue unalterably the same as they were at first formed by the hand of their author, each at least with the same specific differences and properties, though in the degree and proportion of these properties difference may arise from adventitious causes. Situation, ,

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climate, culture, must effect a difference of magnitude, splendour, and taste.

It is impossible to resist the same conclusion with respect to every species of ani. mals, except man. Here alone the question lies. Every individual of each animal

spe. cies discovers à common character, common properties, ' performs' common functions, tends to a common end. The qualities characteristic of one are possessed by all ; each has its range of action circumscribed within the same limits; there is a common end and purpose to which each is fitted. Each attains the summit of perfection in its kind in a very short period, and to whatever length their existence be extended, they manifest no new powers, discover no new propensie ties, learn no new lessons proper to another kind ; though the tutelage of man, peated practice under this tutelage, may render them more facile, and enable them to exhibit a certain novelty, in some of the movements, which constitute their general


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