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the ermine robe, or even the wig; and the king, the senator, the magistrate and the judge would lose half their dignity, and be almost considered as common men.

But there is a real grandeur in the actions that history records, which demonstrates a superiority of talent, and which even the fastidium of a cloister must acknowledge. Cyrus, Alexander, Themistocles, Miltiades, Epaminondas, Hannibal, Alfred, Edward III, the Black Prince, and Henry V of England, Hunniades among the Poles, Scanderbeg of Epirus, Gustavus Vasa, Gustavus Adolphus, and Charles XII of Sweden, Frederic the Great of Prussia, even thé Barbarians Genghischan and Tamerlane, and among states

. men, Pericles; Tully, Richelieu, and the great Lord Chatham, all display this grandeur of talent, which, be the moral character what it will, enforces admiration, and constitutes the charm, that interests the reader of their -stóryNor will the manly spirit of England, with all its laudable: indignation of his inVOL. II,



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sults and his crimes, refuse this tribute to
Bonaparte himself.
3-Here and in the active spirit of curiosity
lies the whole secret of that interest, which
all feel in history. - We seek not for moral;
history intends it not; and what moral

may bei extracted from it, lies too deep for the herd of readers; and the historian, actuated by the same motives and spirit as his reader, obtrudes not the latent moral npon him. It is to gratify the thirst of knowledge, the knowledge of what man has acted on the great theatre of this world of ours, and to gratify the passion for grand display, grandeur of style and grandeur of talent, chat the historian writes, and never fails to attract a host of readers, and the developement of this theory will be found very man terially to affect the discussion of the question in view..indi, Kitensen 996

But I deny not that history subserves to many important uses.' These uses it becomes me to notice ;i and ísuch is my own

I affection

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affection for history, that. I wish I could add every praise i which its most passionate admirer contends fór. These uses chiefly apply to specific characters and stacions, but little enter into the contemplation 'of the many, and can hardly at all be reaped by them. The soldier, the statesman, and the philosopher-constitute the three classes to whom history appropriately addresses hér lesson's, and to them she is of special im: portance, and must be a 'source not only of amusement, but of the most valuable in struction. In the detail of military affairs, of the various operations and manoeuvres, which enter into the practice of war, of bat cles, sieges, marches, counter-marches, block ades, and encampments, the soldier may derive much valuable instruction, and a gene. ral insight into the best exercise of his profession. "In the history of the negotiations, the treaties and intrigues of governments, the divisions ofil nations, their connexions and dependenciés, the political conduct of great and leading minister's, the statesman is L 2


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to acquire that knowledge and experience, which are essentially necessary to him in the discharge of his public duties. While in contemplating the revolution of human af. fairs, the rise and decline of nations, with the causes that have contributed thereto, the advancement of some to civilization, science and arts, the relapse of others into barbarism, the progress, of general knowledge, the influence of climate, government, and laws upon the character of man; the philosopher will be enabled to derive much of wise, useful, and moral information.

The field of this application is indeed exceedingly limited as to the number of its subjects; but it may be urged, that the high rank in life of those individuals, to whom history thus addresses her especial instruction, amply compensates for their paucity; and it may further be urged, that science, of whatever kind, addresses herself to all, that every human being has an interest in the speculations of the soldier, the statesman, and the philosopher, has a right to ap


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preciate their talents and their services, and therefore to participate in all the sources of their peculiar acquirements. This no one can or ought to controvert; but in order that history shall minister to this high cultivation of the mind, it is necessary that it be the subject of our serious study and reflection. It is not a slight and superficial perusal ; it is not the mere knowledge that such a general existed, that he gained such a battle, won such a town, conquered such a province, that will suffice; but we must explore the cooperating causes of his success; whether he owed it to his own judicious skill and improvement of the favourable cir. cumstances which occurred, or it was merely a kind of good fortune; we must trace his progress on the map, and acquaint ourselves as much as possible with the local circumstances of the countries which are the theatre of his warfare; we must 'inquire into the motives, and criticise the wisdom of his various movements, know his discipline, his tactics, and contrast them with those of his


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