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His theory of the moving force, by which

the planets are carried forward in their
orbits

30-32
Kepler is appointed Professor at Linz 35
His second marriage, and curious account

of the dozen of candidates for the ho-
nour of his hand

36, 37
Occasion of his writing his work on
Gauging

37
Appointed mathematical professor at
Bologna, in 1617

38
Publishes his Harmonics

39
Inscription of polygons in circles 39
Kepler's belief that the earth was an
animal

40
Extracts from his Astrological Absurdi.
ties

40-42
Parts supposed to be taken, by the several

planets, in the music of the spheres 43
Kepler's account of the causes of regula-

rity in the law of motion of the planets 44

Laws of motion according to New-

45-48
Kepler's “ Epitome” prohibited at Rome
and at Florence

ib.
His theory of comets, that they move in
straight lines

48
Kepler, the first German who calculated
the tables of logarithms

48, 49
Trial of Kepler's mother, and her con-
demnation to the torture

49, 50
Invitation to Kepler to go to England 50
Rudolphine Tables finished and published
in 1627

50, 51
Death of Kepler in 1630, and situation
of his family

52
Kepler's “ Dream on Lunar Astronomy;"
a fanciful tale

53
monument in the Botanic Garden
at Ratisbon, described
List of his published works

54

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LIFE OF NEWTON.

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17, 21

3,4

18

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Newton's birth and parentage (1642) 1
His early turn for mechanics

ib.
Constructs a model of a windmill, and

also draws a sun-dial at an early age 1, 2
Leaves school for Cambridge in 1660

2
His text books, on entering college, enu-
merated

ib.
Remarks on the geometry of Descartes ib.
Descartes unjustly treated by Newton ib.
Wallis's works much studied by Newton,

and led to many of his discoveries
Discovery of the binomial theorem 3
of the method of fluxions

4
Differential calculus of Leibnitz,--the

method of fluxions under a different
form

ib.
Newton leaves Cambridge

, in 1665, to
avoid the plague

ib.
Discovery of the law of gravity and its ap-

plication to the heavenly bodies 4-6
Newton returns to Cambridge in 1666 6

is appointed lecturer on optics,
in room of Dr. Barrow, in 1669

7
is elected a Fellow of the Royal
Society in 1672

7
communicates to the society a
model and description of a reflecting
telescope

ib.
The model of this telescope is still pre-

served in the library of the society ib.
Ilis communications to the society on the
nature of light.

8
He meets with personal opposition from
Dr. Hooke.

9
He is also attacked by Pardies, Linus,
and Huygens

10
Remarks on Newron's hypothesis of an

imperceptible etherial Auid, pervading
space, and affecting bodies by its undu-
lations

11

How this fluid is supposed to differ from,
and affect light

12, 13
Remarks on projectiles and falling bo-
dies

14, 15
Dr. Hooke's dissertation on the motion
of the earth

16
Borelli, the first who applied the principle

of gravitation to the planetary mo-

tions
Newton's absorption of ideas when pre-

paring his Principia
Curious anecdote on this subject ib.
The first two books of the Principia
printed by the Royal Society

19
Additional disputes with Dr. Hooke on the
subject

19-22
The Principia completed and published
in 1687

22
Account of that work by Laplace 23, 24
Newton elected a member of the con-

vention parliament which called the
Prince of Orange to the throne 24

made warden of the mint in
1696

ib.
His studies in chemistry appreciated 25
Accidental burning of his papers by his
dog Diamond

ib.
His succeeding alienation of mind

25,26
Elected an associate of the French Aca-
demy of Sciences, in 1699

27
Re-elected a member of parliament for
Cambridge, in 1701

ib.
Chosen president of the Royal Society,
in 1703

ib.
Knighted by Queen Anne, in 1705

ib.
Published his Optics in 1704

ib.
Disquisition concerning the counterclaims

of Newton and Leibnitz to the priority
of the invention of the method of
fluxions

27-30

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Quarrel between Newton and Leibnitzon Another paper, by Newton, in those
the subject

30-32

Transactions, contains the principles of
Newton accused of scepticism in religion 32 lladley's quadrant

36
Letters on that subject between Leibnitz * Newton's timidity, and ignorance of the
and Dr. Clarke
32 manners of society

37
Surreptitious publication of Newton's

y Account of his domestic life

37, 38
“ Chronology"

33

of his death in 1727, at the age
Remarks on his “ Observations upon the of 85

38
Prophecies"

33-35 List of the different editions of his
His paper in the Philosophical Transac Works

tions on“ Temperature," analysis of 35, 36

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39, 40

LIFE OF MAHOMET.

State of the 'religion and government of

the Arabians, at the time of Mahomet's
appearance among them

1.10
Geographical and statistical account of
Arabia

1, 2
Manners and customs of the several tribes
at the time of Mahomet

2-10
Their laws and religion at that period 4,5
Their science and literature

7,8
Their manners and general character 8-10
Customs in regard to the female sex 10
Sources of our knowledge respecting Ma-
homet

11
The Somna, or collected traditions, of the
Mahometans

ib.
Reasons to prove that those traditions are
unworthy of belief

11, 12
Ignorance and worthlessness of the Chris.
tian opponents of Mahometanism when
first promulgated

12
Precise period of the birth of Mahomet
investigated

13
Lineage and tribe of the prophet ib.
His descent from Ismael became a dogma
of his religion:

ib.
The patrimony of Mahomet extremely small 14
Prodigies which appeared at his birth ib.
Fabulous accounts of his infancy, child.
hood, and youth

15
Who were the composers of the Koran ib.
Mahomet's knowledge of the Jewish and

Christian religion accounted for
Mahomet was a merchant and a soldier ib.

married at the age of 25, and
was the faithful husband of one wife, for

16
received frequent visits from the
angel Gabriel

17

Night when the Koran first descended

from heaven, and the miraculous circuin-
stances attending its manifestation 17, 18
Mahomet's first annunciation of his mis-
sion

18
His denunciations of eternal torments pre-
pared for unbelievers

18, 19
His admission into the seven heavens, un-

der the guidance of the angel Gabriel,

and his description of what he saw 19
His flight from Mecca, and reception at
Medina

20
The Hegira, or epoch of the Mahometans,
dated from that flight

21
Mahomet builds a temple at Medina, be-

comes general of an army, a judge, and
a pastor of his people

21
His first batile, and his modest prayer to

Gabriel to send 3000 angels to his as-
sistance

22
His disastrous battle, which he ascribed to

the anger of the Lord on account of the
sins of the people

23
Assassination encouraged by Mahomet 24
Surrender of Mecca, and final establish-

ment of the Mahometan religion
The death of Mahomet in consequence of
poison

25
Ridiculous stories concerning his tomb ib.
Estimate of Mahomet's moral character

and apology for its faults
Critical examination of the Koran
Of the religion and morality of the Koran
- laws of the Koran

30
List of books which treat of Mahomet
and Mahometanism

32

24

26, 31

16

27

23, 29

24 years

LIFE OF WOLSEY.

Birth and parentage of Wolsey (1471) 1
Was he the son of a butcher ? 1,19
Nature of his early pursuits

1, 2
Becomes a fellow of Magdalene College,
Oxford

2

Presented to the living of Lymington, by

the Marquis of Dorset, the father of three
of his pupils, in 1500

2
Accused of having unfairly appropriated

some of the funds of his college 3

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Lord Percy

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Put in the stocks for drunkenness after
being rector

3
His after resentment of that insult ib.
Is made one of the chaplains to Henry
the Seventh

4
Employed to negotiate a marriage between

the king and the Duchess of Savoy ib.
Installed into the Deanery of Lincoln in
1508

5
Death of Henry the Seventh in 1509 ib.
Wolsey appointed privy councillor to Henry
the Eighth

ib.
Character of Henry the Eighth in his early
years

ib.
State of Europe on the accession of that
monarch

7
Henry's invasion of France

ib.
Wolsey made Bishop of Tournay

8
made Bishop of Lincoln
made Archbishop of York ib.
raised to the dignity of cardinal 9
made chancellor of England

ib.
He receives annual bribes from foreign
powers

10
Account of his enormous income and ex-

penditure :
His extravagant banquets

13
Immense power exercised by the cardinal
as chancellor

15
He erects courts to protect the poor against
the rich

ib.
Equity of his decisions as a judge ib.
Receives the appointment of the Pope's
legate

17
The bishops offended at his ecclesiastical
power

ib.

Manner in which that power was exercised 18
Celebrated meeting of Henry and Francis

the First, at the field of Ardres 18, 19
Trial and execution of the Duke of Buck-
ingham, and reflections on that event

19, 20
Part taken by the cardinal in the contro-

versy between Henry and Luther 20, 21
His exertions in the cause of learning 22
He applies the funds of the suppressed

monasteries to the institution of schools 23
He founded the college of Christ Church,
Oxford, in 1525

24
Particulars respecting Anne Boleyn and

25, 26
He visits France on account of the impri-

sonment of Pope Clement the Seventh 26
His conduct respecting the divorce of Queen

Catharine and the King's marriage with
Anne Boleyn

28-30
Information exhibited against him by the
King's Attorney.General

32
Receives the king's pardon, and is rein-

stated in the sees of York and Win.
chester

ib,
Bill of attainder presented against him by

the Star Chamber for high treason 32, 33
The bill passes the Lords but is thrown out
by the Commons

34
Arrested for treason, and carried to Lon.
don for trial

36
His superstitious fear on hearing the name
of Kingston

37
Dies at Leicester, on his journey to London 38
Summary of his personal and political cha-
racter

38-40

ib.

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11, 12

LIFE OF COKE,

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Coke's birth and parentage (1550). 1
Education at Norwich and Cambridge ib.
His law studies in the Inns of Court and
at Westminster Hall

2
Appointed to the office of attorney-general ib.
Elected speaker of the House of Commons
in 1592

ib.
He becomes very rich, and marries, in suc-

cession, two ladies of large property ib.
Is prosecuted, in the Ecclesiastical Court,

on account of the irregularity of his se-
cond marriage

3
Trial of the Earls of Essex and Southamp-

ton, for high treason, and Coke's rude
conduct on that occasion

ib.
His equally intemperate behaviour on the
trial of Raleigh

4
Violent altercation between Coke and Bacon

5,6
Coke knighted, and made Chief Justice in

the Court of Common Pleas, on the ac.
cession of James the First

6
Appointed to the King's Bench, seven

6

Sworn a member of the privy council 7
His objections to the then practice of taking

the private opinions of the judges before
trial

ib.
Particulars of the dispute concerning the

power of the Chancery, and the cele-

brated case of the Commendams 8
Correspondence between the king and the

twelve judges on the subject 9-11
The king reprimands the judge

11
Independence of Coke on that occasion 12
His zealous inquiry relative to the assas-

sination of Sir Thomas Overbury
Resentment of the king against him ib.
His consequent disgrace and dismissal

from his place of chief justice 14
Marriage of Coke's daughter with the

brother of the Duke of Buckingham,
and the strong efforts made by Bacon
to prevent it

14-16
Coke" restored to his place in the privy
council

16
Violent quarrels between him and his wife

13

years after

16, 17

24, 25

Pago
His independent conduct in Parliament in
opposing the despotism of the crown

17-19
Accession of Charles the First, and his
enmity to Coke

19, 20
Coke chosen a member in 1628) of that

House of Commons which first resisted
the encroachments of the royal preroga.
tive

20
His excellent speech in that Parliament 20,21
His death in 1634

21
Personal, judicial, and political character
of Coke.

21-23

Page
Critical examination of his works

23-30
His digressions and useless quotations

censured
Examples of his constant parade of scho-
lastic pedantry

25-27
His ludicrous reports—such as that of the
cock and hen swans

27, 28
His humane observations on capital pu-
nishments

28
Account of Coke's manuscripts, now in the

possession of Mr. Coke of Norfolk 30-32
List of works which give further informa-

tion concerning Sir Edward Coke 32

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LIFE OF LORD SOMERS.
Birth and parentage of Somers (1650) 1 Popular excitement in England upon the
His early education

ib. French king's recognition of the Pre-
Entered at Trinity College, Oxford 2 tender's title

14
Called to the bar

ib. King William's speech at opening his
Political and historical tracts, written by last parliament

15
him while at Oxford

3 Lord Somers excluded from the admini-
Removes to London and attends the stration on the accession of Queen
courts of law
4 Anne

ib.
Trial of the seven bishops

ib. Debates on the bill against occasional
Returned to the first parliament of Wil conformity

ib.
liam III. for Worcester

5 He encourages the scheme of appropriat-
He is made solicitor-generai and knighted ib. ing the First Fruits and Tenths to in-
Conducts the prosecution on the trial of crease the revenues of the poorer clergy 16
Lord Preston, 1691

6 Debates upon the proposal to invite the
Becomes successively attorney-general, Princess Sophia to England

ib.
lord-keeper, and lord chancellor 7 Lord Somers's Bill for the amendment of
He is elected president of the Royal the law

17
Society, 1698
ib. Union with Scotland, 1706

18, 19
His usefulness to the king in the contests His speech in favour of the Bill for

between the Whigs and Tories ih. abolishing the Scotch privy.council . 20
Decline of the Whig administration 8 Returns to administration and takes the
Groundless charges against him in the office of president of the council, in
House of Commons
9 1708

21
Captain Kidd's piracies
ib. Again retires from office, 1710.

ib.
The king persuaded to dismiss him from Signs a protest against the Schism Act 22
his office

10 On the accession of George I. takes his
Delivers the great seal to

Lord Jersey,
seat in the cabinet council

ib.
1700

11 Discourages the prosecutions against the
Tory administration in October, 1700 ib. partizans of the Pretender

ib.
Charge against Lord Somers respecting Attends in the House of Lords during
the Partition Treaties

ib. the proceedings on the impeachment
His speech at the bar of the House of of Lord Derwentwater, in 1716 23
Commons
12 His last illness and death

ib.
He is impeached by the Commons ib. His opinion on the Septennial Bill
Impeachment dismissed by the Lords 13 Scarcity of information respecting Lord
Disposition of the king to recur to Lord Somers's personal history

24
Somers and the Whigs
14 His character by an anonymous

contem-
Death of James II. at St. Germains, in

ib.
1701
ib. His judicial and political character

25

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ib.

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14, 15

ib.

.

The laws of Solon were engraved in wood,
or on stone

3
The laws of the Twelve Tables, among

the Romans, were engraved on oaken
planks

3
The Arundelian marbles, account of

ib.
The Parian Chronicle described

ib.
The Roman records were engraved in
brass

ib.
The wills of the Roman soldiers were en-
graved on their shields

ib.
* The laws of the Emperors were painted on

wooden tablets, as late as the 4th century 4
The Egyptians painted their letters ou

linen
The Romans also wrote on linen

5
Skins first written upon by the Ionians as
a substitute for papyrus

ib.
The poems of Homer were written on the

intestines of a serpent, in letters of gold ib.
*Account of the Gothic manuscript of the
Gospels, by Ulphilas

ib.
Dissertation on the papyrus of Egypt,
and its different uses

6
> Paper from cotton first manufactured in

Europe, in the 8th or 9th century ib.
Paper from linen not general until the
14th century,

7
Reeds originally used, in place of quills, ,
for making pens

ib.
were in use for writing as late as
the 8th century, and are still einployed
by many eastern nations

8
- the species which was the calamus
of the ancients is unknown to modern
botanists

ib.

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The ink of the ancients, its composition
and colours

8
Of the copyists of books before the in-
vention of printing

9-13
A system of short-hand, supposed to have
been invented by Xenophon

10
Wages of copyists in England in the 15th
century

11
Booksellers of the Middle Ages 12, 13
*Scarcity of books in the 9th and 10th

centuries
Public Schools at Rome, when insti-
tuted

16, 17
Playing cards, about the close of the 14th

century, were printed by blocks . 18
Printing with moveable metal types dis-

covered at Mayence, by John Guthen-
berg, about the year 1438

19
Origin of the story of Dr. Faustus and
the Devil

20
Dates of the first printed works in dif-
ferent countries

20-22
Birth and parentage of Caxton (1412) 23
He was a citizen of London

ib.
Appointed in 1464, one of the ambassa-

dors to the Duke of Burgundy 22
Caxton learned the art of printing during

his stay in the Low Countries 23
“ Game of Chess,” the first book printed

by Caxton, in England, in 1474. 24
Account of other works published by
Caxton

25-28
Death of Caxton in 1490-1

28
x Sketch of his character

28-30
Notices of British printers who were his
contemporaries

30-32

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LIFE OF BLAKE,

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Birth and parentage of Blake (1599) 1
His education at Oxford, and disappoint-
ment of a fellowship

1,2
He acquires influence with the Puritan
party

2
Is elected Member of Parliament for
Bridgewater, in 1640

ib.
Embraces the cause of the Parliament

against Charles the First, in 1642 ib.
Distinguished himself at Bristol, in 1643 3
Served as Lieutenant-Colonel of a regi.

ment of foot, and successfully defended
the town of Lyme

ib.
Appointed Governor of Taunton, by the
Parliament, in 1644

ib.
His brave and obstinate defence of that

place
Reflections on the mischievous doctrines

of divine right, and passive obedience 5
Blake, though a republican, disapproved

of the trial and execution of the king 6
Union of the military and naval service

under the Commonwealth; and the ap-
pointment of Blake to the command of
a squadron ,

. 7

Blake blockades the royal fleet, in the
harbour of Kinsale

7
The royal ships effect a passage through

his squadron, after sustaining great loss,
and arrive in the Tagus

ib.
War commences, in consequence, be-
tween England and Portugal

8
Honourable behaviour of Admiral Blake

to the captain of a French ship of war ib.
Blake receives the thanks of Parliament,

and is made warden of the Cinque
ports

ib.
He reduces the Scilly Isles, and Jersey,

to the subjection of the Commonwealth 9
Causes of the war with the Dutch; and

first engagement with Van Tromp 9-12
Blake captures the Dutch convoy in the
North Sea .

12
His engagement with and defeat of De
Witt and De Ruyter

13
Series of engagements with the Dutch
fleet

13-16
Description of the fleets of those times 13
List of the British navy of 1675, with an

account of their guns and tonnage 14

4, 5

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