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Page The Pietà of M. Angelo Picture of the “ Last Judgment" ib. Opinions of Flaxman, Baron Stendhall, and others

43 Impartial estimate of M. Angelo from these conflicting opinions

ib. Continuation of the Life of M. Angelo 44 Magnanimity in confessing his declining powers as a painter

ib. Is appointed architect of St. Peter's ib. Refuses to accept any remuneration ib. Characteristics of his old age

ib. Enthusiasm in his great task

45 Improvement and progress of the edifice ib. Union of grandeur and economy

ib. His detractors and enemies

ib. Anecdotes of his opponents-rivalry and capriciousness of the Popes

46 M. Angelo survives throughout seven Pon. tificates

ib. Difficulties he had to contend with 47 Intention of quitting Rome

ib. Retires to the mountains of Spoleto 48 A colleague appointed-intrigues set on foot against him


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His appeal to the Pope-dismissal of his rival

48 His singular piety—patience and perse

ib. Rapid progress of St. Peter's

49-51 He plans the church of San Giovanni 50 New intrigues against him; wishes to

leave Rome dismission of his rival 52 Death of M. Angelo

ib. Honours paid to his remains

53 Conclusion of the character of M. Angelo 54 His vigour and versatility of genius 55 Anecdote of his industry

56 Character of M. Angelo as an architect ib. Opinions of Mr. Duppa considered 57 His own letter on the subject

ib. Excellence as a military architect ib. On the poetry of Michael Angelo 57-59 Specimens translated by Southey and

Wordsworth, with remarks on ib. His admiration of Dante; his attachment to Vittoria Colonna

58 Letters of M. Angelo to different persons, Notes, &c.

60 to 70 Anecdotes and good sayings attributed to M. Angelo

70 to 72

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of a soldier or statesman. The life of and ancient Florentine family, which, a man who is shut up during the greater in the middle of the fourteenth century, part of his time in his study or labora- adopted this surname instead of BonaTory supplies but scanty materials for juti, under which several of their anpersonal details; and the lapse of time cestors filled distinguished offices in the rapidly removes from us the opportuni- Florentine state. Some misapprehenties of preserving such peculiarities as sion has occasionally existed, in consemight have been worth recording. An quence of the identity of his proper account of it will therefore consist chiefly name with that of his family; his most in a review of his works and opinions, correct appellation would perhaps be and of the influence which he and they Galileo de Galilei, but the surname have exercised over his own and suc- usually occurs as we have written it. ceeding ages. Viewed in this light, few He is most commonly spoken of by lives can be considered more interesting his Christian name, agreeably to the Itathan that of Galileo; and if we compare lian custom; just as Sanzio, Buonarotti, the state in which he found, with that in Sarpi, Reni, Vecelli, are universally which he left, the study of nature, we known by their Christian names of Rashall feel how justly an enthusiastic phael, Michel Angelo, Fra Paolo, Guipanegyric pronounced upon the age do, and Titian. immediately following him may be trans Several authors have followed Rossi ferred to this earlier period. “This is the in styling Galileo illegitimate, but without age wherein all men's minds are in a having any probable grounds even when kind of fermentation, and the spirit of they wrote, and the assertion has since wisdom and learning begins to mount been completely disproved by an inspecand free itself from those drossie and tion of the registers at Pisa and Florence, terrene impediments wherewith it has in which are preserved the dates of his been so long clogged, and from the in- birth, and of his mother's marriage, sipid phlegm and caput mortuum of eighteen months previous to it.* useless notions in which it hath endured His father, Vincenzo Galilei, was a so violent and long a fixation. This is

man of considerable talent and learning, the age wherein, methinks, philosophy with a competent knowledge of mathecomes in with a spring tide, and the pe- matics, and particularly devoted to the ripatetics may as well hope to stop the theory and practice of music, on which current of the tide, or, with Xerxes, to he published several esteemed treatises. fetter the ocean, as hinder the overflowing The only one which it is at present easy of free philosophy. Methinks I see how to procure-his Dialogue on ancient and all the old rubbish must be thrown away, modern music-exhibits proofs, not only and the rotten buildings be overthrown of a thorough acquaintance with his and carried away, with so powerful an subject, but of a sound and vigorous inundation. These are the days that must understanding applied to other topics lay a new foundation of a more magnifi- incidentally discussed. There is a pascent philosophy, never to be overthrown, sage in the introductory part, which that will empirically and sensibly cari- becomes interesting when considered as vass the phenomena of nature, deducing affording some traces of the precepts the causes of things from such originals by which Galileo was in all probability in nature as we observe are producible trained to reach his preeminent station by art, and the infallible demonstration in the intellectual world. of mechanics : and certainly this is the to me," says one of the speakers in the way, and no other, to build a true and dialogue, " that they who in proof of permanent philosophy.'

any assertion rely simply on the weight of authority, without adducing any ar

gument in support of it, act very CHAPTER II.

absurdly: I, on the contrary, wish to be

allowed freely to question and freely to Galileo's Birth--Family-Education

answer you without any sort of adulaObservation of the Pendulum-Pul- tion, as well becomes those who are silogies Hydrostatical Balance~ truly in search of truth." Sentiments Lecturer at Asu.

like these were of rare occurrence at Galileo GALILEI was born at Pisa, on the close of the sixteenth century, and it is the 15th day of February, 1564, of a noble

• Erythræus, Pinacotheca, vol. i. ; Salusbury's * Power's Experimental Philosophy, 1663. Life of Galileo. Nelli, Vita di Gal. Galilei,

“ It appears

4 to be regretted that Vincenzo hardly he was then living. These two were lived long enough to witness his idea of then the only survivors of Michel Ana true philosopher splendidly realized in gelo's family, and many of Galileo's the person of his son. Vincenzo died letters about that date contain allusions at an advanced age, in 1591. His to the assistance he had been affording family consisted of three sons, Galileo, them. The last trace of Alberto is on Michel Angelo, and Benedetto, and the his return into Germany tū the Elector, same number of daughters, Giulia, Vir- in whose service his father had died. ginia, and Livia. After Vincenzo's death These details include almost every thing the chief support of the family devolved which is known of the rest of Vincenzo's upon Galileo, who seems to have as family. sisted them to his utmost power. In a Galileo exhibited early symptoms of letter to his mother, dated 1600, relative an active and intelligent mind, and to the intended marriage of his sister distinguished himself in his childhood Livia with a certain Pompeo Baldi, he by his skill in the construction of inagrees to the match, but recommends genious toys and models of machinery, its temporary postponement, as he was supplying the deficiencies of his inforat that time exerting himself to furnish mation from the resources of his own money to his brother Michel Angelo, invention ; and he conciliated the uniwho had received the offer of an ad- versal good-will of his companions by vantageous settlement in Poland. As the ready good nature with which he the sum advanced to his brother, which employed himself in their service and prevented him from promoting his for their amusement. It is worthy of sister's marriage, did not exceed 200 observation, that the boyhood of his crowns, it may be inferred that the great follower Newton, whose genius in family were in a somewhat straitened many respects so closely resembled his condition. However he promises, as own, was marked by a similar talent. soon as his brother should repay him, Galileo's father was not opulent, as to take measures for the young lady, has been already stated : he was bursince she too is bent upon coming out dened with a large family, and was to prove the miseries of this world." unable to provide expensive instructors

- Ås Livia was at the date of this for his son; but Galileo's own enerletter in a convent, the last expression getic industry rapidly supplied the want seems to denote that she had been of better opportunities; and he acquired, destined to take the veil. This pro- under considerable disadvantages, the posed marriage never took place, but ordinary rudiments of a classical educaLivia was afterwards married to Taddeo tion, and a competent knowledge of the Galletti: her sister Virginia married other branches of literature which were Benedetto Landucci. Galileo mentions then usually studied. His leisure hours one of his sisters, (without naming her) were applied to music and drawing; for as living with him in 1619 at Bellose the former accomplishment he inherited guardo. Michel Angelo is probably the his father's talent, being an excellent same brother of Galileo who is men- performer on several instruments, espetioned by Liceti as having communi- cially on the lute; this continued to be cated from Germany some observations a favourite recreation during the whole on natural history. He finally settled of his life. He was also passionately in the service of the Elector of Bavaria; fond of painting, and at one time he in what situation is not known, but wished to make it his profession: and upon his death the Elector granted a bis skill and judgment of pictures were pension to his family, who then took up highly esteemed by the most eminent their abode at Munich. On the taking contemporary artists, who did not scru. of that city in 1636, in the course of ple to own publicly their deference to the bloody thirty years' war, which was young Galileo's criticism. then raging between the Austrians and When he had reached his nineteenth Swedes, his widow and four of his year, his father, becoming daily more senchildren were killed, and every thing sible of his superior genius, determined, which they possessed was either burnt although at a great personal sacrifice, to or carried away. Galileo sent for his give him the advantages of an university tvo nephews, Alberto and a younger education. Accordingly, in 1581, he brother, to Arcetri near Florence, where commenced his academical studies in

the university of his native town, Pisa • De his quæ diu vivunt. Patavii, 1612. his father at this time intending that

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he should adopt the profession of me- employed in ascertaining the rate of the
dicine. In the matriculation lists at Pisa, pulse, and its variation from day to
he is styled Galileo, the son of Vincenzo day. He immediately carried the idea
Galilei, a Florentine, Scholar in Arts. into execution, and it was for this sole
It is dated 5th November, 1581. Vi- and limited purpose that the first pen-
viani, his pupil, friend, and panegy- dulum was constructed. Viviani tells
rist, declares that, almost from the us, that the value of the invention was
first day of his being enrolled on the rapidly appreciated by the physicians of
lists of the academy, he was noticed the day, and was in common use in
for the reluctance with which he lis, 1654, when he wrote.
tened to the dogmas of the Aristote Santorio, who was professor of medi-
lian philosophy, then universally taught; cine at Padua, has given representa-
and he soon became obnoxious to tions of four different forms of these
the professors from the boldness with
which he promulgated what they styled

No 2.
his philosophical paradoxes. His early
habits of free inquiry were irrecon-
cileable with the mental quietude of

his instructors, whose philosophic
doubts, when they ventured to entertain
any, were speedily lulled by a quota Nil 30
ition from Aristotle. Galileo thought
himself capable of giving the world
an example of a sounder and more
original mode of thinking; he felt him-
self destined to be the founder of a new
school of rational and experimental
philosophy. Of this we are now se-

curely enjoying the benefits; and it

is difficult at this time fully to appreciate the obstacles which then presented themselves to free inquiry : but we shall see, in the course of this narrative, how arduous their struggle was who happily effected this important re

instruments, which he calls pulsilogies, volution. The vindictive rancour with (pulsilogias,) and strongly recommends which the partisans of the old phi- to medical practitioners.* These instrulosophy never ceased to assais Galileo ments seem to have been used in the is of itself a sufficient proof of the following manner: No. 1 consists merely prominent station which he occupied of a weight fastened to a string and a in the contest.

graduated scale. The string being gather
Galileo's earliest mechanical disco- ed up into the hand till the vibrations of
very, to the superficial observer appa- the weight coincided with the beatings of
rently an unimportant one, occurred the patient's pulse, the length was ascer-
during the period of his studies at Pisa. tained from the scale, which, of course,
His attention was one day arrested by if great, indicated a languid, if shorter,
the vibrations of a lamp swinging from a more lively action. In No. 2 the im-
the roof of the cathedral

, which, whether provement is introduced of connecting
great or small, seemed to recur at equal the scale and string, the length of the
intervals. The instruments then em latter is regulated by the turns of a peg
ployed for measuring time were very at a, and a bead upon the string at
imperfect: Galileo attempted to bring showed the measure. No. 3 is still
his observation to the test before quit- more compact, the string being short-
ting the church, by comparing the vi- ened by winding upon an axle at the
brations with the beatings of his own back of the dial-plate. The construc-
pulse, and his mind being then princi- tion of No. 4, which Santorio claims as
pally employed upon his intended pro- his own improvement, is not given, but
fession, it occurred to him, when he had it is probable that the principal index,
further satisfied himself of their regula- by its motion, shifted a weight to differ-
rity by repeated and varied experiments, ent distances from the point of suspen-
that the process he at first adopted sion, and that the period of vibration
might be reversed, and that an instru-
ment on this principle might be usefully • Comment in Avicennam. Venetiis, 1625.



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