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[John (Sans Peur) Duke of Burgundy.] The poet in the chorus to this Act desires his treaty of Troyes was concluded, which gave audience to
him the hand of Katharine, and made the king All the occurrences, whatever chanc'd,
of France his vicegerent. Towns had been Till Harry's back-return again to France."
won; armies had perished. The Dauphin, But Henry's return to France was marked by whom we have seen at Agincourt, was no more ; many fearful struggles for power, before the and he was succeeded in his rank by a prince
of greater profligacy. Unhappy France was to Henry's success in negociating the treaty of assailed by a resolute enemy, and had nothing Troyes. to oppose to him but the weakness of factions, The meeting of Henry with the French more intent upon destroying each other than king, who in his unhappy state of mind was disposed to unite for a common cause. The “governed and ordered” by his ambitious and Duke of Burgundy, brought in by the poet as crafty queen, is thus described by Holinshed :the advocate of peace, was certainly present at “The Duke Burgoigne, accompanied with many the negociations near Meulan, on the 30th May, noble men, received him two leagues without 1419, when Henry first saw Katharine, and was the town, and conveyed him to his lodging. struck with her grace and beauty. But this All his army was lodged in small villages thereDuke of Burgundy, Jean Sans Peur, was mur- about. And after that he had reposed himself dered by the Dauphin, on the bridge of Monte- a little, he went to visit the French king, the reau, on the following 10th September. This queen, and the Lady Katharine, whom he found event led to a close connection between Henry in St. Peter's Church, where was a joyous meetand the young Duke of Burgundy, who was ing betwixt them. And this was on the xx. day anxious to revenge the death of his father; and of May, and there the King of England and the perhaps this circumstance mainly contributed Lady Katharine were affianced.”
COSTUME. The civil costume of the reign of Henry V. Vertue copied the head engraved for the History seems to have differed in no very material of England, and which has been received as the degree from that of the reigns of Henry IV. likeness of Henry from that period. and Richard II.
The great characteristic of this reign is the The illuminated MSS., and other authorities close-cropping of the hair round above the ears, of this period, present us with the same long in contradistinction to the fashion of the last and short gowns, each with extravagantly large century; and the equally close-shaving of the sleeves, almost trailing on the ground and escal-'chin, beards being worn only by aged personlopped at the edges. They are generally at this ages, and mustachioes but rarely, even by miliperiod, however, painted of a different colour to tary men : the king is always represented withthe body of the garment, and were, probably, out them. separate articles of dress (as we find them in In the armour of this period there are many the next century), to be changed at pleasure. and striking novelties. It was completely of Chaperons with long tippets, tights--hose, and plate. Even the camail, or chain neck-piece, pointed shoes or half-boots.
was superseded or covered by the gorget, or For the dress of the sovereign himself, we hausse col of steel. A fine specimen of the have but slender authority. His mutilated armour of this time exists on the effigy of effigy in Westminster Abbey represents him in Michael de la Pole, Duke of Suffolk (who was the dalmatic, cope, and mantle, of royalty; killed at the siege of Harfleur), in Wingfield differing only from those of preceding sove. Church, Suffolk. reigns in their lack of all ornaments or em- The jupon, with its military girdle, and the broidery. An illuminated MS., in Bennet loose surcoat of arms, were both occasionally College Library, Cambridge, has a representa- worn; and, in many instances, were furnished tion of Henry seated on his throne (which is with long hanging sleeves, indented at the powdered with the letter S.), not in his robes, edges like those of the robes (vide our engrayalthough crowned, but in a dress of the time, ing of John the Fearless, Duke of Burgundy, with a curious girdle and collar. There are two from his seal in ‘Olivarius Vredius's History of or three portraits of Henry, on wood, in the the Counts of Flanders,' and of Henry V., from royal and other collections, each bearing a the carvings of an oaken chest in York Cathesuspicious likeness to the other, and neither dral). Sometimes the sleeves only are seen authenticated; although from one of them, Mr. with the armour; and it is then difficult to
ascertain whether, in that case, the breast and of fancy. Robert Chamberlayne, the king's back plates cover the rest of the garment, or esquire, is represented with two feathers issuing whether they (the sleeves) are separate articles from the apex of the bascinet. He wears an fastened to the shoulders. Cloaks, with escal-embroidered jupon and the military belt. With lopped edges, were also worn with armour at respect to the crown round Henry's bascinet,this period (vide the figure of Thomas Monta- it was twice struck and injured by the blows of cute, Earl of Salisbury). Two circular or shield- his enemies. The Duke of Alençon struck off shaped plates, called pallettes, were sometimes part of it with his battle-axe; and one of the fastened in front by aiguillettes, so as to protect points or flowers was cut off by a French esquire, the armpits (vide same figure, and the engraving who, with seventeen others, swore to perform from an illumination, representing Henry V. some such feat, or perish. being armed by his esquires). St. Remy, a The helmet of Henry V., suspended over his writer who was present at the battle of Agin- tomb in Westminster Abbey, is a tilting helmet court, describes Henry, at break of day, hearing -not the bascinet a baviere (vizored or beavered mass in all his armour, excepting that for his bascinet), which was the war-helmet of the time head and his cote d'armes (i. e., emblazoned (see those of Louis, Duke of Bourbon, whose surcoat or jupon). After mass had been said, tilting helmet is carried by an esquire behind they brought him the armour for his head, him; and of John, Duke of Burgundy). The which was a very handsome bascinet a barriere shield and saddle which hang near it may, (query baviere), upon which he had a very rich according to the tradition, have been really used crown of gold (a description and valuation of by him at Agincourt. "la couronne d'Or pur le Bascinet,” garnished The English archers at the battle of Aginwith rubies, sapphires, and pearls, to the amount court were, for the most part (according to of £679 58., is to be seen in the Rolls of Parlia- Monstrelet), without armour, and in jackets, ment, vol. iv. p. 215), circled like an imperial with their hose loose, and hatchets, or swords, crown (query arched. Henry IV. is said by hanging to their girdles. Some, indeed, were Froissart, to have been crowned with a diadem barefooted, and without hats or caps; and St. “archée en croix ;" the earliest mention of an Remy says, they were dressed in pourpoints arched crown in England that we have met with). (stitched or quilted jackets); and adds, that
Elmham, another contemporary historian, some wore caps of boiled leather (the famous says, “Now the king was clad in secure and very cuir bouilli) or of wicker-work, crossed over bright armour: he wore, also, on his head, a with iron. In the army of Henry V. at Rouen, helmet, with a large splendid crest, and a crown there were several bodies of Irish, of whom, of gold and jewels; and, on his body, a surcoat says Monstrelet, the greatest part had one leg with the arms of England and France, from and foot quite naked. They were armed with which a celestial splendour issued ; on the one targets, short javelins, and a strange sort of side, from three golden flowers, planted in an knife (the skein). azure-field (Henry V. altered the farms of France, The French men-at-arms, engaged at Aginin the English shield, from semi of fleurs-de-court, are described as being armed in long lys to three fleurs-de-lys, Charles VI. of France coats of steel reaching to their knees (the taces having done so previously), on the other, from introduced at this period, vide figure of the three golden leopards sporting in a ruby field.” Earls of Salisbury and Suffolk), below which was By a large splendid crest may be meant, either armour for the legs, and above, white harness the royal heraldic crest of England, the lion (i. e., armour of polished plate, so called in conpassant guardant (as the Duke of Burgundy is tradistinction to mail), and bascinets with represented with his heraldic crest, a fleur-de-lys, camails (chain neck-pieces). on his bascinet), or a magnificent plume of The banners borne in the English army, feathers,—that elegant and chivalric decoration, besides those of the king and the principal for the first time after the Conquest, appearing leaders, were, as usual, those of St. George, St. in this reign. It was called the panache; and Edward, and the Trinity. knights are said to have worn three or more The French, in addition to the royal and feathers, esquires only one; but we have no knightly banners, displayed the oriflamme, positive authority for the latter assertion; and which was of bright scarlet, embroidered with the number would seem to have been a matter | gold, and terminating in several swallow tails.
It is so represented in the hands of Henri Sieg | ing almost to the ground, and escallopped at neur de Metz, Marechal de France, in the church the edges. of Notre Dame de Chartres.
A representation of Katharine, Queen of Ping. The female costume of this period was dis land, exists in the carving of an oak chest in the figured by a most extravagantly high and pro- Treasury of York Cathedral. jecting horned head-dress, curious examples of Isabelle of Bavaria, her mother, is engraved in which are to be seen in the royal MS. marked Montfaucon, from a MS. in the French Royal 15 D. 3, and in the effigy of Beatrice, Countess Library, wearing the high, heart-shaped headof Arundel, engraved in Stothard's Monumental | dress, introduced into England in the reign of Effigies.' The rest of the habit was rather grace- Henry VI., but, probably, worn earlier in France. ful than otherwise ; consisting, in general, of á There are several other portraits of her in the long and full robe confined by a rich girdle, steeple head-dress, à still later fashion, contemhigh in the neck, the waist moderately short, porary in England with the reign of Edward and the sleeves like those of the men, reach. IV.