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the private boxes were to be all let by the year, as in the less profitable. “Persevere, my boys,” he said, as he Italian Opera House, there would be by and bye no box-seats ended, “and meet again to-morrow.” As for “Love in for anyone; and gentlemen in silk stockings and cocked hats a Village” and “ Who Wins ? " they were wholly extinwould be forced into the pit. "Persevere," ended the orator, guished by rattles, cat-calls, and horns.

The manager "and you will triumph over Don John.”

had published extracts from Lord Mansfield's speech on The house resounded with cheers at this oration, and the Macklin's case, to frighten the rioters by showing that roar of “ Old Prices ” broke forth louder than ever. Half a hissing at a theatre was rioting, and continuing to hiss condozen of the rioters were dragged off to the watch-house, spiracy; and the more violent of the 0. P. men were still vociferating to the last “Old Prices, Old Prices !” At anxious for a trial by jury to settle the question. The twelve the audience dispersed, but the curtain had finally placards were :dropped in despair as early as nine p.m.

"Be silent, sirs~King John's head aitches," The third night the rioters came more organized. Cooke played Richard III. with gloomy savagery, and was quite one of Kemble's peculiar pronunciations, and sober too, but no one listened to a word. Men blew trumpets and bugles, or executed dreadful shrieks on cat-calls.

"No forcigners. No Catalani. Carrier pigeons, with 0. P. tickets on them, were flown on

Dickons is better far than any." to the stage. Placards were hung over the boxes and on the chandeliers, with the following inscriptions :

One orator complained that Kemble had refused a room
to the Beef-steak Club, and another ridiculed

the great
Kemble" with a cane teaching Catalani English. Kemble
“No hired Ruffians !”
"0. P. for ever!"

then suddenly appeared, but they would not hear him, and
"Never submit to the New Prices !"

the people began talking all over the house. One begged “No Imposition !"

an audience of the managers; a second accused them of No Private Boxes-all Free!"

falsehood, and called Kemble “a vagrant;" a third de· The trumpets drowned the farce of “The Poor Soldier.” In and fighting watermen, who had tried to frighten John

nounced the constables, Jew pugilists, Bow-street officers, vain the favourite comedian Munden, with his droll India- Bull; and a fourth, an officer in the navy, said he hoped rubber face, bowed and scraped ; finally Kemble stalked on his Majesty would advance his pay, that he might meet to the stage with Roman dignity, and certainly Roman pride, the new prices. Presently the constables attempted more and declared he was anxious to satisfy the wishes of the forays, and ran in and out in pursuit like harlequins, public. Upon this, all the placards were torn down, and while'a defender of the managers was thrown from the there were cries of “Go on! go on!” Kemble, thanking boxes into the pit. The actors had all been by this time the ladies and gentlemen for the opportunity, begged to know what they wanted. This mightily enraged the rioters. fixed bayonets, refused any admittance after nine o'clock,

sworn in as constables, and the soldiers at the doors, with " It was all hell broke loose again."

The rioters then sang “God save the King,” and dispersed

about eleven. They threw papers on the stage, and cried, “There ! The next night, when “John Bull” was played, the read! read! Our wishes are signified there."

placards were numerous. Kemble, finding that the storm grew worse, bowed and withdrew. There was then silence, for overtures of peace

"Would there be new prices if Drury Lanc was not burnt ?" were expected, but none were made. The orator of the

Old Prices. former night, however, rose and complained of the last

“No relaxation, our advice is. night's disgraceful conduct of the hirelings of the house,

Let them perform to empty benches: who were admitted by orders at the very time when money

'Twill managers bring to their senses. was being turned away from the house. One ringleader

Support us, lads, and we'll support you.

No Kembles, and po prices new. with fifty constables had beaten several harmless persons. He had ihen returned to the pit, waved his hat insolently, and

No compromise, come to the point.

Old prices is the thing we want. boasted that for five guineas he would fight any one in the boxes. The managers, he said, swore they had not received

“ Are not the managers, indeed, six per cent. for ten years. The real fact was, the rent of the private boxes would reimburse all the expenditure and

" It is John Bull against John Kemble,

Down with King John, we'll make him tremble. also pay for Catalani (who was going to sing for Kemble).

No foreigners, but native worth: “But, gentlemen,” shouted this protectionist, “show your

Let no Italians be brought forth. spirit. Stand up for native talent, and don't, in this

“John Bull is acting well, we know: enlightened age, allow an Italian to tread an English stage."

Pit, as before !-it must be so.' J. 0. Smith, Esq., a barrister, now proposed, amid loud cheers, to call for Kemble. After ten minutes he

(To be continued.) appeared. * Ladies and gentlemen,” he said, “I respectfully wait

THE BAYEUX TAPESTRY. “Old prices !” cried sternly the first orator, electing himself general spokesman.

ARCHÆOLOGISTS have now an admirable opportunity of Mr. Kemble then said that things were not only very making themselves acquainted with that wonderful piece of dear then, but increasing in price. Even in the cheap days needlework-the Bayeux Tapestry-for, under the superinof Elizabeth, the price of admission to the pit had been tendence of Mr. Cundall, it has been photographed by order three shillings. "I pledge my honour," he added, " and I of the Lords of the Committee of Council on Education, would never pledge it to a lie for all the theatre is worth, and the coloured fac-simile has been placed in the gallery of that for ten years past we have not got six per cent. on our the Albert Hall. Its reproduction was a work of no little outlay. Good dresses and good scenery are enormously difficulty, in consequence of the deficiency of light in the costly. The new prices would benefit all the actors. room in which the original is preserved at Bayeux; and

This statement was received with groans and hisses, and indeed, it is doubtful if the work could have been accomthe barrister, cutting out the first orator, replied that the plished unless an apparatus had been especially constructed. new prices would not add five pounds to the actors' salaries; For many centuries the tapestry was preserved in the cathe. in fact, with increased house charges, benefits would be dral; it was then removed to the Hotel de Ville, where it

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The men who this disturbance breed ?

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your will.”


VOL. IV.—JULY 12, 1873.)


was shown to visitors wound round a machine like that used Conqueror's queen, and her handmaids. The Abbé de la to draw water from a well. It is now under the care of Rue is the ablest advocate of the 12th century theory, and the Abbé Laffetay, and is exhibited under glass in a room has been followed by Hume and Lord Lyttelton. * In order in the public library.

to reconcile the Matilda tradition, they assign the tapestry The tapestry is thus described in an inventory of the to the Empress Matilda, daughter of Henry I., who died in possessions of the cathedral of Bayeux, taken by two canons 1167. A third party, represented by Mr. Bolton Corney of the church in September, 1476:—"Item, une tente tres and Dr. Lingard, † attribute it even to a later period, and be. longue et estrait de telle (toile) à broderie de ymages et lieve it executed at the expense, and under the special superescripteaulx, faisant representation du conquest d'Angleterre intendence, of the chapter of Bayeux. As we shall not laquelle est tendue environ le nef de l'Eglise le jour et par examine this latter theory at any great length, we will men. les octaves des reliques.” This is the only notice we have of tion it first. Mr. Corney maintains that if it had not been it before the 18th century.

devised within the precincts of a church, it could not have About the year 1721 M. Lancelot found in the library of escaped female influence, and would not have contained such M. Foucault a coloured drawing 40 feet long. He had indications of celibatic feeling. He says that it has some no idea what the figures represented, thinking even it might 530 figures, three only of which represent females, and be a mediæval copy of some piece of sculpture. However, thinks that its size-exactly enough to reach round the nave he figured and described it in a memoir presented to the of the church--and the time it was exhibited—not on the Academy of Inscriptions and Belles Lettres in 1724. Père death of William or Matilda, but on the Jour des ReMontfaucon read the communication with interest, and liques-point to local influence. The latter fact connects through his agency it was identified as a copy of part of the it with Odo (or Odon) the warlike Bishop of Bayeux, because Bayeux tapestry. He got permission to have the whole he presented to the church some valuable reliquaries, and so copied, and the drawings of his artist (Antoine Benoit) were the chapter would remember him. The advocates of the 12th afterwards engraved in his Monumens de la Monarchie century theory rely chiefly on the silence of Wace, the me. Françoise (1730, Vol. ii.). Passing over a second memoir by trical historian, the absence of any mention in the inventory M. Lancelot, of the same year, we come to Dr. Ducarel's of the effects of William the Conqueror, taken in 1087, and description in his “Anglo-Norman Antiquities,” 1767. in the will of Matilda, and, that had been presented by her This mainly consisted of Mr. S. Lethieullier's observations, to the cathedral, it must have perished in the fire which taken during a long stay in Normandy. Bonaparte thought nearly destroyed that edifice in 1106. Now, in the first it would stir up the people to the invasion of England, and place, Wace, who was a canon of Bayeux, and wrote a had it exhibited in Paris and other places. It narrowly metrical account of the conquest circ. 1160, was, as Mr. escaped destruction during the Revolution, being actually j Planché points out, born at Jersey and educated at Caen, demanded for covering the guns. But we must notice the his- where he wrote his " Roman du Rou" in 1160, and could never tory of its investigation in this country. The earliest paper have seen the old cathedral, out of which the treasures were published here was one by the Abbé de la Rue,* who taken in 1106. Mr. Amyott's observations on this point thought the tapestry the work of Matilda, daughter of are worthy of note. “ As well might we doubt the age of Henry I. Soon after, Mr. Hudson Gurney + printed some the tapestry in the House of Lords, because historians have remarks upon it ; but before that, namely, in 1816, the not derived from that source their narratives of the defeat of Society of Antiquaries sent Mr. Charles A. Stothard I to the Spanish Armada. . . . It should be remembered that copy the same, reduced drawings from the fac-simile he monuments of this kind derive much of their importance executed, being published in the “ Vetusta Monumenta,” from antiquity, and are never exalted to the rank of historical Vol. vi. His remarks upon it were published in the “Archæo- documents until time has mouldered away most of those logia

” in 1821,9 and were followed by Mr. Amyott's paper which have had a better claim to that title.” If the tradion the “Antiquity of the Tapestry,” to both of which we tion respecting Queen Matilda's connection with the tapestry shall presently refer. Dr. Dibdin gives a brief description, be correct, it is very unreasonable to expect to find it in the in his “ Tour in France and Germany,” 1821, 375-87; and possession of the Conqueror four years after the death of sixteen years after Mr. Bolton Corney, in his “ Illustrations his queen. Then it would not have been likely to appear to Disraeli's Curiosities of Literature,” || advanced a new in her will, because the cathedral of Bayeux was dedicated theory respecting its origin. Since that period we have six years before her death, affording a considerable interval Dr. Bruce's “Bayeux Tapestry Elucidated” (1856), 1 and for its presentation. Mr. J. R. Planché, not having time enough to prepare an One objection remains—that it would have been destroyed elaborate paper for the Society of Antiquaries in illustration in the fire of 1106. That the fire was not so destructive as of Mr. Stothard's drawings, contributed a short one to the some have supposed, is probable, from the fact that the “Journal of the British Archæological Association " (xxiii. present church was not built until fifty-three years after, and 134-56) in 1867.

therefore it is reasonable to suppose that a considerable Having thus described the literature of the subject, let us portion of the edifice escaped. It is quite certain that all now notice the chief theories respecting the fabrication of the church treasures did not then perish, for in the 1476 inthe tapestry

Montfauçon, Ducarel, Pluquet, ** Thierry, ventory — which contains the description of the tapestry Amyott, Dr. Dibdin, Stothard, Dr. Bruce, and Planché, quoted at the beginning of this paper-we have two robes unite in upholding its antiquity, but Pluquet thinks it exe- described as having been worn by William and his duchess on cuted by order of Odo, Bishop of Bayeux. Montfaucon their marriage.Ş There were also the chasuble of S. Regnomentions the tradition that it was the work of Matilda, the bert, and the silver unicorns presented by the Conqueror

and Odo the Bishop. We think these facts sufficient to * Translated by Mr. J. Douce. "Archæologia," xvii.

show that those who maintain the superior antiquity of the # Ibid., Vol. xviii.

tapestry have the best of the argument; and when we look Son of Thomas, the R.A. Charles was a capital archæological draughtsman, and five years after returning from Bayeux fell from a window when tracing stained glass at Beer-Ferris church, Devonshire.


History of Henry II.," i. 353. § Vol. xix. 184.

† "History of England," Vol. i. || Afterwards reprinted as “Researches and Conjectures on the There must be a great error in counting the figures. Dr. Bruce Bayeux Tapestry.'

(p. 13) gives the numbers 623 men, 202 horses, 55 dogs, 505 animals of 9 The numerous coloured plates illustrating Dr. Bruce's work were various kinds, 37 buildings, 41 ships and boats, and 49 trees, or 2512 reduced from those by Mr. Stothard, in the * Vetusta Monumenta," figures. and the book is extremely convenient for those who cannot purchase $ As the compilers of this inventory were so careful to mention the that costly work published by the Society of Antiquaries.

donors of these robes, they would probably have done the same ** " Essai Historique sur la Vil d«Bayeux."

respecting the tapestry if they had been aware of such a tradition,


at the needlework itself, their position is materially enemy. In one scene (“Bruce," p. 130) we see him riding up strengthened.

to William to give in his report, and this inscription explains We know that mediæval artists, whether illustrating it—"Hic Willelm : dux interrogat Vital : si vidisset exerscenes from Holy Writ or profane history, invariably repre- citum Haroldi.” sented persons in the costume of their own time. Strutt We now pass on to consider the appearance of the points out that the wonderful unanimity of feeling on this tapestry itself. Accounts vary as to its exact length and point may be seen by comparing together a number of MSS. width, but we accept the measurement of Dr. Bruce, viz., known to have been executed at the same period, when the 227 feet long and 20 inches wide. The groundwork of the accuracy of the illuminator in giving the costumes and archi- whole is fine linen, turned brown by reason of its great age. tectural accessories he had every day before him will be The designs are wrought in coloured worsted. By-the-bye, apparent.* If, therefore, the Bayeux tapestry had been it is interesting to remember that the spun wool is called embroidered in the twelfth century, it is almost certain that worsted from the place of that name in Norfolk, where some it would have somewhere contained indications of the Flemings settled in 1327. The chief colours employed are costumes or customs of that time. On the contrary, every green, crimson, pink, and yellow; and though parts are portion of it points to the reign of the Conqueror, and we faded, the whole, considering its great age, is wonderfully are not aware that the smallest anachronism has been preserved. The stitches are made very long and laid side detected. Not only so, but some remarkable confirmations by side, and are fixed down at intervals by cross fastenings. of its early date have been noticed. One of these is re- Faces, and other flesh portions of the figures, are not stitched ferred to by Mr. Stothard.+ In the part of the tapestry in at all, and yet in this simple way the effects produced are which Harold is shown in the power of Guy, Earl of Pon- astonishing. Mr. Dawson Turner says :-"In point of draw

thieu, Duke William and his people, in addition to shaven ing the figures are superior to the contemporary sculpture at upper lips, have nearly the whole of their heads so repre- St. George's and elsewhere, and the performance is not sented. It was doubtless this fashion that made Harold's deficient in energy.” The latter part of the sentence seems spies report that the Normans were an army of priests. But to us to underrate the spirit of the whole composition. in the time of Henry I. the clergy were continually attempt From frequent rolling and unrolling, some parts of the work ing to restrain the habit of wearing the hair long, at that have been much injured, and Mr. Stothard could, in portions, time so fashionable. In that reign heraldic bearings assumed only trace the designs by means of the holes through which considerable importance. I But in the tapestry the devices the stitches had passed. No part of the tapestry has been on the shields do not appear to be heraldic. No lion, fess, lost at the present beginning, because the border passes chevron, &c., appears; but, what is more important, no dis down the side there ; but this is not the case at the end, tinguished person twice bears the same device. We should which Mr. Stothard found “a mass of rags.” It is somehave mentioned that, from the Saxon words and characters what uncertain, from the indications of the figures there, in the inscriptions, the tapestry has also been referred to whether the tapestry ended with the pursuit of the flying Matilda, Queen of Henry I. But it has been pointed out Saxons. Mr. Lancelot thinks it an unfinished work, but that the people of Bayeux were of Saxon origin, and even in we are inclined to think, with Mr. Hudson Gurney, that the tenth century spoke a Teutonic dialect; so that proves "it is an apologetical history of the claims of William to the nothing against its antiquity.

crown of England, and of the breach of faith and fall of Among representations of events of which no other record Harold, and is a perfect and finished action."* now exists, says a writer in the Penny Cyclopædia, are the Of course our space will not allow us to describe at any taking of Dinant, the war between the Duke of Normandy length the scenes depicted on this extraordinary piece of and Conan, Earl of Bretagne, ş and the service rendered by needlework; but we will endeavour, briefly, to point out some Harold to William during the war in Brittany. It is much of the most interesting of the seventy-two compartments into in favour of M. Pluquet's theory that the tapestry was which it is divided. Although the tapestry everywhere executed by order of Odo, Bishop of Bayeux ; that Odo, depicts William and his claim in the most favourable light, after William and Harold, is the most prominent figure in we do not find any attempt to underrate Harold. In the it; and that Wadard, Turold,|| and Vital, expressly named, first scene the latter is represented conversing with Edward were Odo's officers, and afterwards held estates in England. the Confessor, in the palace at Westminster; and then, with Sir H. Ellis says that Wadard held property in six counties hawk on wrist, departing to Bosham, on the Sussex coast, under the Bishop; the lands of Vitalis were in Kent, and whence to embark for the Norman court. He does not do those of Turold in Essex, this being recorded in “Domesday so without praying in the church of that place; † and then, Survey." The scene in the tapestry, representing the carrying his dog in one hand and hawk in the other, after a landing of the Normans at Hastings, shows Wadard feast with his retainers, wades to the vessel. The winds mounted, and in a suit of mail, and attended by five inferiors. are not propitious, and he is cast on the territory of Guy One of the latter carries a pig, another leads a goat, a third (Wido in the inscription) Count of Ponthieu, and taken to slays an ox. Mr. Bolton Corney considers he was chief Belrem (Beauraine). Guy, seated on his chair of state, concommissary of the army, and was here directing his attend- fers with his prisoner, and a man-probably the jestes-halfants to secure provisions necessary for the camp.** Vitalis concealed by a pillar, appears to be listening to the converseems to have been sent out to gather news respecting the sation. It is conjectured that it was he who carried to

William tidings of Harold's condition. However this may

be, a good bribe induced Guy to relinquish his prize, and *"Manners, Customs, &c., of the Inhabitants of England," i. 3.

Harold passed to the Norman court, to all intents and + " Archäologia," xix. 184. * John, a monk of Marmonstier, describes Geoffrey Plantagenet, on addresses William and points to a number of soldiers behind

purposes, a prisoner still. In the hall of the palace, Harold his marriage, holding a shield emblazoned with small golden lions, and he is so represented on an enamelled plate in the Mons Museum him. Dr. Bruce asks if he is not requesting an escort to

$ Guillaume de Jumieyes hardly mentions this, and the description accompany a messenger of his to England to acquaint his in the work of G. de Poitiers is by no means full. Mr. Bolton Corney friends of his release from captivity? We should rather thinks that the army on its return halted, at Bayeux, and so the think that he is interrogating his host about the retinue that tapestry contains the fullest account of this expedition from the William took good care should be about him to prevent his words of the warriors themselves.

| Miss Strickland, in “Queens of England," i. 66, with little reason, escape. The campaign in Brittany follows, in which Harold says that this Turold was a dwarf who designed the cartoon from assists his host, who confers on him the honour of knightwhich Matilda and her maidens worked.

q Ellis, “Introduction to Domesday," ii. 403., In Lincolnshire he *"Archæologia," xvii. 361. is nine times called the homager of the Bishop of Bayeux.

† None of the interlaced arches found in late Norman buildings ** Notes and Queries, 3rd series, xi. 317.

appear on the tapestry,


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hood. The Saxon was now more anxious than ever to de. try with wonderful clearness. Here William exhorts his sol-
part, and William prepared for the oath scene, hoping to diers, there Leofwin and Gurth, Harold's brothers, fall. A
induce his guest to abandon his well-known hope of succeed group of Saxons on a hill repel the advance of charging
ing to the English crown. Harold is shown in the tapestry knights, intended perhaps to show the strong position the
standing between a sort of portable shrine and an altar, with Saxons took up at first, and, unhappily for them, abandoned.
an outstretched hand towards each. The shrine seems to be In one scene William raises his helmet to show that the
in two portions and the lower is evidently covered with a report respecting his death is false; and after the Norman
pall. It may be that the many relics of saints, which we stratagem of decoying the Saxons from their position, we
are told William had collected from the Norman churches, see the fatal arrow piercing Harold's noble brain, and the
were placed in this lower receptacle, and that Harold thought tapestry concludes with a representation of flying Saxons
he was merely swearing upon an ordinary reliquary which and pursuing Normans. We have thus endeavoured to
appears to be resting on this foundation. There can be no point out the leading features of interest in this remarkable
doubt that he would not have been allowed to depart if he work, hoping that our readers may be induced to study the
had not taken this oath to assist William to gain the English admirable fac-simile in the Albert Hall, exhibited in connec,
crown. The next scene represents him and his followers tion with the International Exhibition.
sailing to England, and then the earl stands in the court of

JOHN Piggot, F.S.A.
his sovereign. Much discussion has taken place respecting
the object of his visit to Normandy, whether it was for the
purpose of bringing back the hostages who had been left
with William, or to inform the Norman duke that Edward

PORCHESTER CASTLE. had selected him as his heir. At any rate, he comes to the king as one who has failed in his mission, and his bearing is at a recent meeting of the South of England Literary, strikingly different in the tapestry when he leaves for his Philosophical, and Statistical Society, the following paper journey and when he returns from it.

on the above subject was read by the Rev. E. Kell :--In The abbey church at Westminster follows, which had giving a brief account of the locality and history of Porchester been fifteen years in building, and on which the sainted Con Castle, I must premise that there are no striking incidents fessor had expended a tenth of the real property of the king: bold adventure, long sieges, sallies of the garrison, and

to claim your attention. Its history does not abound in dom. In order to indicate that the edifice was only just marvellous exploits of defenders or assailants, but it is a finished, a workman is placing a weathercock upon it. Built in the massive Norman style, and very different from Saxon simple narrative of a fine old fortification, passing from the churches, it was the first cruciform edifice in England. possession of one people to another with the progress of To it the remains of the Confessor are being conveyed in the political events in the country of which it formed a part. next scene; and then follows his last interview with his

It lays claim, however, to great antiquity. Stowe states attendants, and the preparation of the corpse for burial. that “ tradition reporteth it as an old British fortress called Dr. Bruce thinks these scenes were purposely transposed so B.C.," and doubtless its situation, on a tongue of land jutting

Caer Pelvis, formed by Gurgunstus, a son of Belin, in 375 that the two latter might begin a new subject, the right into the sea in a south-easterly direction, would easily point of succession, to signify that Edward indicated his wish out to the inhabitants the advantages of its position as a respecting William to his attendants. Curiously enough, place of defence. Harold is not shown as seizing the crown, but it is given to him. The inscription is, “ Hic dederunt Haroldo coronam rived from portus and castra. It was the great port of the

Its name of Porchester is obviously of Roman origin, deregis," and when seated in state he is called Rex Anglo- harbour to this part of the English coast, and was the Portus rum,” without the addition of any of those offensive terms in which the Norman chroniclers delighted. Stigand stands Magnus of the Roman Itineraries. From it a road went to by Harold, and is denominated archbishop, which he would Clausentum and Winchester on the west, and another to not have been if the tapestry had been executed at a later Chichester on the east. It is said to have been the port at period. Then comes a fiery star or comet, which puzzles a

which Vespasian landed, who, in A.D. 63, reduced twenty number of people pointing at it. The Normans in Eng-towns in this part of the kingdom and the Isle of Wight to land soon contrived to let William know what had taken subjection. In that early period the sea more deeply enplace, and he lost no time in preparing his fleet for the in- circled it, and a Roman fleet might ride safely on its waters. vasion. The Duke had the great advantage of the coun- desertion of the waters, which, on the other hand, led to the

The gradual decay of Porchester is attributed to the partial tenance of the Pope, who sent him a sacred banner and a rise and prosperity of the neighbouring town of Portsmouth. ring containing one of St. Peter's hairs. We soon note the The change in modern warfare also contributed to its decline, shipping of arms and stores, then the soldiers, and afterwards the fleet in full sail. About 60,000 warriors had been rendering it unavailable for purposes of defence. threatened or bribed to accompany the duke in the small tion, and little that can be depended on in Saxon times.

We have no record of any events during Roman occupavessels of the time. We have mentioned Wadard's ap- The Saxon chief Portha landed here in 501, and with his pearance when directing the foraging party on landing. William has a feast prepared, of which he partakes with his founding the kingdom of Wessex, and no doubt using this

sons Biot and Megla, made himself master of the country, chief officers. One is much struck with the order and dis- fortress for the support of his power. It is very uncertain, cipline everywhere apparent in the Norman host. Work. however, whether any portion of the present building can be men are then seen fortifying the camp; and this Dr. Bruce referred to Saxon times. We have no positive information considers was close by the railway station at Hastings, of its state till we come to the great storehouse of local The great battle of Hastings has been so often described that it is unnecessary to give particulars here. Suffice it to Porchester, which is described simply as “aula,” a hall, and

knowledge, Doomsday Book, in which an account is given of say that the tapestry shows a remarkable agreement with its manor is valued at 61. But no mention is made of a keep. the statements of the most reliable chroniclers. The chief From this circumstance, and the style of its architecture, it occurrences of that hard-fought day are depicted on the tapes is considered to be of Norman construction, and was probably

built in the time of King Stephen or one of the first two This comet reappeared in 1531, 1607, 1682, and 1759, and is called Henries, when so many other castles were erected in this Halley's comet, because that astronomer pointed out when it might country. be expected. Wace calls the 1066 comet a great star (which) ap. Porchester Castle was built, after the usual form of Roman peared, shining for 14 days with three long rays streaming towards the earth, such a star as is wont to be seen when a kingdom is about fortifications-quadrangular. It is 612 feet on the north to change its king."

and south sides, and 610 on the east and west sides. The


east and south sides front the sea, and were thus protected Southwick. The structure of the church was cruciform, with by it from attack. The west and north sides were defended a low tower at the intersection. The south transept has by a strong vallum and a foss, which still admits the water been removed, if it ever were completed, and other alterations at high tide. The usual width of the Roman wall which have taken place in the reign of Queen Anne, whose benesurrounds the area is 6 feet, and the height 15 feet, having a factions to the church are recorded in the interior, under passage round it which once was complete. There are her Royal arms. eighteen circular towers of different sizes constructed on the The Norman character of the edifice is observable in the wall, including those of the keep.

circular doors and windows, and in the zigzag and other There are two entrances to this Roman fortification, one ornaments. Unfortunately, a portion of the great west on the west and another opposite to it on the east, now sur- window is blocked up, but the part which remains and the mounted by Norman towers in a state of decay; and there door are rich specimens of the Norman style. Within the were two sallyports. Connected with the old water-spouts church at the east is a monument of Sir Thomas Cornwallis on the east side of the west entrance are the relics of two Groom, porter to Elizabeth and James I., painted in vertime-worn figures, something like Egyptian Sphinxes. The milion colour, and a curious Norman font, on which on one present towers, constructed at the east and west entrances, side is represented the baptism of our Saviour. contained apartments for the accommodation of the guards Porchester Castle was a favourite place of residence of of the fortress, and are of Norman origin.

King John, and Edward II. visited it several times. Ed. The construction of the walls should be observed, as ward I. and Henry III. also had some intercourse with characteristic of the Roman mode of building in bonding it, and Queen Elizabeth several times held her court at

It was customary with this people to insert at Porchester. certain intervals layers of tiles between the stones of the There is little known of the successive constables of the wall, to give it more stability. In the instance of Porchester Castle ; but the names of twenty-four, ranging from 1205 the bonding stones are formed of a coarse limestone instead to 1464, and including the Earls of Arundel and Worcester, of tile, in this particular resembling the walls of Silchester, as are given in the British Archæological Institute Proceedings well in the composition of the cement employed as in the for 1845. construction. From the alteration of the walls in successive periods, and from the inroads of time, irregularity prevails in the present construction of the walls, and the bonding courses cannot always be traced. The best places for see

Queries, ing the arrangement of these courses are in parts of the northern and southern sides. The keep is built in the form of a parallelogram, 65 feet

ROBERT TIDIR.-In the Beauchamp Tower, Tower of by 115 feet. Its walls are 7 feet 4 inches thick. It consists London, among the curious inscriptions cut on the walls of four stories: the upper room' has four small Norman by unfortunate persons who have been immured in that windows, and was probably the principal apartment of the fortress, will be found the name of “Robart Tidir,” inscribed constable or governor of Porchester. The other stories are in very curiously shaped characters, but without any date. lighted by loop windows, only large enough, one would The Short Sketch of the Beauchamp Tower,” sold in the think, to make “ darkness visible." Yet this place was building for sixpence, says “we are unable to give any

Is it not, however, extremely frequently occupied by royal personages, and it well indi- account of this person.” cates the poorness of their domestic accommodation. It probable that the unhappy prisoner was a member of the was settled on Queen Margaret as a part of her dower by Tudor family? Might not the name have been occasionally Edward I. The two dungeons in the basement are 40 feet spelt Tidir ? It was certainly spelt Tydder sometimes, for long, and are separated by a wall, which runs up the centre in Richard III.'s proclamation, dated June 23, 1485, the of the keep, dividing it into two parts. In this respect it Earl of Richmond (afterwards Henry VII.) is spoken of resembles the keeps of the castles of Rochester, Colchester, as "one Henry Tydder, son of Edmund Tydder, son of Dover, and Castle Rising. The exterior is faced with Caen Owen Tydder," and the Earl of Pembroke is styled “ Jasper stone, carefully dressed in regularly-sized blocks.

Tydder, son of Owen Tydder.". I should be glad to hear The royal arms are visible over the entrance to the dun. some expression of opinion on the subject.

T. BUCHANAN. geon. From the top of the keep a most commanding view may be obtained of the whole port, embracing Portsdown- "THE ROLL OF CAERLAVEROCK.”-In the “Roll of hill, the adjacent towns of Gosport and Portsmouth, Spit. Caerlaverock ” the arms of Sir Simon de Fresel, or Fraser, head, the Isle of Wight, and extending eastward as far as the are given as Sable, semée of roses argent; and a rhyming spire of Chichester Cathedral. In approaching the keep from chronicler tells us in his Norman-French, that, the outer ballium you pass through the barbican, in which were massive gates, two portcullises, and the place of barri

Symon Fresel, de cele gent, cade, altogether amounting to 114 feet, before the inner ballium

Le ot noire à rosettes de argent.” is reached. In this part, now called the Norman Court, are a Thus translated by Mr. Thomas Wright: number of buildings of ages varying from the early Norman period to the time of Henry VIII., and which are supposed

- Simon de Fresel, of that company, to have been erected for the accommodation of the con

Bore black with roses of silver." stables of the fort and their attendants. On the south of the Norman Court is what is considered to have been the No such arms appear to be now borne by any family bearing banqueting hall; on the west of it is Queen Elizabeth's the name of Fraser, or Frazer. All appear to bear-Azure, drawing-room, and on the north-east is her tower. On the three cinquefoils argent. I should be glad of any information east of the court the barons' hall is situated, of the date throwing light on the question of when the change was made of the early part of the sixteenth century.

from sable to azure, and from roses to cinquefoils.

In the same “Roll” occur the arms of Eurmenions de la The parish church, dedicated to St. Mary, is situated on Brette. They are simply gules, without any charge whatthe outer ballium towards the south-east, and is conjectured to have been the sacellum of the Roman Prætorium. shield, which is, I believe, unique in the annals of heraldry ?

Does any family of the Bretts now bear this singular It was built by Henry I. in 1133, and was originally in

H. KING. tended for the Augustinian monks; but as the monks and the soldiers of the garrison were not likely to be the best CREMATION OF HUMAN DEAD.—When did this practice friends, in twenty years the monastery was removed to cease and determine in our country? I have met with a


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