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the strongest terms my gratitude could suggest: I then conducted my prisoner into the caliph's presence. The monarch ordered him to be clothed with a robe of ho. pour, presented him with ten horses, ten mules, and ten camels, out of his own stables ; to all which favours he added a purse of ten thousand sequins for the expenses of his journey, and gave him a letter of recommendation to the governor of Damascus."

CHARACTER OF THE TURKS AND GREEKS.

BY MR. SEMPLE. · If two stout Greeks be fighting in the street, a Turk comes between them, pushes each a different way; and adds kicks and blows, should they still linger near each other. They look upon the life of an infidel as of little more value than that of a brute ; and indeed do not seem to estimate their own at a very high rate. They have some traits of the true military character; are fond of korses and arms; and detest the sea. They delight in the pomp, and noise, and glitter of war, and they can blind themselves for a short time in the hour of battle to its dangers; but its incessant fatigues soon dishearten them; and although they insult the Christians at Constantinople and Smyrna, they have learnt to tremble before them on the banks of the Danube, and the borders of the Euxine, This, then, betrays the whole secret of their haughtiness. It is founded on the conquests of their remote ancestors, not on their own tried strength.

In a word, deluded by the semblance of war, and really enervated by long habits of peace, and by religion, the rewards of which are entirely sensual, the Turk is willing to have a foretaste in this world of the cooling shades, the pure running streams, the soft slunibers, and the Houris of Paradise. Tents adorned with fringes, horses gaily caparisoned, and splendid arms, serve only to wake him gently from these luxurious dreams, that he may fall to slumber again with a better relish, and dream that he is a soldier. So much of war as consists in that, he does not dislike. But long and tedious marches, painful wounds, above all, the profound study and science of war, are wholly unsuited to his temper, at once impetuous and indolent. Where it is possible by a single violent exertion to obtain his end, the Turk may succeed; but,

Vol. IV.

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disappointed in that first effort, he retires, like the tyger who has missed his spring, and requires a long interval of repose to recruit his scattered ferocity.

The radical and incurable defects of the Turkish character proceed in my opinion from their religion. All attempts of a legislature to define exactly, not merely what is vice and what is virtue, but also the daily and hourly duties of the man and the citizen, may form a peculiar and separate people, a nation of Jews or of Turks; but, once formed, that nation remains for ever incapable of improvement. Such is the defect of the Koran. Its simple precepts, its strict prohibitions, were well calculated to bind together the wandering tribes of the desert, but become too minute in some instances, and too desultory in others, when considered as the sole code of laws for an immense empire. Swathing-clothes may strengthen the child, but, if not timely removed, effectually prevent its becoming a man. Mohammed fixed at once the inoral limits of his people. He sketched no faint outline; but, on the contrary, marked it with so strong a hand, that the line of distinction is for ever drawn, not merely between the Turk and the Christian, but between the Turk and the philosopher. It is impossible to be a, true Mussulman and a lover and cultivator of those arts and sciences which adorn and exalt mankind. The Koran must be laid aside before the sources of real knowledge can be opened; the Englishman, the Gaul, the German, and the Russian, may each preserve the characteristic manners and customs of his country, and be a Christian ; but the Jew or the Turk must be absolutely the same in all climates.

It is impossible to survey the present condition of the Greeks without pity, or their character without some, contempt. Like their ancestors, they are still fond of throwing the disc or quoit; like them, the olive still forms a material article of their food. But the pleasing delusion can be carried no further. On longer and closer intimacy, we find the modern Greek smooth but deceita ful; boasting but cowardly; vain yet abject, and cringing under the most insulting tyranny; light and capricious without invention; talkative without information; and equally bigoted with the Spaniard or Italian, but without the saine real warmth of devotion to excuse it.

“ There is no doubt but that the glories of his ances. tors serve, by the contrast, to render his vices more pre

minent. Had we not been early taught to admire Grecian Courage, wisdom, and talents, we might look upon the mesluess of the preseut race with less emotion. But wlio can think, without regret, that the descendants of the conquerors of Marathon are cowards and slaves ; that for so many centuries not a single poet has arisen in the country of Horner; and that the place of Plato and the philosophers is supplied by ignorant priests ; and of their scholars, by a still more ignorant people! The Greeks of this day present, in their moral character, the sa ne spectacle as that of a man to whom Heaven has granted the doubtful blessing of very long life. But, however debased in a moral point of view, the Greeks still retain much of what we may suppose to have been their former physical character. Few amongst them are deformed or ugly; but, on the contrary, those from the Morea and the western islands of the Archipelago are in general remarkably stout, with broad shoulders and thick necks; whilst those of the other islands, and from Constantinople, Smyrna, and the coasts of Asia, supply by the elegance what is deficient in the strength of their make. · Their physiognomies are expressive, but still less so than those of the Turks; and the women, when young, are generally beautiful and sprightly, but their beauty is of short duration. They are fonid of wearing towers on their head; and a robe sitting close to the body, and flowing loose behind, form the Asiatic part of dress, the reinainder being very similar to that used by women in England or France. The men dress in short jackets and vests, with loose trowsers, which come just below the knee; and the common people, like the Turks, have their legs bare, with only a pair of slippers on the feet. They seldom shave the upper lip; which, with their bushy hair, and a little red cap ou the crown of their heads, serves often to give them a wild look, but never a dignified or martial air,

Even Turkish oppression, however, cannot entirely · destory the natural cheerfulness of their dispositions in. spired by the fine clinate under which they live. They are fond of songs and dancing; and there are few, even of their smallest vessels, which have not on board at least one musician, furnished with a small violin or rebeck, and sometimes the -panish guitar. L'pon these, when becalmed amongst the islands, or sailing with light breezes along the coast of Greece, they play wild, and often not unpleasing, airs ; when a favourite tune is touched, the mariners join their voices in concert. The first part of the English tune of · God save the King' is very popular with the Greeks at Smyrna; but the second is either beyond their abilities, or not suited to their taste. It is said, indeed, that they seldom retain the second part of any European tune.”

LOVE IN MANY MASKS. It is difficult, in every period of life, to jospire a real passion : but it is easy to make most women conceive a momentary one: many things contribute to this : a fine figure; the appearance of strength and vigour; the graces; wit, or the reputation of it; complaisance; and, often, a decided tone, and light manners; ambitious ideas; and, finally, interested views. With so many resources, it is almost impossible that every one should not find means to gratify his inclinations during his youth; but, in a riper age, it is necessary to fix the affections. “If we will not renounce every species of gallantry, it is necessary to accus tom ourselves early to the sweet habitude of living with one whom we love and esteem ; without wbich, we fall into the most gloomy apathy, or insupportable agitation. The habitude of which I speak is more agreeable and solid when founded upon the permanent affections of the mind; but this is not so absolutely necessary as not to be dispensed with. It is certain that the cares of a woman are always more agreeable to an old man than those of a relation or friend of his own sex; it seems to be the wish and intention of nature that the two sexes should live and die together. '

We become insensible of a settled habitude ; and, as we do not perceive that a mistress grows old, and becomes less handsome, we do not observe that her way of think. ing becomes our own, and our reason subjected to hers, though sometimes l'ess enlightened. We insensibly sacrifice our fortune to her; and this is a necessary consequence of the resignation we have made of our reason,

Men sometimes pass over the infidelities of women, because they are not perfectly convinced of them, and

that a blind confidence is a necessary consequence of their · seduction : hut if, unfortunately, they come to the knowledge of them, it is impossible for a man, sincerely

attached to a woman, not to be susceptible of jealousy. This jealousy takes a tinge of the character of the pera son who is affected with it. The mild man becomes afflicted, falls ill, and dies, if a repentance, which he is always disposed to believe sincere, does not console him : the choJeric man breaks out into rage; and, in the first moments, it is not known how far this may carry him ; but men of this disposition are soonest appeased, and most frequently to be deceived.

Pecuniary interest should never be the basis of an amorous connection; it renders it shameful, or at least sus. picious: money, says Montaigne, being the source of concubinage. But when a tender union is well formed, interest, like sentiment, becomes common; every thing is mu. tual ; and there is but one fortune for two sincere lovers. If they be equally honest, and incapable of making a bad use of it, this is just and natural; but frequently the complaisance of one makes him or her partake too much of the misfortunes and errors of the other. · Love should never have any thing to do with affairs : it ought to live on pleasures only: but how is it possible to resist the solicitations of a beloved object, who, though she ought not to participate in affairs which she has not prudence or courage enough to manage, yet having always, for a pretext, her interest in your reputation, welfare, and happiness, how is it possible to resist an amiable woman, who attacks with such weapons ?

Some ladies have a real, others a borrowed reputation; that of the first is pure and unspotted, founded on the principles of religion, consequently the only genuine one; it belongs to women really attached to their duty, and who have never failed in the least point of it, whether they have had the good fortune to love their husbands, who have returned their affection; or whether, by an ettort of virtue, they have been faithful to a man whom they have not loved nor were beloved by. There is another reputation, unknown to religion, which delicate morality, although purely human, does not admit, but which the world, more indulgent, will sometimes accept as good ; that founded upon the good choice of lovers, or, rather, of a lover, for multiplicity is always indecent. We are so dis posed to think that each loves his likeness, that we judge of the character of men and women by, those of their pwn sex with whom they have. formed an intimacy; but

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