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the weakness of human nature, and justly apprehensive that tortures might force from him a confession which would prove fatal to one who was dearer to him than himself. Madam d'Escombas, blinded by her passion for Monjoy, and doomed to destruction, would never give ear to this advice; she thought herself secure in her lover's attachment, and never once imagined that a near view of death might shake the firm resolution he had made never to impeach her. Just about the time that the inurder above related was committed, the parliament of Paris, which is the chief court of justice in the kingdom, and without the concurrence of which, no criminal can be brought to justice, was first removed to Pontoise, and then banished to Soissons, on account of their severe proceedings against the archbishop of Paris, who had given positive orders to all priests and curates, not to administer the sacrament to any but such as could produce certificates from their confessor. This circumstance procured our guilty lovers a year and a half of added life, for that space of time elapsed before the return of the parliament, and till then it was not possible to bring them to a trial. They availed themselves of the time which they owed to the absence of their judges, and drank deep draughts of the cup of love; but it wis dashed with poisonous ingredients, which at last made them both rue their ever having tasted it. They were roused from their trance of pleasure by the return of the parliament, which was no sooner recalled, but Monjoy was brought to a trial, and, being upon full evidence found guilty of the murder of monsieur d'Escombas, was condemned to be broke alive upon the wheel. Amidst all the torments which he suffered in receiving the question ordinary and extraordinary, he persisted to affirm that he had no accomplices; and the guilty wife

of d'Escombas would have escaped from justice, had not . a principle of religion, imbibed from his infancy, had more power upon the mind of her lover, than even the most excruciating bodily pain.

The confessor who attended Monjoy upon the scaffold, refused positively to give him absolution, if he did not discover his accomplices, telling him in the most peremptory sense, that he could not hope for salvation, if he concealed them from the knowledge of the world, This had such an effect upon the unhappy man who was on the verge of eternity, that he desired madam d'Es combas might be sent for: she was accordingly brought

in a coach, and Monjoy told her in the presence of the judges, that she was privy to the murder of her busband. Upon hearing this she immediately fainted away, and was carried back to prison. Her lover was, pursuant to his sentence, broke alive upon the wheel, after having made a pathetic remonstrance to the standers by; and inadam d'Escoinbas was about a month afterwards hanged at the Greve at Paris upon his impeachment. Such examples as these shew, that the misfortunes which attend unlawful love, are often owing to the cruelty of parents, who by tyrannising over the hearts of their children, lead them into that ruin which they might have escaped, if treated with indulgence.

THOU SHALT NOT DO EVIL THAT GOOD MAY COME

OF IT. ALL christians will subscribe to this, but the whole history of christianity shews, that few will allow any thing to be evil, which according to their own conceptions, leads to good. That all fraud is evil, must (one would think) be universally allowed; but the man of religion dissents and distinguishes. “ Fraud,” says he, s is not always a pernicious thing, but is good or bad ac« cording to the intentions of him who uses it. A fraud “in season, and practised with judgment, is attended “ with great good: it ought not indeed to be deemed so “ much a fraud, as a certain wise and politic way of “ managing.” This he urges : and he urges in the language of Chrysostom, who contends for the utility of fraud in military, civil, and even domestic concerns; and, particularly makes it as necessary in physicians to deceive for the good of bodies, as he would infer it to be in divines for the good of souls.

Jerom, another writer in the times of primitive christianity, in like mapper adopted this principle of deceive ing; and plainly believed no deviation from rectitude to be unlawful, which flowed from piety and zeal for christianity: non condemnanus errorem, says he, qui dc odio Judæorum et fidei pietate descendit. And, speaking in another place of controversial writings against the Pagans, he holds it allowable to urge all arguments false as well as true; to use tricks in disputation ; in short employ any artifice whatever, which may best serve to refute and conquer an adversary: and be justifies this

the weakness of human nature, and justly apprehensive that tortures might force from him a confession which would prove fatal to one who was dearer to him than himself. Madam d'Escombas, blinded by her passion for Monjoy, and doomed to destruction, would never give ear to this advice; she thought herself secure in her lover's attachment, and never once imagined that a near view of death might shake the firm resolution he had made never to impeach her. Just about the time that the inurder above related was committed, the parliament of Paris, which is the chief court of justice in the kingdom, and without the concurrence of which, no criminal can be brought to justice, was first removed to Puntoise, and then banished to Soissons, on account of their severe proceedings against the archbishop of Paris, who had given positive orders to all priests and curates, not to administer the sacrament to any but such as could produce certificates from their confessor. This circumstance procured our guilty lovers a year and a half of added life, for that space of time elapsed before the return of the parliament, and till then it was not possible to bring them to a trial. They availed ihemselves of the time which they owed to the absence of their judges, and drank deep draughts of the cup of love; but it was dashed with poisonous ingredients, which at last made them both rue their ever having tasted it. They were roused from their trance of pleasure by the return of the parliament, which was no sooner recalled, but Monjoy was brought to a trial, and, being upon full evidence found guilty of the murder of monsieur d'Escombas, was condemned to be broke alive upon the wheel. Amidst all the torments which he suffered in receiving the question ordinary and extraordinary, he persisted to affirm that he had no accomplices; and the guilty wife of d'Escombas would have escaped from justice, had not a principle of religion, imbibed from his infancy, had more power upon the mind of her lover, than even the most excruciating bodily pain.

The confessor who attended Monjoy upon the scaffold, refused positively to give him absolution, if he did not discover his accomplices, telling him in the most peremptory sense, that he could not hope for salvation, if he concealed them from the knowledge of the world. This had such an effect upon the unhappy man who was on the verge of eternity, that he desired madam d'Escombas might be sent for: she was accordingly brought in a coach, and Monjoy told her in the presence of the judges, that she was privy to the murder of her busband. Upon hearing this she immediately fainted away, and was carried back to prison. Her lorer was, pursuant to bis sentence, broke alive upon the wheel, after having made a pathetic remonstrance to the stauders by; and madam d'Escombas was about a month afterwards hanged at the Greve at Paris upon his impeachment. Such examples as these shew, that the misfortunes which attend unlawful love, are often owing to the cruelty of parents, who by tyrannising over the hearts of their children, lead them into that ruin which they might have escaped, if treated with indulgence.

THOU SHALT NOT DO EVIL THAT GOOD MAY COME

OF IT. - All christians will subscribe to this; but the whole history of christianity shews, that few will allow any thing to be evil, which according to their own conceptions, leads to good. That all fraud is evil, must (one would think) be universally allowed ; but the man of religion dissents and distinguishes. “ Fraud,” says he, s is not always a pernicious thing, but is good or bad ac66 cording to the intentions of him who uses it. A fraud “ in season, and practised with judgment, is attended “ with great good : it ought not indeed to be deemed so “ much a fraud, as a certain wise and politic way of " managing." This he urges : and he urges in the language of Chrysostom, who contends for the utility of fraud in military, civil, and even domestic concerns; and, para ticularly makes it as necessary in physicians to deceive for the good of bodies, as he would infer it to be in divines for the good of souls.

Jerom, another writer in the times of primitive christianity, in like manner adopted this principle of deceive ing; and plainly believed no deviation froin rectitude to be unlawful, which flowed from piety and zeal for christianity: non condemnamus errorem, says he, qui de odio. Judæorum et fidei pietate descendit. And, speaking in another place of controversial writings against the Pagans, he holds it allowable to urge all arguments false as well as true; to use tricks in disputation; in short employ any artifice whatever, which may best serve to refute and conquer an adversary; and he justifies this

practice by the examples of Origen ånd Eusebius against + Celsus and Porphyry*. 4 The real truth is, and it is vain to dissemble it, that

christians in all ages have never scrupled at any means, to bring about what they deemed a good and pious end t: else whence those, not only frauds and tricks, but persecutions, inquisitions, and the various terrible modes of conversation, which have been practised in the church, from its earliest establishment down to the present hour? whence the infatuation to be persuaded, that inen inight actually do God service, while they made havock and de struction of his creatures ?

But there are no lengths to which men may not be carried, when influenced by zeal and bigotry, without any controul from reason and common sense. The very devout and over-righteous have ever been above ordinances, as the cant of fanaticism expresses it. The Antinomians of all ages have insisted, that the “ obligations “ of morality and natural law are suspended; that the “ elect guided by an eternal principal, more perfect and

“ divine, are superior to the beggerly elements of justice :“ and humanity;" and, that, in short, every thing is

lawful to the saints. To what purpose shall it be said to such, ye shall not do evil that good may come of it?

Meanwhile it is certain, that this principle of doing for which is the same thing, of suffering) evil that good may come of it, has by no means been contined to the pale of the church; it has indeed been countenanced by the universal practice of mankind, as well in civil as religious concerns. Ancient and modern writers have been quoted to justify the expedient of deceiving the people1: and a man who should detect and expose any received and established system in either governinent or religion, however futile its foundation $, would be perscuted by

* Opera, tom. iv. p. 113. 236. edit Benedict.

+ From the allowance and practice of pious frauds it comes to pass, by an eay transition, that many vastly good people, who would not swear for the world, or commit any sin of eclat, yet will not scruple occasionally to lye--the meanest of all sins.

Hæc Pontifex Scævola nosse populos non vult merpedire igitur existimat falli in religione civitates, quod dicere etiam in libris rerum divinarum ipse Varro non dubitat. Aug de Civ. iv. 27.

S A very indifferent religion, well believed, will go a great way, says Jeremy Coilier, the famous pon-juror; an honest heathen is none of the worst of men. View of the Immorality and Profaness of the Euglish Stage, p. 28-Jeremy Collier must bave liked the following passage from Curtius nulla res efficaciùs multitudinem regit, quam superstitio;

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