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Fielding Women generally love to be on the obliging side; and if we examine their favourites, we shall find them to be much oftener such as they have conferred obligations on, than such as they have received them from *

Rousseau knew this also; for, speaking of what bis conduct towards a woman he loved would be if he were rich, he says: " Il seroit doux d'être liberal envers ce qu'on aime, si cela ne faisoit un marché : Je ne connois qu'un moyen de satisfaire ce penchant avec sa maitresse, sans empoisonner l'amour; c'est de lui tout donner, et d'être ensuite nourri pår elle.' This is nevertheless beginning with the obligation; and is in fact the case with every rich henpecked husband and keeper in the world. Indeed Rousseau adds: “Reste à savoir, où est la femme avec qui ce procédé ne fût pas extravagant t.

Attention, and assiduity, make the strongest impression on the hearts of women. Therefore men in the lowest order of society have by far the best opportunities of gaining the real affection of their inistresses. What is the attention of picking up a fan, or handing a lady to a coach, compared with the frequent and essential acts of kindness that may be shewn in the hay or harvest field ? --But as the days of pastoral refinement as well as chivalry are past, it is doubtful if the labourers of Great Britain often avail themselves of this advantage. Yet the politest lover, if he possesses sensibility, knows this, and the most accomplished young woman feels it. Any assiduity, expressing a real anxiety to serve her, and especially the appearance of serious alarm for HER safety, and a total disregard of his own, in the moment of real ør supposed danger, will give the lover more interest in the heart of his mistress, than a ten years siege of courtly compliment.

Plato censures the drainatic poets for their exhibition of vicious manners, on the supposition that the actors, as

* An observation of the same sort is made on mankind in general by Thucydides, in the funeral oration spoken by Pericles The person who coufers the favour is always the most steady friend, being desirous to preserve that kindness on account of wbich it was conferred; while the love of the person owing the obligation is weaker, being conscious rather of discharging a debt, than shewing his owa kindness.'

+ Emile.

well as the poet, will acquire bad habits from frequently assuming such characters. This perhaps may be refining too much ; but undoubtedly the assuming a character in real life, must have a great influence on the actual character of the person assuming it. There is truth in the common proverb, that “ custom is second nature.' Has not then the fashion which enjoins the appearance of a total indifference in a young couple to each other in company, after marriage, a strong tendency to produce real indifference? Surely a woman must feel a little hurt at being neglected in public (which takes up a large portion of the time of the opulent) by the man who a few days before seemed only to live for her service; and the contrast of this neglect to the unremitted, or probably increased, attention of other former admirers, must make impressions on her mind not very favourable to domestic happiness. I think nothing so pleasing as the marked attention of young married persons to each other. I am far from meaning a childish and disgusting display of fond. ness, and still further, that kind of behaviour we sometimes find among ill-bred people, at a third person's table, which is a tacit censure on the politeness of their host. The attention should something resemble that which lovers pay to each other, when in company with persons before whom they wish to be on their guard,

H. I. P.

THE LATE DR. BERKELEY, BISHOP OF CLOYNE. GEORGE BERKELEY was the son of a clergyman in Ire land, of a small living, but at the same time remarkable for his learning and piety; he therefore gave his son the best education his circumstances would admit of; and, when fitted for the university, taxed his little fortune, in order to send him to Trinity college, Dublin.

Here he soon began to be looked upon as the greatest genius, or the greatest dunce, in the whole university ; those who were but slightly acquainted with him, took him for a fool; but those who shared his most intimate friendship, looked upon him as a prodigy of learning and good-nature. Whenever he appeared abroad, which was but seldom, he was surrounded by a crowd of the idle or the facetious; who followed him, not to be improved, but to laugh. Of this he frequently complained, but there was no redress, the more he fretted, he became only the more ridiculous. An action of his, however, soon made him more truly ridiculous than before : curiosity leading him one day to see an execution, he returned home pensive and melancholy, and could not forbear reflecting on what he had seen. He desired to know what were the pains and, symptoms a malefactor felt upon such an occasion, and cominunicated to his chuin the cause of his strange curiosity; in short, he resolved to tuck himself up for a trial; at the same time desiring his companion to take him down at a signal agreed upon.

The companion, whose name was Contarine, was to try the same experiment himself immediately after. Berkeley was accordingly tied up to the ceiling, and the chair taken from under his feet; but soon losing the use of his senses, his companion, it seems, waited a little too long for the signal agreed upon, and our enquirer had like to have been hanged in good earnest; for as soon as he was taken down, he fell senseless and motionless upon the floor. After some trouble, however, he was brought to himself; and observing his band, “ Bless my heart, Contarine, says he, you have quite rumpled my band.” When it came to Contarine's turn to go up, he quickly evaded the proposal : the other's danger had quite abated his curiosity. :

Still, however, Berkeley proceeded in his studies with unabated ardour. A fellowship in that college is attained by superior learning only; the candidates are examined in the most public manner, in an amphitheatre erected for that purpose, and great numbers of the nobi. lity and gentry are present upon the occasion. This examination he passed with the utrnost applause, and was made a fellow, the only reward of learning that kingdom has to bestow.

Metaphysical studies are generally the amusement of the indolent and inquisitive : his business as a fellow, allowed him sufficient leisure, and his genius prompted him to scrutinize into every ahstruse subject. He soon, therefore was regarded as one of the best metaphysicians in Europe; his logic was looked upon rather as the work of a man skilled in metaphysics, than in the dialect of the schools ; his treatise npon matter was also thought to be the most ingenious paradox that ever amused learned leisure; and many were the answers made to it by the literati of Europe.

His fame as a scholar, but more his conversation as a man of wit and good nature, soon procured him the friendship and esteem of every person of fortune and understanding; among the rest, Swift, that lover, yet derider of human nature, became one of the most inti. mate; and it was by his recommendation that he was ina troduced to the earl of Peterborough, who made himn his chaplain, and took him, as his companion, on a tour through Europe.

Some time after his return, he was promoted to a deanery, in which situation he wrote his Minute Philo. sopher, one of the most elegant and genteel defences of that religion which he was born to vindicate, both by his virtues and ingenuity. It was at this time also, that he attempted to establish an university for our American coa lonies, in Bermudas, one of the Suinmer islands. Doctor Depusch, an excellent musician, and some others of great abilities, were engaged in this design, and actually embarked in order to put it in execution ; but the ship being cast away, Berkeley was left to contrive something else to the advantage of his country.

He interested himself deeply in a scheme for improving the English language, by a society of wits and men of genius; established for that purpose, in imitation of the academy of France; in this design Swift, Bolingbroke, and others, were united; but the whole dropt by the death of Queen Anne, and the removal of Harley from the office of prime minister.

His friendship and connections, however, did not, as was the case with Swift and some others, prevent his promotion ; he was made bishop of Cloyne; and sure no clergy man had juster pretensions to the mitre! No man was more assiduous or punctual in his duty, none exacted it more strictly froin his inferior clergy, yet no bishop was erer more beloved by them. He spent his time with the utmost chearfulness, innocence, and humanity; the meanest peasant within ten miles of his seat was familiar with him ; those of them that wanted shared his bounty ; aud those that did not, had his friendship and advice. The country which was desolate and unimproved, he took the utmost pains to improve, and attempted to set an example of the proper methods of agriculture to the farier, as he had before of piety and benevolence to the whole kingdom.

Metaphysical studies were still his annusement, and. the dispensations of charity he looked upon as his duty

VOL. IV.

But the opinions of metaphysicians he, at last, began to contemn, and to doubt of the certainty, not only of every argument upon this subject, but even of the science. He therefore turned his thoughts to more beneficial studies, to politics and medicine, and gave instances in both to what he could have done, had he made either his particular study.

In politics, a pamphlet published by him, intituled, The Querist, is a fine instance of his skill, and was attended with some beneficial circumstances to his native country. His treatise on tar-water rendered him more popular than any of his preceding productions, at the same time that it was the most whimsical of them all. Here he pretends to prove, a priori, the effects of this, sometimes, valuable medicine; but then he extends thein to every, and even opposite disorders.--The public were long undeceived before his lordship, who was the inventor, could be so. He had built an hospital at his own expence near his gate, and to it all the poor were welcome; he attended them himself as physician; dosed them with tar-water, of the virtues of which he was entirely confident. His intention in this particular cannot be applauded, though, perhaps, the success might have answered his expectations. Perhaps he carried his veneration for tar-water to an excess : he drank it abundantly himself and attempted to mend the constitution of his children by the same regimen: this, however, he could never effect; and, perhaps, his desire of improving their health and their understanding, at which he laboured most assiduously, might have impaired both. But his faults, if we know of any, all proceeded from motives of humanity, benevolence, and good-nature. · He preserved the closest intimacy with the gentlemen of the neighbourhood; and while he cultivated the duties of his station, he was not averse to the innocent amuse. ments of life: music he was particularly fond of, and always kept one or two exquisite perforiners to amuse his leisure hours.

His income he was entirely contented with; and when offered by the earl of Chesterfield, then lord lieutenant of Ireland, a bishopric much more beneficial than that he possessed, he declined it, with these words, “ I love the neighbours, and they love me; why then should I begin, in my old days, to form new connections, and tear myself from those friends whose kindness to me is the

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